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laken as a separate body from the was not his intention to admit Roother dissenters from the church man Catholics of any description of England.

to places of trust under governOn February 26, Mr. Mitford, ment, but only to have them conthe Solicitor-General, moved for a sidered as men of honour and loycommittee of the whole House of alty. The motion was put and Commons to enable him to bring carried without opposition. in a bill to relieve, upon condition, On the second reading of the and under certain restrictions, per. bill in the House of Lords, on the sons called protesting Catholic Dis- 31st of May, a discussion took place senters*, from certain penalties of the propriety of several clauses ; and disabilities to which papists, or which were afterwards amended in persons professing the popish reli- & committee. The Bishop of St. gion are, by law subject. Mr. Mit- David's (Dr. Horsley) observed, ford prefaced this motion, by shew, that the form of the oath of alleing that the severity of the penal giance, which it enjoined, would laws against the catholics was much most probably offend the feelings greater than was generally known of those whom the bill itself was or imagined The motion was intended to relieve. The doctrine, seconded by Mr. Windham; who that princes excommunicated by did not conceive that the conduct the see of Rome might be deposed of Roman catholics had been such and murdered by their subjects, was as to warrant the severity with declared by the oath to be impious, which they had been treated in the heretical, and damnable. The last century. At any rate, it was catholics felt not the least disincliimpossible to deem them formidable nation to express their disapprobaat the present moment, when the tion of such a doctrine ; but, from power of the Pope was considered scruples founded on a tender reas a mere spectre, capable of fright- gard for the memory of their proening only in the dark, and vanish- genitors, they could not, induce ing before the light of reason and themselves to brand it with the knowledge.

harsh Terms which the oath preMr. Fox thought the proposed scribed. In a committee of the bill too confined in its views. He whole House on this bill, June 4, wished it to go farther, and to esta- the oath, as it first stood, was, on blish complete toleration. Mr. the Bishop's motion, expunged; Mitford's motion was agreed to and the same oath which was taken unanimously.-Mr. Mitford on the by the Roman Catholics in Ireland, 1st of March, in a committee of the in 1774, with some slight altera. whole House, moved for leave to tions, substituted in its stead. bring in his proposed bill. He To this bill, in favour of the wished not for the general repeal Roman Catholics, a very cordial of the statutes in question ; but support was given by the same merely for an exemption from their bench of Bishops, who had set their operation in favour of a few. It faces very strongly, in the preced


Who protested against certain odious and dangerous opinions imputed to papists.


ing year, against an attempt to ob- raised, or had the prospect of being tain a repeal of the corporation called to ecclesiastical preferment. and test acts, in favour of the dis- This

gave the more pleasure to the senters. Although the doctrines, zealous friends of the established or metaphysical interpretations of church, that it was a little mingled scriptural texts, of the catholic and with surprise; as the preaching of English churches be, in many in- St. Paul also did, for a like reason, stances, diametrically opposite, and to the first christians, after his conthose of the church of England version, on his way to Damascus. and the presbyterians, and other A petition from the General As. dissenters, in all essential points sembly of the church of Scotland, exactly the same; yetcertainly there for a repeal of the test acts as far is a very material difference indeed as relates to Scotland, was brought between the sentiments of the ca. forward in the House of Commons tholics and those of the dissenters on the 10th of May, by sir Gilbert concerning the grand question of Elliot ; who concluded a speech rechurch-establishments. "If the dis- plete with all that elegant delicacy senters should predominate in the of manner, and that argumentative state, church-establishments must precision for which he is so emifall. If the doctrines of popery nently distinguished, by moving in (though this was not by any means behalf of the petitioners, for a com. to be apprehended) should regain mittee of the whole House " to an ascendancy in this country, still consider how far the provisions of our religious establishments would the act, 25th Car. II. cap. ii. which be preserved. In short, it was con- requires persons holding any offices, fessed that it was by ecclesiastical civil or military, or any place of policy that christianity was main. trust under the crown, to receive tained in this country: and as eccle- the sacrament of the Lord's supper siastical establishments had arisen according to the usage of the church originally out of the purity, piety, of England, extend, or ought to ex.

