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Duke to pardon all the conspirators possessed sufficient sagacity to notexcepting even the assassin him- profit by his observations, and self. But on the expostulation of to apply them to the purposes of the Duke, he agreed to the neces- government.

He seemed to insity of making him an exception. herit from his mother all that was He was condemned to be deprived most admirable in the character of of his right of nobility, and of a his uncle, Frederic the Great, citizen, with infamy, to be pilloryed King of Prussia :-the same love of and whipt in different places, to the arts and sciences ; # the same have his right hand cut off

, and af- fertility of invention, presence of terwards to be beheaded. Anker- mind, intrepid courage, and devostrøm, until his strength was ex- tion to military glory. But whathausted by his sufferings, shewed ever may be thought of the doctrine great firmness of mind, and read a respecting the physical transmission paper,

in which he declared his de- of mental qualities, there can be liberate sentiments on what he had no doubt but the character, condone, and was about to suffer. He duct, and maxims of his illustrious justified the act he had committed, maternal uncle were ever present as the only means left for deliver- to his mind, as well as those of his ing the nation from a tyrant ; and heroic predecessors on tlie Swedish predicted a time when the present

throne. One maxim of Frederic disgrace of his family would be he was wont to repeat to his confi. compensated by the future applause dential friends with great approba. and gratitude of the Swedish na

tion : “ That in great affairs, no

man, however discouraging the cirGustavus III. was a prince of cumstances in which he may be great natural talents, highly im- placed, needs to be afraid to strike proved by education. To a great a blow, provided that he does it fund of easy and impressive elo- with prudence and perseverance; quence, he united the most insinu. as friends and conjunctures will ating manners; and the extent of arise, which, rightly improved, will his knowledge and solidity of his carry him through all difficulties." judgment excited the admiration It is on this solid maxim that he of all who had access to his conver- seems to have acted from his ac. sation. The various journies

cession to the throne ia 1772; soon which he made into different parts after which he destroyed, in the of Europe, as well as into almost space of an hour, that powerful every corner of his own domi- aristocracy which had imperiously nions, made him thoroughly ac

ruled Sweden for near sixty years, quainted with mankind; and he and recovered the authority which

had * This extraordinary prince was not only a great orator, but a fine writer; of which there are abundant proofs, not only in private letters and memorials drawn up by his own hand, but in different printed pieces, though' anonymous; particularly a publication which drew great attention, and whose object it was, to expose the licentiousness of Catherine's private life, and the arrogance of her inordinate ambition. This was considered as a just retaliation for the intrigues of the Empress in Sweden.

tion,

had been wrested from his ances- desirable for them ; but proposed to tors, to his attack on Russian Fin- exalt their minds to the love and land in 1788, and the more recent pursuit of the great and sublime in period, when he determined, and moral conduct. For such a heroic was prepared, to throw himself with system, and at such a juncture, only a small army, for the scale on when the two imperial courts which war is now made, on the ihreatened total destruction to the coast of France.

political balance of Europe, there It was this military ardour and were not wanting plausible arguthirst of fame, as we have had occa ments. In the inaugural oration sion before to mention, that formed which the King pronounced before his predominant passion; and which the academy which he instituted may seem to explain, if not to apo- at Stockholm,* he says,-“ Such logize, for his desire of power, and indeed is the nature of man, that his invasion of what had become he can be animated only by action, the actual constitution of his coun. and must have his mental powers try: for this seemed absolutely ne excited by strong motives. A state cessary to the emancipation of him of tranquillity has a strong tendency self, as well as of his people, from to enervate the understanding; unthe overbearing pride and power less mankind are impelled to utility of the nobility, and the danger and by the most powerful motives, and dread of the domineering ambition are prevented by the prospect of of Russia. It was not in order to fame from sinking into a lethargic exercise tyranny and oppression slumber, equally dangerous to indithat a prince of so great humanity viduals and to the community at and clemency of disposition sought large." But though this Prince had to strengthen his hands : but determined to live, as it were, in that he might be enabled to pursue the storm of war, as such a conduct what he conceived to be for the was imperiously demanded by the interest of Sweden: for although circumstances of the times, he was the real happiness and prosperity of not inattentive to the arts of peace. a nation do not consist in pursuits It was not only to the liberal arts of military renown, yet some great and the sciences that he extended effort appeared to be necessary on his attention, but to agriculture, the part of the Swedish nation, for commerce, and the mechanical or securing their political independ- useful arts. He introduced sundry ence, without which no state or wise regulations into the various kingdom can long enjoy the high- departments of government. He est degree of excellence, virtue, or enforced the most perfect imparhappiness : and as the Swedish tiality in the administration of jusnation would share with him in the tice; and, on the whole, the people glory of his exploits, he did not es saw with the greatest satisfaction, tablish one standard of what was the power of an aristocracy, whose good and desirable for himself, and influence they had experienced, another of what might be good and transferred into the hands of a mo

