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for a part of the charges of the by all his subjects, and by none younger branches of my family, more than his loyal people of Ireout of the consolidated fund. land, had left him no doubt of the

most vigorous and effectual supMy Lords, and Gentlemen, port. It is a source of peculiar saI am not yet enabled to inform tisfaction to his majesty, that those you of the result of the steps which objects have been accomplished I have taken with a view to the re. without any actual interruption of establishment of peace between the blessings of peace. Russia and the Porte. It is my earnest wish that this important

Gentlemen of the House of object may be effectuated in such

Commons, a manner as may contribute to the I have ordered the proper offipreservation and maintenance of cers to lay the national accounts the general tranquillity of Europe. before you, fully relying upon your I feel, with the greatest satisfaction, accustomed zeal to provide for the the confidence which you have re- exigencies of the state, and the hoposed in me, and my constant en nourable support of his majesty's deavours will be directed to the

government, pursuit of such measures as may I have also ordered an account appear to me best calculated to of the extraordinary expences of promote the interests and happi- government, which have been inness of my people, which are in- curred during the negotiation with separable from my own.

Spain, to be laid before you; and
I trust you will find that the con-

fidence you reposed in me has not Speech of the Earl of Westmore- been misplaced. land, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to both Houses of Par My Lords and Gentlemen, liament, January 20.

Your disposition to facilitate the

business of commerce, and to conMy Lords and Gentlemen,

sult the ease of the merchants, will I have some pleasure in ac induce you to consider, and if posquainting you, by the king's com

sible to accomplish, during this mand, that the differences which session, such regulations as may had arisen between his majesty and tend to simplify the collection of the court of Spain have happily the various articles of the public been brought to an amicable ter

revenue. mination. Copies of the declarations exchanged between his majesty's ambassador and the minister of the Catholic king, and of the The Speech of the Earl of Westconvention which has been since moreland, Lord Lieutenant of concluded, will be laid before you. Ireland, to both Houses of Par

Had the honour of his majesty's liament, May 5, 1791. crown, and the protection of the rights and interest of the empire,

My Lords and Gentlemen, involved this kingdom in the cala His majesty having directed an mities of war, the zeal manifested augmentation to be made of his

naval forces, in order to add weight the public welfare. Success in to his representations for the re- this desirable measure can alone establishment of peace between be expected from your continued Russia and the Porte, has com- and well-directed efforts. manded me to communicate this I therefore trust, that in your circumstance to his parliament of respective counties, you will partiIreland, on whose zealous and af. cularly apply yourselves to give fectionate attachment to the inter- efficacy to the regulations you have ests of his majesty's crown his ma- adopted upon this subject. On my jesty places the firmest reliance. part, no endeavours shall be wanted

The unremitted application you to enforce the execution of laws so have given to your parliamentary judiciously calculated to preserve duties enables me now to close the the healths, and amend the morals, session, and to relieve you from any of the people, and to advance the further attendance. And I have industry and prosperity of Ireland. the king's direction to express his To these objects my exertions are perfect satisfaction in the zeal and directed by his majesty's comdispatch with which you have mands, and by every impulse of brought the public business to a inclination and duty. conclusion.

Gentlemen of the House of Letter from the Emperor of Ger-

many to the King of the French. His majesty directs me to thank

Leopold II. Emperor and king you for the supplies which you of the Romans, &c. Pursuant to have granted for the maintenance our constitutional laws, we have of the establishments, and the ho- communicated to the electors, nourable support of his govern- princes, and states of the empire, ment. They shall be faithfully ap- on the one part, the complaints of plied to the purposes for which the vassals of our empire, which, they were granted.

agreeably to the wishes of our My Lords and Gentlemen,

electoral college, we transmitted

amicably to you, on the 14th Dec. I have observed, with peculiar last, and on the other, the answer satisfaction, the attention you have returned by your majesty.--The shown to the interests of your coun

we have considered this try, by facilitating the business of affair, the more we must regret the merchants in the payment of that your majesty's answer was not duties, by providing accommoda- conformable to our just expectations for the shipping and trade of tion. Besides its not being drawn the metropolis, and by extending up in an idiom usual in discussing the operation of national credit. business between the empire and The salutary provisions you have your kingdom, we remarked, that made to check the immoderate use it called in question the compe. of spirituous liquors, afford the tence of the vassals of the empire strongest proof of your regard for to implore our intervention at the



Memorial or Circular Letter from the Emperor of Germany to all the greut powers of Europe. (For this see History of Europe, p. 72.),

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diet, in order to assure them the We have therefore reason to same protection of the emperor complain of the derogations which, and the empire, which protected since the month of August, 1789, their interests on occasion of pub- have been made to the terms of the lic pacifications.

said treaties, and infractions which To judge from the tenour of have followed in consequence, to your answer, your majesty, no the prejudice of our rights, of those doubt, supposed, that all the pos- of the empire, and of our vassals ; sessions of our vassals in dispute and we are convinced that we are were subject to the supremacy of bound not only to interpose in their your crown, so as to make it free to favour the most solemn protestadispose of them as the public utility tion, both in our pame and the seems to require, provided a just in- name of the empire, but also to demnification were given ; but if give to the injured all the aid your majesty will take the trouble which the dignity of the imperial of examining more attentively the court and the maintenance of the public pacifications in question, as present constitution require. well as all the other treaties be- Such is the resolution on which tween the empire and France, since we have determined, and we should 1648, it will not surely escape your already have taken measures to sigperspicacity, that such a supposi- nify it in the most efficacious maniion cannot be well founded.