, and disinterested zeal of former tend, to persons born in that part times; so it was reasonable that of Great Britain called Scotland." these establishments should now be This motion was supported by brought to the aid of those en- Mr. Pulteney, Mr, Anstruther, Sir feebled and fainting principles from Adam Ferguson, and Mr. Fox. It whence they had sprung. The pre-was opposed by the Lord Advocate late the most distinguished for his for Scotland, the Master of the zeal on the side of the catholics and Rolls, Mr. Dundas, and Mr. Pitt. against the dissenters, was Bishop In support of the motion, it was Samuel Horsley, just mentioned, urged, among other arguments, that whose ardour in the christian cause Scotland, by its constitution, and had been but little known when by treaty, had a separate church and he was engaged in the studies of a separate form of religion. By mathematics and algebra, or in the the treaty of union, she was to have business of a tutor, either at Cam- a free

communication of civil bridge or Oxford ; but which, very rights. But a test which, as a con properly, shone forth more and dition for attaining those civil more, in proportion as he was rights, imposed on her a necessity



of departing from the form of her of the test in question. It was not established religion, and to submit a dereliction of the principles of to that of England, either abridged the church of Scotland, but mereher religious liberty by means of ly a pledge of amity with the the civil attainments, or abridged church of England ; a declaration, her civil attainments by means that the person taking it was not of the obligations of religion. so disaffected to that church as not

Mr. Fox reminded the House to be willing to communicate with of what, he said, was sometimes for her. This willingness to commugotten : : that the two nations were, nicate with her neighbour church, at the time of entering into the he understood to be the general treaty of union, independent king- sentiment of the members of the doms meeting to treat, and mean- church of Scotland. But in Scoting to form the treaty, on terms of land, there were, as in England, perfect equality. Was it not an sectaries of various denominations, infringement of that equality, that whose sentiments were less liberal. a Scotchman, entering into any Against such sectaries it was just, British office, should make a solemn as well as expedient, that this test profession of his attachment to the should operate; otherwise, the church of England; which to a church of England would suffer an scrupulous man might imply a de- encroachment and a danger from reliction of the principles of his na- them, to which, from the sectaries tive church, while there was no simi- of England she was not exposed, lar obligation on an Englishman as the legislature had repeatedly appointed to an office in Scotland ? declared its intention to guard her.

Mr. Pitt insisted that the test For as there was no test in Scotland, which was now the subject of dis- an exemption in favour of that cussion, must have been understood country, would let in upon the as a stipulation at the time of the church of England dissenters and union, since it had been ac- sectaries of every denomination, quiesced in, from that period to the and thus break down the fence present, without the smallest com- which the wisdom and justice of plaint by those most interested to parliament had so often and so complain of the hardship, and who lately confirmed around her. had it most in their power to claim Sir Gilbert Elliot's motion was with effect any right or privilege. therefore negatived by a considerThe hardship was merely imaginary, able majority: the numbers being and arose solely from a false view 149 to 62.

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The order proper to be observed in Narration. Apology for not always

adhering strictly to that of Time. Message from his Majesty relative to Russia, und the Augmentation of our Naval Force. The only Terms on which the Czarina was willing to make Peace with the Turks. The Mediation of the Allies for effecting that object, hitherlo fruitless. Growing Coldness and Jealousies between the Empress of Russia


and the British government. The Pride and Ambition of the Empress excite a Spirit of Resistance in various European Nations. Motion for an address to his Majesty on the Occasion of his Message to Parliament. Debates thereon ; but the Motion carried in both houses. Various Motions against the Russian Armament. Conduct of Mr. Pitt. Character of a great Minister. I'wo Great Political Schools. Mr. Sheridan and Mr. Fox approve and applaud the French Revolution. Mr. Burke provoked, makes a violent Atlack on this Revolution, and the New French Constitution. This Subject constantly introduced into all Debates on all Questions. Altercations between Mr. Burke and Mr. Fox. Rupture between these Old Friends, and final separation, State of the Province of Quebec. Bill for the Government of Canada. Debates thereon in both Houses. The Bill passed.