narch

Of this academy the principal persons in his court were members, and the king himself was president.

narch who possessed their love and would have been wrought into faaffection. So dangerous may the bles of a race of beings of gigantic virtues of princes become to their force and ferocity; living in the people as their vices !

gloomy regions of Tartarus, and beIn every age there is generally yond the precincts of the habitable one hero who commands a greater world, and accustomed to wage war share of the public admiration than against the immortal Gods, presidany other. Gustavus III. appear- ing over the different departments ed beyond all doubt as the most of nature. The enterprize, courage, heroic character among sovereign and activity of Gustavus were highprinces, after the death of his illus- ly distinguished, even in this dartrious relation, the King of Prussia. ing and desperate mode of warfare. If there be a region in the world The defects and blemishes in the where military campaigns roughen character of this illustrious prince, to the eye, and the hardships and were such as human nature easily horrors of war become more harsh pardons, being only the excesses of and horrible than others, it is the generous passions : a gallantry and ancient Scandinavia, Norway, Swe- fearlessness respecting his own perden, and the northern parts of the son, carried to a degree of fatal imRussian empire. Bodies of armed providence; and a clemency of dismen, now traversing a country in- position carried not only beyond tersected by mountains, morasses, the bounds of just policy, but almost glens, ravines, rapid rivers, and to the length of weakness. On the lakes ; now on board. of vessels, whole, Gustavus III. King of Swegrappling with their enemies in nar. den, endowed with many natural row and tempestuous seas; and now advantages, cultivated by a fine descending into mines, and in those education, and emulous of the high gloomy caverns seeking victory renown of his relations, both by over their enemies, or death, the paternal and maternal side, provthese appearances indicate a more

ed that the celestial fire of the human than ordinary degree of human har- race is not extinguished by the lapse dihood and courage, and are of such of ages; and to what exertions hua nature that, if they had been re- man nature might be animated by ported to the Grecian poets, they the love of glory, properly directed.

CHAP. V.

Rejoicings at Petersburg on Account of the Peace with Sweden. An

Ambition of Conquest the ruling passion of the Empress. The Pacification of Werela a Countermine to the Convention of Reichenbach. Effects of this on the Minds of the Turks. Resentments against the Swedes. Misplaced. The King of Sweden's Conduct in making Peace with Russia vindicated. The haughty Spirit of the Empress reduced by the Allies within the Bounds of greater Circumspection and Caution. Cessation of Hostilities on the Danube. Vigorous Preparations for War on the Part of the Ottomans. Naval Engagements. Heroic Atchievements of a Greek Squadron, under the Colours and Auspices of Russia, and of a Body of Greeks at Land. A Concert formed between the Czarina and the Greeks, for emancipating that Nation from the Mahomedan Yoke. Deputies from the People of Greece sent to Petersburg. How received. Great and extensive Plan of the Greeks for expelling the Turks from Europe. Approved by the Empress, who gives Earnest of future Succours in case of certain events. Russian Plan for a winter campaign on the Danube. Turkish army under Batal Bay, on the side of Asia, routed and totally ruined. The strong fortress and town of Ismailow taken by storm, after a noble defence, by General Suvarof. Dreadful and unheard of massacre there. Various actions between the Turks and Russians.

