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the crown while others were wil. The effect produced by the deling to sacrifice their private ani- claration of so powerful a body in mosities to what they deemed the favour of the King, was immediate. good of their country. With re- The blow being followed up, and spect to the clergy, a great majo. vigorously supported by the minisrity, at least of this order, retaining ters and friends of the crown, above a bitter remembrance of the late fifty of the malcontents were exEmperor Joseph, and not much pelled from the diet, it would seem, better satisfied with some parts of in a very summary, despotic, and Leopold's conduct in Tuscany, unjustifiable manner. ranged themselves on the side of But the opposition of the malthe discontented. On the other contents was quashed, and even hand, the Protestants were devoted their complaints and murmurs alto the crown from the circum- most suppressed, by the measures stances of their situation. And the just mentioned; and there was an peasants, sensible of the benefits intermediate party in the diet, they had derived through Joseph, whose voice had been drowned and aware that nothing buta similar amidst the fierce and loud conteninterposition in their favour on the tions of the royalists on the one part of the crown could add to hand, and the revolutionists on the them, or even preserve what they other, but who now, when the ferhad already obtained, were sincere- mentation had subsided, reserved ly and heartily attached to his suc- and obtained attention. This was
On the whole, the oppo- composed of moderate men and site parties were not altogether une- true patriots; being equally iniqually balanced, though the scale mical io the violence of revolution, rather inclined to the side of the and the tyranny of arbitrary power. malcontents, when an event unex- They were sensible of the enpected, and even unthought of on croachments that had been made all hands, turned it decidedly to on the rights and privileges of the that of the crown and the royal Hungarians. Yet they neither party.
laboured nor even wished for an An incredible number of Greeks, absolute disseveration of the kingWallachians, Serviotes, and Ras- dom from the dominion of Austria, cians*, amounting, it is said, to after so long and intimate a con4,000,000, declared themselves, to a nexion between the two nations, man, firmly attached to the cause of cemented by numberless ties of Leopold, and determined to support friendship, atlinity, and mutual it at all events, and in all cases. sympathy and benevolence. But Thus as, on the one hand, the house they anxiously and eagerly wished of Austria had experienced the for the restoration of iheir ancient danger of innovation in inatters of constitution in all its parts and all religion, so, on the other, they found its original purity: and further, the advantages of religious tolera- knowing, from long and sad expetion.
rience, how little reliance was to be
* Serviotes, natives of Servia, part of the ancient Mysia. Rascians, natives of Rascia, a territory in the north part of Servia, which takes its naine from the river Rascia, and is subject to Austria. The inhabitants of Servia, as well as of Wallachia and Moldavia, together with the ancient Dacia, are chiefly Christians of the Greek church.
placed on the faith of the Austrian the actual seat of government, on princes; and aware at the same account of its vicinity to Vienna, time of the spirit of domination As to the newly proposed diploma, that always prevailed in the con- Leopold declared that it was his, duct of the Germans whenever they determined resolution not to apwere entrusted with the exercise of prove or confirm by oath any other absolute power, they were articles than those that had invariaç tremely desirous, and proposed bly been prescribed to the King of that their constitution thus re- Hungary by the constitutions of formed, should be secured by the Charles VI, and Maria Theresa: guarantee of Prussia, Sweden, and a resolution in which he was the Poland.