E have not deemed it neW

necessary to class them together as cessary, as our readers will much as possible, without deviating have perceived in what we have too far from the chronological orhitherto related of the parliamen- der, under general heads and comtary business of 1791, to adhere mon principles; and as they are strictly to the order of the time connected together by the relation when the particular subjects of dis- of cause and effect * We are cussion and decision were first abundantly sensible of the disadbrought forward; but have pursued vantages under which we labour, different subjects, without interrup- in attempting to view events so retion, to certain marked periods in cent, in their true light, and to give their progression if not to their to all things their just places and final determination ; and passed on, proportions. This will be more in our narrative, from certain things happily effected by future histoto others, to which they bear an rians, for whose use we transmit evident analogy or resemblance. materials ; but these, for the conIt is not the aim of this annual venience of transmission, should be sketch of the passing years, to give shaped into a kind of imperfect a mere chronicle of facts, but to mould or form, like those rude rearrange the principal events and semblances of various utensils that subjects of attention, in such a are sometimes brought in ships, manner as to form a picture that rather than mere blocks of wood, may be contemplated without dis- from the forests of Norway. traction, and with some degree of It was announced to the parliainterest and satisfaction. But for ment, in his Majesty's speech from this end, the arrangement of trans- the throne, that a separate peace actions and events, in the mere or- had taken place between Russia and der of time, is not sufficient : it is Sweden, but that the war between


The three great bands of association among our ideas has been observed by metaphysicians, from the time of Aristotle to the present, are similitude or dissimilitude ; cause or effect ; and contiguity in time and placé. In proportion as va. riety of matter acquires an appearance of uniformity, by means of these bands of connection, compositions of all kinds take hold of the mind, and become interest. ing.


the former of those powers and the The answer constantly returned by Porte still continued; and that the the Empress to the pressing soliprinciples on which his majesty had citations of the allies on this head, hitherto acted, would make him was, that she would admit of no desirous of employing the weight interference between her and the and influence of this country in Turks, and should consult her own contributing to the restoration of discretion in whatever related to general tranquillity. Of the va- that business, without submitting rious subjects touched on in his to the decision of any power whatMajesty's speech, this was by far

Alarmed however at the the most important to Great Britain strength of the allied powers, and and Europe ; and excited accord- above all, at the new external re. ingly a more than ordinary de- lations, as well as internal situation gree of attention and expecta- . of Poland, she offered to give up tion,

all her conquests on the Turks, On the 29th of March 1791, a excepting the town and dependmessage was delivered from his Ma- encies of Oczakow, the country of jesty to both Houses of parliament, the Oczakow Tartars, situated bestating, that his Majesty thought it tween the Bog and the Neister, the necessary to acquaint them, thatthe possession of which would, on the endeavours which he had used, in one hand, be a barrier against the conjunction with his allies, to effect eruptions of the Tartars into the a pacification between Russia and territories of Russia ; and, on the the Porte, having hitherto been other, open at some future period, unsuccessful; and that the conse- more auspicious then the present, quences which might arisefrom the lo schemes of aggrandizement infurther progress of the war, being to the provinces, and the very heart highly important to the interest of of the Turkish empire. his Majesty and his allies, and to The King of Prussia, the immedithose of Europe in general, his ate successor of Frederic the Great, Majesty judged it requisite, in or

had shewn, as above related, a pruder to add weight to his negocia- dent and just jealousy of the ambitions, to make some further aug- tious designs of Catharine; and by mentation to his naval force; and the formation of a close alliance relied on the zeal and affection of with Poland, and other measures, parliament, for the defraying of wisely endeavoured to prevent her such expences as might be incurred views of aggrandizement to all, or by those additional preparations. nearly all these measures, already We have already seen that the carried into execution, and to which powers who had meditated in the Great Britain had given her counconvention of Reichenbach, had tenance. We had also, in concert endeavoured in vain, on the con- with Prussia and Holland, offered to clusion of that treaty, to incline the mediate a peace in the east of EuEmpress of Russia to peace with the rope, suon after the fall of Oczakow Porte on the same terms of the in 1788. We restrained Denmark status quo, on which it had been de- from joining her arms to those of termined that peace should be made Russia for assisting the Swedes : and between the Porte and Austria. this, with an avowed determination


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