rations

Treaty of peace concluded suddenly at Galatz. THE respect in which the Rus- return of peace, carried an air of

sians had been forced to hold exultation and triumph. Catharine the Swedes, notwithstanding the beheld her troops from the windows contempt with which they had so of one front of her palace: and from recently affected to regard that gal. those of the opposite side, the gallant nation, was expressed by the ley fleet lying at anchor in the ripublic rejoicings on the conclusion ver, with all their flags and pendants of the peace at Petersburg; which displayed from every mast and were continued ten days and nights yard. The decks of all the vessels without intermission, and in a man- were crowded with soldiers and sea. ner equally ingenious and magnifi- men. Vast multitudes of the citi. cent. It is not certainly any part zens were collected together upon of our plan to amuse our readers the banks of the Neva to view the with the splendor and pomp of feet; while others were assembled, courts and public diversions ; yet it in the great square, to see their Somay not be improper to give a brief vereign; who, after divine service, sketch of the Grand Gala at Peters- in which a grand te Deum was perburg, in the end of August 1791 ; as formed, came into the balcony atit serves, in some measure, to give tended by the ladies of the court. an idea of the Russian court, the Catharine bowed to her subjects, Russian empire at that period, and who made the air resound with even of the mind of the Empress. their acclamations. Medals struck

The Gala-days commenced on to commemorate the peace, were Sunday, early in the morning. The thrown amidst the crowd, by two principal streets were lined with heralds on horseback. A feu de infantry. The square in which the joie was fired by the guards, drawn equestrian statue of Peter the Great up in the grand square, and ran, stands, was filled with troops. The from thencealong the lines of troops blaze of arms, the sound of martial to the most distant parts of the city. music, and military honours public. The cannon from the admiralty ly. conferred on certain regiments, fired at the same time, and immediat the same time that they were ex. ately afterwards, the whole galley hibited as expressions of joy at the fleet fired repeated broadsides.

These

These awful peals called the multi- and pulled in a thousand pieces the tude, who were scrambling for the silken cover which hid the bodies medals, to the river. Clouds of of the oxen; nothing of them being smoke mixed with the continual seen before, besides their heads and Aashes from the mouths of the can- gilded horns. The oxen

were non, and the numerous ships and then quickly dissected : and from pendants, discovered at intervals their bellies, stuffed with every sort through the dispersion of the smoke of viands, fowls, tongues, hams, by the wind, gave, on the whole, no joints of veal and mutton, &c. bad idea of real naval engagements. showered in great profusion. On

In the evening the galley fleet the succeeding Tuesday a public was superbly illuminated with dif- masquerade was given at court, and ferent coloured lamps, hung upon all ranks were admitted by tickets. the masts, the yards, the sides, and The Empress, the Grand duke and among the rigging. The darkness Duchess, with the young Imperial of the night, and the wild irregu- Family, the Russian ministers, the larity of the lamps, which appeared foreign ambassadors, the naval and like meteors in the air, had an un- military officers, and the principal common but grand effect. The inhabitants of the city, as well as city, too, was illuminated in every the lowest classes, were assembled quarter.

together. Besides the assemblage On Tuesday her Imperial Majesty that appeared in characters and dined in public with her naval and fancied dresses, or in dominos, military officers. Upon Thursday there was an equal number in their the populace were entertained with ordinary habits; which, however, oxen roasted whole, and two foun- were more curious and even various tains of wine. The fountains, than the others. Russians, Moors, beautifully painted and decorated, Finlanders, Poles, Danes, Swedes, were erected in front of the palace, Italians, French, Germans, English, and the oxen were placed on stages Turks, Greeks, Persians, Jews, near them. The wine sprung into Armenians, and Tartars of various the air the moment that her Impe- tribes, in their native dresses, and rial Majesty appeared in the balco- speaking the different languages of ny. The populace crowded about their nations, presented a group

of the basons, which received the fall- singular variety.* And what was ing bounty; while another party, at very striking, and particularly chathe same signal, mounted the stages, racteristical of the genius of these

festivities,

• During the time of the Greek empire, the great (as it was the most natural) centre of communication between the European and Asiatic nations, was Constantinople. The gross bigotry, ignorance, and pride of the Turks, have given a check to this communication on that quarter; while a new point of communication and, as it were, contact has been formed by the more liberal sentiments and views of the court of St. Petersburg, and the immense extent of the Russian empire. To speak in a style familiar, but apt enough, St. Petersburg is a kind of half-way house between Europe and Asia, by land, as the Cape of Good Hope is by sea. There is not any station where human nature is to be seen in so great a diversity of character

and

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