more unalterably fixed, as he was A deputation from the diet equally determined religiously to waited on Leopold, September 5th, full all the conditions of those 1790, with an invitation, request- constitutions, according to the ing his personal presence at their spirit and tenor of certain leading deliberations, and particularly at articles to which he referred; that the coronation. They presented after the coronation, he would not at the same time, what was called refuse to listen to the grievances, a new diploma, and what we would the wishes, and the supplications call in England a charter, contain of his faithful states; but after ing articles in addition to those mature deliberation and public dis. which it had hitherto been custom- cussion, adopt on the subject of ary for the monarch to sign, to these such resolutions as might be swear to, and which they requested agreeable to the spirit of the laws and hoped that he would accept. and the true interests of the kingThe King returned an answer by dom. In conclusion, he trusted Count Palfi, the great Chancellor that the states would co-operate of Hungary, that he had intended with him with fidelity and zeal, that his coronation in that kingdom for the attainment of these ends; should have preceded that at Frank- and this the more confidently, that fort: but that this, by the delays in they might be assured that he, on their own proceedings, had now his part, would readily and with been rendered impracticable. He pleasure concur with the states in would endeavour however to fulfil whatever might be conformable to his purpose respecting Hungary, the laws, whatever should not be by the 15th of November at fur- derogatory from the rights of the thest. At the same time he ob- crown; and, in a word, whatever served, that the lateness of the might contribute to the general season would necessarily preclude well-being. His Apostolic Majesty him from proceeding further in the was elected King of the Romans country than Presburg: in which on the 30th of September; made city the coronation must of course his public entry into Frankfort on be celebrated. The place that had the 4th of October, and, having been fixed on for that purpose by taken the oath to observe the cathe Hungarians was the ancient pitulation, was crowned Emperor capital Buda, in preference to on the 9th of the same month, Presburg, the new capital, which 1790. the Austrians had long rendered Leopold, relieved from the weight
of cares that had hung upon his mind all their joys and sorrows, that, not. by the convention of Reichenbach, withstanding all the disputes that had by this time had leisure to had taken place, and the numberlook into, and settle his private less jealousies which had so long and family concerns. He had al- subsisted, Leopold was received by ready established his second son both the states and the people with Ferdinand in the government of every mark of enthusiastic joy: the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. and the diet embraced with transHe now determined to cement port an occasion which immediately the union, and to draw the ties Offered of testifying by a signal of affinity still more closely, by instance, their loyalty and attachmeans of intermarriages (at all ment to their new sovereign. times an important object with the The King having, according to House of Austria) between his own custom, presented to the diet family and his relations of the a list of four of the first of the House of Naples. His two eldest Hungarian nobility, out of whom sons, Francis, the Hereditary Prince they were to chuse one to be Palaof Hungary and Bohemia, and tine, an office of the highest digFerdinand, the new Grand Duke nity and trust, and which conof Tuscany, were accordingly, soon ferred the rank of second person in after the conclusion of the treaty of the kingdom, the states unanimously Reichenback (August 16th) mar- requested the sovereign that he ried to the eldest Princesses, daugh- would indulge their wishes, by ters of the King of Naples. And granting for their Palatine the
about a month after, the third Archduke Leopold, his fourth Arch-Duchess, daughter of Leo- son, who was then present. A repold, was married to the Prince quest so agreeable was readily
, Royal of Naples; that Princess granted; and the new Palatine having first made a solemn renun- three days after (Nov. 15th, 1790) ciation of all right of succession to had the felicity of placing the anany of the possessions of the House cient crown of St. Stephen, so of Austria. The King and Queen long a great object of Hungarian of the Two Sicilies, with the Princes veneration, on the head of his fabelonging to the two prolific Houses ther. On this important and of Naples and Vienna, including affecting occasion, the King and in the number the Grand Duke of Emperor, presenting his son to Tuscany, not only heightened by the nation, said, “ I hope you will their presence the splendor of the never forget that you are my son: coronation, but excited a pleasing but should it ever be your lot, in sympathy, approbation, and satis- the execution of your office, to be faction at the patriarchal provi- under an obligation of defending dence and prudence of the august the rights of the nation against head, and the happiness of so many your father, I desire that you will branches of the House of Austria. then forget that you are my son,
So naturally and sincerely do and act in strict conformity, and mankind sympathize with the support, of the laws." Then, great, especially with sovereign turning to the diet, he addressed princes, and, above all, with those the great council of the nation in to whom they stand in any inte- the following words: “ This, my resting relation, and participate in beloved son, I present to you as
a pledge a pledge of my sincere regard for of the Milanese their ancient conyou, that he may act between you stitution and laws, and reinstated and me as a disinterested medi- them in the full possession of all ator and promoter of mutual affec- their rights, privileges, and immution."
