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and the British government. The Pride and Ambition of the Empress excite a Spirit of Resistance in various European Nations. Motion for an address to his Majesty on the Occasion of his Message to Parliament. Debates thereon ; but the Motion carried in both houses. Various Motions against the Russian Armament. Conduct of Mr. Pitt. Character of a great Minister. I'wo Great Political Schools. Mr. Sheridan and Mr. Fox approve and applaud the French Revolution. Mr. Burke provoked, makes a violent Atlack on this Revolution, and the New French Constitution. This Subject constantly introduced into all Debates on all Questions. Altercations between Mr. Burke and Mr. Fox. Rupture between these Old Friends, and final separation, State of the Province of Quebec. Bill for the Government of Canada. Debates thereon in both Houses. The Bill passed.

E have not deemed it neW

necessary to class them together as cessary, as our readers will much as possible, without deviating have perceived in what we have too far from the chronological orhitherto related of the parliamen- der, under general heads and comtary business of 1791, to adhere mon principles; and as they are strictly to the order of the time connected together by the relation when the particular subjects of dis- of cause and effect * We are cussion and decision were first abundantly sensible of the disadbrought forward; but have pursued vantages under which we labour, different subjects, without interrup- in attempting to view events so retion, to certain marked periods in cent, in their true light, and to give their progression if not to their to all things their just places and final determination ; and passed on, proportions. This will be more in our narrative, from certain things happily effected by future histoto others, to which they bear an rians, for whose use we transmit evident analogy or resemblance. materials ; but these, for the conIt is not the aim of this annual venience of transmission, should be sketch of the passing years, to give shaped into a kind of imperfect a mere chronicle of facts, but to mould or form, like those rude rearrange the principal events and semblances of various utensils that subjects of attention, in such a are sometimes brought in ships, manner as to form a picture that rather than mere blocks of wood, may be contemplated without dis- from the forests of Norway. traction, and with some degree of It was announced to the parliainterest and satisfaction. But for ment, in his Majesty's speech from this end, the arrangement of trans- the throne, that a separate peace actions and events, in the mere or- had taken place between Russia and der of time, is not sufficient : it is Sweden, but that the war between


The three great bands of association among our ideas has been observed by metaphysicians, from the time of Aristotle to the present, are similitude or dissimilitude ; cause or effect ; and contiguity in time and placé. In proportion as va. riety of matter acquires an appearance of uniformity, by means of these bands of connection, compositions of all kinds take hold of the mind, and become interest. ing.


the former of those powers and the The answer constantly returned by Porte still continued; and that the the Empress to the pressing soliprinciples on which his majesty had citations of the allies on this head, hitherto acted, would make him was, that she would admit of po desirous of employing the weight interference between her and the and influence of this country in Turks, and should consult her own contributing to the restoration of discretion in whatever related to general tranquillity. Of the va- that business, without submitting rious subjects touched on in his to the decision of any power whatMajesty's speech, this was by far

Alarmed however at the the most important to Great Britain strength of the allied powers, and and Europe ; and excited accord-, above all, at the new external reingly a more than ordinary de- lations, as well as internal situation gree of attention and expecta- of Poland, she offered to give up tion,

all her conquests on the Turks, On the 29th of March 1791, a excepting the town and dependmessage was delivered from his Ma- encies of Oczakow, the country of jesty to both Houses of parliament, the Oczakow Tartars, situated bestating, that his Majesty thought it tween the Bog and the Neister, the necessary to acquaint them, that the possession of which would, on the endeavours which he had used, in one hand, be a barrier against the conjunction with his allies, to effect eruptions of the Tartars into the a pacification between Russia and territories of Russia ; and, on the the Porte, having hitherto been other, open at some future period, unsuccessful; and that the conse- more auspicious then the present, quences which might arise from the to schemes of aggrandizement infurther progress of the war, being to the provinces, and the very heart highly important to the interest of of the Turkish empire. his Majesty and his allies, and to The King of Prussia, the immedithose of Europe in general, his ate successor of Frederic the Great, Majesty judged it requisite, in or- had shewn, as above related, a pruder to add weight to his negocia- dent and just jealousy of the ambitions, to make some further aug- tious designs of Catharine; and by mentation to his naval force; and the formation of a close alliance relied on the zeal and affection of with Poland, and other measures, parliament, for the defraying of wisely endeavoured to prevent her such expences as might be incurred views of aggrandizement to all, or by those additional preparations. nearly all these measures, already We have already seen that the carried into execution, and to which powers who had meditated in the Great Britain had given her counconvention of Reichenbach, had tenance. We had also, in concert endeavoured in vain, on the con- with Prussia and Holland, offered to clusion of that treaty, to incline the mediate a peace in the east of EuEmpress of Russia to peace with the rope, soon after the fall of Oczakow Porte on the same terms of the in 1788. We restrained Denmark status quo, on which it had been de- from joining her arms to those of termined that peace should be made Russia for assisting the Swedes: and between the Porte and Austria. this, with an avowed determination


