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France and to other places, the tic establishnients. The only prégreatest number repaired to the caution he appears to have used, frontier of the United Provinces: was, that in this great suppression, but principally to the Lordship and the men were more favoured than neighbourhood of Breda, in the the women. Of the male convents province of Holland ;* which be- only forty were sequestered: of came their head quarters. The the nunneries, 110. Such an aremigration from Brabant, which bitrary invasion of so much properhad at first been confined to the ty in a country so long in the en. higher orders and people of pro- joyment of freedom, and that of perty, was quickly increased in ecclesiastical property in a country numbers, by an accession of active so devoted to the clergy, was con. and resolute young men from all sidered in a most odious light, raised the provinces ; which beheld in the a general outcry, and prepared the fate of the constitution of Brabant minds of men, particularly the peathe approaching fall of their own sants (the most numerous and liberties.

hardy class) for insurrection. The Austrian government were The Flemings, who had long at first so far from taking any mea. brooded (according to their nasures for putting a stop to emigra- tional character) over their injuries tion, that they considered it as ra- in sullen silence, which served only ther a fortunate circumstance: and to render them more determined in the country would thus be cleared their resolutions, and more implaof a great number of disaffected cable in their resentments, began persons without any trouble. For now to form bold designs, and to the Emperor himself, he seems to givevent to the rancour that preyed have been well pleased with an op- on their minds, in action. portunity of gratifying two darling General d'Alton,s the great tool passions :-a rapacity for money, of imperial tyranny in the Netherand an eagerness to humble and lands, drawing detachments from overthrow the clergy.t He issued different garrisons, sent them to à decree for the sequestration of all scour such parts of the country as the abbeys of Brabant, and ap. were deemed most disaffected, with pointed civil officers for the admin orders to take up all suspected pernistration of their revenues. He sons, and all vagabonds. With this suppressed not less than 160 monas- latitude of commission, the troops

were A patrimony belonging to the Prince of Orange. † The characters of men at the opposite extremes of society, appear in some respects perfectly to coincide; the one class being placed by their situation above & regard to the sympathy of the greater and of the best part of mankind; and the other below it: a matter of fact which affords a very striking illustration of Dr. Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments. The sentiments and views that actuated the Emperor Joseph on this occasion were not very different from those that dictated the massacres and confiscations in France in 1792, 1793, and 1794.

So not only the inhabitants of Flanders, the maritime, richest, and most popu. lous, but also those of the other provinces, were formerly and until the recent revival of Roman appellations, generally called.

§ A soldier of fortune, and consequently devoted to the pleasure of his master. For an account of this military adventurer, we refer our readers to our Vol. 31; being that for 1789.

was

were in fact left at liberty to take affected to government being daily up whomsoever they pleased. Many increased, the plan of purging the disorders and much violence was country by enigration was changed. committed. The prisons were The magistrates were ordered not filled with unhappy persons, who to grant passports : and the emiwere cut off from all means and grated nobles and clergy were hopes of redress: and by the injuse charged by proclamation to return, tice and sacrilege of the Emperor, under pain of forfeiture. But the thus executed by them whom they magistrates were themselves too regarded in no other light than that much interested in the common of military mercenary ruffians, the cause, tolay any restraint that could general odium against the Austrian possibly be avoided, on those who government was carried to the were disposed to take a more active highest pitch of abhorrence. A part in its promotion; while the conspiracy which, from the nature nobility and clergy laughed at the of its design, must have consisted threat of forfeiture, which they of a very great number of persons, well knew no compliance could was formed and carried on in the avert, if ever it should be in the very seat of government and heart Emperor's power to inflict the peof the capital city of Brussels. It nalty. The emigration was con