nities, of which they had been vioThe Hungarians, full of the sen- lently deprived by the late Empetiments of generosity and affection, ror. About the same time he deand judging that nothing could be termined to grant some mark of refused in the present season of favour to the Jews; though the good humour, joy, and t'estivity, privileges conferred on them by had renewed before the coronation Josephi left but little need or room their application for the new di- for any amelioration of their conploma, before-mentioned. Leo- dition. Leopold decreed, that in poid, however, retaining his former all his hereditary dominions, such firmness, had declared that he Jews as had received a suitable would not receive the crown on education, and had acquired the any other conditions than those on necessary me sure of knowledge, which it had been accepted by his should be allowed to take academother; and that, in his opinion, mical degrees in the lay-faculties, the honour annexed to it would and to act as advocates : and in the be iarnished if it was to be made latter quality, to plead the cause of the subject of a bargain. But on either Jews or Christians indifferthe day succeeding the coronation, ently. In consequence of this when all hopes of concessions had permission, Raphael Joel, a Jew, vanished, he granted them every having undergone an examination, favourable condition, and every sc- and given satisfactory proofs of his curity for the future, which they qualifications, was early in 1794 could with reason and propriety admitted to the degree of Doctor desire. Thus, by an uniform stea in the civil law, by the university of diness and dignity of conduct, temo Prague. pered with the most seasonable and At the same time that Leopold prudent acts of condescension, Leo- was thus happily employed in the pold at once maintained the autho- arrangement of his political, perrity of his government, and gained sonal, and domestic concerns in the affection, confidence, and re- Germany, Hungary, and Italy, spect of the Hungarian nation.* measures were taken and negotia
In the same train of thinking tions carried on with equal success, and acting, Leopold, after this, re- for the establishment of a peace collecting either a transient pro. with the Ottoman Porte, and the mise, or bopes he had given in some recovery of the Austrian dominions shape or other, restored to the states in the Netherlands. An armistice,
Our English readers may, especially in the present juncture, remark a striking resemblance between the national character and political circumstances of the Hun,garians and a neighbouring and kindred nation, connected with Britain by many ties of origin, various intercourse, and mutual sympathies, interests, and good offices: hospitable, generous, and brave; easily led, but hard to be driven: of lively rather than lasting passions; very susceptible of resentment, but more susceptible of gratitude; and quickly forgetting past injuries in the contemplation of present, or recol. lection of recent acts of kindness. The parallel will be readily continued by the moral observer, and extended with equal justness to political situations and relations, external and internal.
under the administration of Count parties principally concerned, and Lodi, the Prussian minister, was of those of the three allied mediating concluded on the 20th of Septem- powers. Many difficulties occurred, ber, between the Prince of Saxe and unexpected obstacles were Cobourg, on the part of the court thrown in the way, as well by the of Vienna and the Grand Vizier, Emperor himself as through the inin his camp of Silistria, a town in trigues of the court of Petersburg. Bulgaria, situated near the banks of These, however, by the powerful the Danube, on that of the Otto. intervention of the mediating
Its duration was to be li- powers, and the unwearied applicamited to nine months; during tion of their ministers, were hapwhich time the territories of the pily surmounted. A pacification Turks and Austrians were to remain was concluded between the Ausmutually unmolested, and not to be trians and Turks, on the ground of entered by the opposite parties: the Status quo ante Bellum ;* and, and a congress was to be held for a through the influence and exerfinal settlement of the articles of tions of the allied powers, a conpeace between the two powers, at vention was formed and executed Bucharest, or Sistovia in Wallachia, on the same day for the purpose of as should be found most convenient specifying the exact limits of to the plenipotentiaries; to be their extensive frontiers. composed of the ministers of the
* A diplomatic and very common phrase, importing “ the state in which thing. were before the war.”,
CH A P. II. Progress of the Spirit of Freedom.-Modified by the different Cha
ructers of Nations.--Singular Combination of a Spirit of Liberty with Aristocratical Pride und Religious Bigotry.- Political Constitution of the Austrian Netherlands.-Analogous to that of England.- Arbitrary Government of the Emperor. - Discontents of the People.-Suppression of Monasteries:- Subversion of the Constitution.-Imprisonments and Emigrations.-Emigrants from Brabant assemble at Breda.–Sequestrution of all the Abbeys of Brabant.- Efforts for the Prevention of Insurrection.-Conspiracy against the Austrian Government discovered.-Attempts to check Emigration in vain.-Declaration of the States of Brabant from Breda.-Letter from the Cardinal Archbishop of Malines to the Pope respecting the Conduct of the Emperor, and State of the Country.—Insurrections.-Valour and Success of the Insurgents.--Engagement at Turnhout, and at Tirlemont.- Action between the Austrians and Patriols in the open Field. - The Patriots become Masters of the Town and Citadel of Ghent.- Relaxation of Discipline in the Austrian Armies.--Advantages arising to the Patriots from the Reduction of Ghent.--The Emperor endeavours to reconcile the Provinces to his Government by fair Promises.Daring Altempt of a Band of Patriots in the Capital