of supporting the balance of the made one with France, and another north. In the summer following with Spain : in addition to which, in 1790, we made a new treaty she entered with those two kingwith Prussia: a treaty of more than doms into a quadruple alliance, defensive alliance; of strict and plainly pointed against Great Briperpetual union, in order to pro- tain. In a word, the Empress of tect not only the interests of the Russia, Aushed with success and two contracting powers, but the most strongly fortified by treaties of tranquillity and security of Europe. alliance, had assuined a menacing We had now, a second time, press- attitude and frowning aspect, which ed our mediation on Russia; but naturally produced a counter conpressed it in vain. The Czarina federation, and excited throughout not only persisted in her resolution a great portion of Europe a spirit to carry on the present war with of jealousy, vigilance, and hostile the Turks unless she should be per- resistance. mitted to dictate a peace on her Such was the state of Europe, own terms, but seemed to have and such particularly that of this denounced a new war against an- country in relation to Russia, at other of our allies, Poland. So the moment when the message from nearly as 1789, she had given no- his Majesty, just mentioned, was tice that she should consider the taken into consideration in the new arrangements of the republic House of Commons. The minisas a violation of her treaty and ster moved for an address to his guarantee of a former arrangement; Majesty on the occasion, after the and thus prepared a plea for hosti- usual form. He supported the lities against that unfortunate coun. measure that was the object of the try at a more convenient opportu- address, on the ground that we had nity. The seeds of mutual jealousy a direct and important interest in and alienation had been sown be- the war between Russia and the tween Great Britain and Russia Porte. Having entered into defrom the period that the Czarina, fensive alliances, which were adin the time of our distress, in the mitted to be wise and politic, we American war, took the lead in the ought to adhere to them. Prussia armed neutrality, for the express was our ally, and ought to be suppurpose of resisting and reducing ported. The progress of the Rusthe naval power of this country. sian arms against the Porte was At the expiration of the commer- alarming. Should the power of cial treaty between Russia and Eng. the Porte be further humbled by land, she not only declined to re its aspiring rival, Prussia would innew it, but obliged our merchants stantly feel it: and not Prussia to pay, in duties, 25 per cent. more alone, but all Europe itself, the pothan what is exacted from other litical system of which might be countries, though they give half a shaken to its very foundation. year's credit for their exports, and Mr. Fox was of opinion that Prusare always a whole year in advance sia could not be endangered by any for their imports : and at the same progress which the Russian arms time that she declined to renew any could make in Turkey. The Em. commercial treaty with us, she press offered to cede all her con


quests between the Neister and the off, in order to wait for the concure: Danube ; and proposed only to re- rence of the Empress. tain those which were situated be- Mr. Burke observed, that the attween the Neister and the Don: tempt to bring the Turkish empire but we insisted that she should sur- into consideration of the balance of render all her conquests without a Europe was extremely new, imposingle exception. Our only ground litical, and dangerous :-and the of quarrel, therefore, with the Em- question seemed not to be whether press was, her unwillingness to re- Russia should not dismember the sign the track of country above- Turkish empire? but merely this, mentioned; which although, in ge- whether she should or should not neral, barren and unprofitable, was retain possession of Oczakow? when yet particularly desirable to her, as the Empress consented to cede all it contained the town of Oczakow: her conquests between the Neister a place of much importance to the and the Danube, she condescended, security of the Russian dominions. in his judgement, to concede more Oczakow, he remarked, was taken than could be well expected from a in the year 1788, subsequently to great power in the career of victory. which period we had been informed We were, it appeared, to plunge by his Majesty from the throne, ourselves into an immoderate exthat there was every prospect of a pence, in order to bring christian continuance of peace. Why did nations under the yoke of severe not ministers follow up their system and inhuman infidels. If we acted of defensive alliance with consists in this wanton manner against the ency? In the negociations at Rei- Empress of Russia, might we not chenbach, when they found the reasonably suppose that her resentEmperor inclined to peace, they ment would burst forth against us should have embraced the oppor. when we least expected it? when tunity of securing the Empress by its effects would be more alarming ? the same means, and with the same and when another armament would arguments. An alliance with Rus- be necessary to repel her threatened sia seemed to him the most natural vengeance? The address was carand advantageous that we could ried by a majority of only 93.possibly form.