resolved to undermine the tinued without interruption or dihouse of Count Trautmandorf, the minution. Nothing less than a Emperor's civil engine of oppres- powerful army, with the advantage sion, as well as that of his military of numerous and well-chosen posts tool General d'Alton, together with and garrisons, could have effectuthe guard-house; and to blow up ally restrained emigration from prothose buildings, together with their vinces so open onall sides, interpossessors, into the air with gun- sected by so many rivers and canals powder. The conspirators, during opening an easy and various com the confusion occasioned by this munication with other countries, explosion, were to seize the arsenal and in the near vicinity and uncomwith the city gates, and to admit mon variety of unconnected states. several small bodies of emigrants, In addition to all these circumwho were to be prepared, and at stances tending to facilitate emigrahand for the purpose. This gun- tion, the dangerous ambition, with powder plot, which was laid in the the ever-restless and insidious pomonth of August 1789, and spee- licy of Joseph, had inspired all the dily to be executed, being disco- neighbouring powers with a desire vered, above twenty suspected per- to embrace any opportunity that sons were immediately taken up; might occur for frustrating his deand the number would have un signs, and humbling his pride. And doubtedly been much encreased, while the ruling powers in the and a long succession of severe neighbouring states, were sofapunishments have ensued, if the vourably disposed towards the Fletroubles now fast approaching had mings from motives of policy, their not put an end to this and similar subjects, from ties of affinity and prosecutions.

blood, long habits of commercial The numbers and the menacing intercourse, private friendship, and aspect of emigrants and others dis- above all, a general commiseration

of

France and to other places, the tic establishments. The only pregreatest number repaired to the caution he appears to have used, frontier of the United Provinces : was, that in this great suppression, but principally to the Lordship and the men were more favoured than neighbourhood of Breda, in the the women. Of the male convents province of Holland ;* which be- only forty were sequestered: of came their head quarters. The the nunneries, 110. Such an are emigration from Brabant, which bitrary invasion of so much properhad at first been confined to the ty in a country so long in the en. higher orders and people of pro- joyment of freedom, and that of perty, was quickly increased in ecclesiastical property in a country numbers, by an accession of active so devoted to the clergy, was con. and resolute young men from all sidered in a most odious light, raised the provinces ; which beheld in the a general outcry, and prepared the fate of the constitution of Brabant minds of men, particularly the pea. the approaching fall of their own sants (the most numerous and liberties.

hardy class) for insurrection. The Austrian government were The Flemings, who had long at first so far from taking any mea- brooded (according to their nasures for putting a stop to emigra- tional character) over their injuries tion, that they considered it as ra- in sullen silence, which served only ther a fortunate circumstance: and to render them more determined in the country would thus be cleared their resolutions, and more impla. of a great number of disaffected cable in their resentments, began persons without

any

trouble. For now to form bold designs, and to the Emperor himself, he seems to givevent to the rancour that preyed have been well pleased with an op- on their minds, in action. portunity of gratifying two darling General d'Alton, the great tool passions:-a rapacity for money, of imperial tyranny in the Netherand an eagerness to humble and lands, drawing detachments from overthrow the clergy.t He issued different garrisons, sent them to a decree for the sequestration of all scour such parts of the country as the abbeys of Brabant, and ap- were deemed most disaffected, with pointed civil officers for the admi- orders to take up all suspected pernistration of their revenues. He sons, and all vagabonds. With this suppressed not less than 160 monas- latitude of commission, the troops

were

* A patrimony belonging to the Prince of Orange.

† The characters of men at the opposite extremes of society, appear in some respects perfectly to coincide ; the one class being placed by their situation above a regard to the sympathy of the greater and of the best part of mankind; and the other below it: a matter of fact which affords a very striking illustration of Dr. Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments. The sentiments and views that actuated the Emperor Joseph on this occasion were not very different from those that dictated the massacres and confiscations in France in 1792, 1793, and 1794.

So not only the inhabitants of Flanders, the maritime, richest, and most popu. lous, but also those of the other provinces, were formerly and until the recent revival of Roman appellations, generally called.

§ A soldier of fortune, and consequently devoted to the pleasure of his master. For an account of this military adventurer, we refer our readers to our Vol. 31 ; being that for 1789.

very seat of

were in fact left at liberty to take affected to government being daily up whomsoever they pleased. Many increased, the plan of purging the disorders and much violence was country by emigration was changed. committed. The prisons were The magistrates were ordered not filled with unhappy persons, who to grant passports : and the emiwere cut off from all means and grated nobles and clergy were hopes of redress: and by the injus. charged by proclamation to return, tice and sacrilege of the Emperor, under pain of forfeiture. But the thus executed by them whom they magistrates were themselves too regarded in no other light than that much interested in the common of military mercenary ruffians, the cause, to lay any restraint that could general odium against the Austrian possibly be avoided, on those who government was carried to the were disposed to take a more active highest pitch of abhorrence. A part in its promotion; while the conspiracy which, from the nature nobility and clergy laughed at the of its design, must have consisted threat of forfeiture, which they of a very great number of persons, well knew no compliance could was formed and carried on in the avert, if ever it should be in the