Ayes 228. Noes 135. Mr. Pitt contended that the

ag- By so numerous a minority, Mr. grandizement of Russia, and the Grey was encouraged to move on depression of Turkey, would ma- the 12th of April, a series of resoterially affect both our political and lutions, to the number of eight, decommercial interests. The accusa- clarative of certain general and untion against ministers of their not deniable positions, with regard to having taken pains to include the the interest of this country in the Empress in the negociations at preservation of peace; the just Reichenbach, he considered as tri- causes, and unjust pretexts for war ; vial : for, when the Emperor mani. facts that had appeared during the fested a favourable disposition, it hostilities between Russia and the was thought imprudent to suspend Porte, which did not seem immedithe negociations with him, at the ately to involve the interests of risk of their being entirely broken Great Britain, or to threaten an attack on her possessions or those of to many points, concerning which it her allies ; and concluding, “ That was proper that the House should be the expence of an armament must informed. When he changed his be burthensome to the country, principles and his mode of conduct, and is, under the present circum- it was alleged by Mr. Courtney, stances, as far as the House is in. he took shelter in existing circumformed, inexpedient and unneces- stances. When questions were put sary.”


to him relative to the measures he In support of Mr. Grey's mo- pursued, he told them that the tion, it was urged, among other country had, and that they ought, arguments, that Russia was so far to have confidence in his Majesty's from deriving any increase of ministers. These two phrases, eriststrength and power from her con- ing circumstances; and confidence quests to the south, that every ac- in his Majesty's ministers, were cession of territory to her in that often the hinges on which many quarter was an accession of weak- long and elaborate speeches turned. ness ; and that, therefore, the true Mr. Dundas replied, that while method to prevent her from dis- a negociation was on foot, relative turbing the peace of Europe, would to any particular points, his Mabe to permit her to pursue her pre- jesty's ministers did not think it sent schemes. But, were the Em- their duty to make them subjects press to realize all her imputed of public discussion. Mr. Grey's views of ambition, to get possession motions were negatived by a maof Constantinople, and exterminate jority of only 80. The numbers the Turks from Europe, still, Mr. for them being 252. Against them Grey contended, that mankind, so 172. In this day's debate, Mr. far from being injured, would be Sheridan, in a long and elaborate greatly benefited by it. It was as- speech, ran over the political map serted, on the other hand, in oppo- of Europe, and came, in conclusion, sition to Mr. Grey, and in defence to what was now the grand centre of the measures of administration, of all political councils and meathat the possession of Oczakow by sures, the French Revolution. He the Empress would facilitate not avowed, in the most explicit and only the acquisition of Constantin- strongest terms, the sentiments he . ople, but of Alexandria, and all the had formerly expressed on that Lower Egypt ; which would trans- subject. The improvements of fer into the hands of Russia the su. modern times, and the progress of premacy of the Mediterranean, and modern philosophy had wiped away render her a formidable rival to ancient prejudices; and by men of Great Britain, both as a commer- the best heads and hearts in both cial and naval power. But the France and England, the two counEmpress was not only charged with tries were not any longer considerdesigns on the Porte, but on the li- ed, and ought not to be considered, berties and independence of all the as natural enemies. They might northern powers. In the course of have been good neighbours, and this debate many severe observa- mutually beneficial to each other, tions were made on the obstinate if the French nation had been persilence of the minister, with regard mitted, without foreign interfer


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