government and heart Emperor's power to inflict the peof the capital city of Brussels. It nalty. The emigration was conwas resolved to undermine the tinued without interruption or dihouse of Count Trautmandorf, the minution. Nothing less than a Emperor's civil engine of oppres- powerful army, with the advantage sion, as well as that of his military of numerous and well-chosen posts tool General d'Alton, together with and garrisons, could have effectuthe guard-house; and to blow up ally restrained emigration from prothose buildings, together with their vinces so open onall sides, interpossessors, into the air with gun- sected by so many rivers and canals powder. The conspirators, during opening an easy and various com the confusion occasioned by this munication with other countries, explosion, were to seize the arsenal and in the near vicinity and uncomwith the city gates, and to admit mon variety of unconnected states. several small bodies of emigrants, In addition to all these circumwho were to be prepared, and at stances tending to facilitate emigrahand for the purpose. This gun- tion, the dangerous ambition, with powder plot, which was laid in the the ever-restless and insidious pomonth of August 1789, and spee- licy of Joseph, had inspired all the dily to be executed, being disco- neighbouring powers with a desire vered, above twenty suspected per- to embrace any opportunity that sons were immediately taken up; might occur for frustrating his deand the number would have un- signs, and humbling his pride. And doubtedly been much encreased, while the ruling powers in the and a long succession of severe neighbouring states, were so fapunishments have ensued, if the vourably disposed towards the Fletroubles now fast approaching had mings from motives of policy, their not put an end to this and similar subjects, from ties of affinity and prosecutions.

blood, long habits of commercial The numbers and the menacing intercourse, private friendship, and aspect of emigrants and others dis- above all, a general commiseration

of

of the injuries done them, were they were ready to sacrifice their much more sincerely and deeply in- lives and fortunes for the prosperity terested in their behalf, and ge- and glory of their sovereign, they nerously afforded them all possible were not prepared for a pusillaniassistance and protection.

mous and perfidious surrender of The Duke of Ursel and the those rights which they heldin trust Prince of Aremberg, Count of la for their fellow citizens, and for Marck, his son, with the other no- posterity. They therefore adjured bles who had retired to Breda, be- hin, by an immediate revocation of ing joined by the Archbishop of his illegal edicts, and restoration of Malines or Mechlin, primate of the the rights of the province, to spare Catholic provinces of the Nether, them the cruel necessity of appeal. lands, and by most if not all the ing to God and their swords. states of Brabant, both civil and ec- Sometime after this, which may clesiastical,-about the middle of be considered as the prelucie, but September 1789, constituted and before the commencement of acdeclared themselves to be the re- tual hostilities, the Cardinal Archgular and legal Assembly of the bishop of Malines, sent a letter con. states of that province. In that taining some particulars relative to character they unanimously passed the conduct of the Emperor and a remonstrance to the Emperor, the present posture of affairs in the which might be considered as a de- low countries, to the Pope. The claration of rights, and at the same Cardinal assured his Holiness that time, of a firm determination to every effort had been used by the maintain them. In this manifesto, bishops and the other clergy for which was sent express to Vienna, the preservation of tranquillity and after lamenting the sad necessity the prevention of a revolution. But which had compelled them to as- that matters had been precipitated semble in a foreign land, under the into their present position by the deplorable character of a banished fluctuating counsels, the unsteady legislature, they entered with the measures, and a general inconsistutmost freedom into the most rigid ency in the conduct of his Imperial examination of his Majesty's con- Majesty. That his laws and decrees, duct. They stated the rights and which were perpetually succeeding, privileges which the province of and in continual variation with one Brabant had enjoyed from the most another, were consistent only in this, remote times ; and ratified and ex. that they had all of them an immetended by a long succession of so- diate tendency not only to oververeigns. They reminded him of throw the discipline of the church, the solemn oaths by which he was and to efface from the minds of the himself bound to maintain and de- people every trace of their native fend them; and then represented piety and religion, but likewise to the wanton and oppressive infrac- annihilate the national customs and tions of them which had taken usages, the privileges of the cities, place during his reign, and, to com- and the liberties of the citizens. plete the full measure of oppression, The declaration of the states of thelawlessand shameless subversion Brabant was little calculated to of their constitution. They con- make any impression in their favour cluded by declaring, that, although on the mind of the Emperor ; jea

lousy

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