ner, if your majesty's well known You will then see most clearly, sentiments of justice and equity on the one part, what are the lands had not left us the hope of obtainthat have been hitherto transferred ing, by an amicable negotiation, in to the supremacy of your crown by favour of the vassals of our empire, the consent of the emperors and a reintegration full and conform the orders of the empire ; and on able to the disposition of those the other, that the possessions of treaties. our vassals in Alsace, Lorraine, and Your majesty's prudence will elsewhere, which have not been easily perceive the injury which a transferred to your crown by a si- violation of the promises equally milar consent, must remain in their binding on both parties reciprocally ancient relation to the empire, and made to the empire by your crown, cannot consequently be subjected and even guaranteed by the latter, to the laws of your kingdom. But would do to the title by which the with respect even to the districts, different countries of Alsace and the cession of which is most ex- Lorraine have been successively pressly stipulated in the treaties, transferred to you. It will easily France cannot be ignorant that discover the consequences not to be these very

treaties have given to calculated which may be produced the exercise of your supremacy, in both in Europe and the other parts regard to the vassals of the empire, of the world, where nations exist different restrictions both spiritual that have at any time entered into and civil, which cannot in any treaties with your's, by so manifest shape be arbitrarily overturned by a proof, that France, without regard new decrees of your nation, to the sanctity of public promises, thinks herself at liberty to violate happiness restored, by the means them whenever her own interest employed by the National Assembly makes it appear convenient. and by his residence near the assem



Your desire to cause justice be- bly, no sacrifice would have aptween nations to be observed, and peared to him too great, which to maintain the friendship that might conduce to such an event; subsists between your kingdom and he would not even have mentioned our empire, will certainly induce his own personal deprivation of li. you to disregard this pretended berty, from the month of October, convenience, which cannot be ob- 1789. But at present, when the tained but with the detriment of result of every transaction is only treaties, and does not allow us to the destruction of royalty, the viodoubt, that the instances which we lation of property, and the endannow renew to you, both in our gering of persons; when there is name and the name of the empire, an entire anarchy through every will effect a cessation of all the in- part of the empire, without the novations made since the begin- least appearance of any authority ning of August, 1789, as far as sufficient to control it; the king, they affect the states and vassals of after protesting against all the acts our empire; that they will operate performed by him during his capthe re-establishment of the latter in tivity, thinks it his duty to submit the enjoyment of all the revenues to the French nation the following of which they have been deprived; account of his conduct. and, finally, that the re-establish- In the month of July 1789, the ment of all things, on the foot de- king, he declares it upon his contermined by the treaties, will be science, bad no fear on coming the consequence.

amongst the Parisians. In the We entreat your majesty to make month of October of the same known to us if this be your full in. year, being advised of the conduct tention. The more prompt your of some factious persons, he appreanswer, and the more conformable hended that his departure might to received custom, the less doubt afford them a pretence for fomentwe shall entertain of the sinceritying a civil war. All the world is of your desire, and that of your informed of the impunity with nation, to cultivate peace and which crimes were then commitfriendship with the empire. We ted. The king, yielding to the wish your majesty every thing that wish of the army of the Parisians, can contribute to your happiness. came with his family, and estaGiven at Vienna, Dec. 3, 1791.

blished his residence at the Thuilleries. No preparations had been

made for his reception, and the Memoir, or Proclamation, left by the king was so far from finding the

French King, and presented to accommodations to which he had the National Assembly of France been accustomed, that he was even on Tuesday, June 21, 1791. without the comforts common to

persons of any condition. While the king had any

Notwithstanding every conhope

of seeing
seeing order and straint, he thought it his duty, on


the morning after his arrival, to confirmation of the laws should be assurethe provinces of his intention given in concert with the king, to remain in Paris. A sacrifice The Assembly ejected, the king still more difficult was reserved for from the constitution, when they him; he was compelled to part refused him the right of sanctioning with his body guards, whose fidelity the constitutional laws, and perhe had experienced ; two had been mitted themselves to arrange in massacred, and several wounded, that class those which they pleased, while in obedience to the order at the same time limiting the extent which they had received not to fire of his refusal, in any instance, to All the art of the factious was em- the third legislature. They voted ployed in misrepresenting the con- bim 25 millions per annurn, a sum duct of a faithful wife, who was which was totally absorbed by the then confirming all her former expences necessary to the dignity good conduct; it was even evident, of his house. They left him the that all their machinations were use of some domains under certain directed against the king himself. restrictions, depriving him of the It was to the soldiers of the French patrimony of his ancestors; they guard and of the Parisian national were careful not to include in the guard that the custody of the king list of his expenses those for serwas committed, under the orders vices done to himself, as if they of the municipality of Paris. could be separated from those ren,

The king thus saw himself a pri- dered to the state. soner in his own state ; for in what Whoever observes the different other condition could he be, who traits of the administration, will was forcibly surrounded by persons perceive, that the king was exwhom he suspected ? It is not for cluded from it.

He had no part the purpose of censuring the Pa, in the completion of laws; his risian national guard, that I recal only privilege was, to request the these circumstances, but for that Assemblytooccupy themselvesupon of giving an exact statement of such and such subjects. As to the facts; on the contrary I do justice administration of justice, he could to their attachment, when they only execụte the decrees of the were not acted upon by factious judges, and appoint commissioners, persons.The king convened the whose power is much less consider. States-General; granted to the tiers able than that of the ancient attoretats a double representation; the ney-general. union of the orders, the sacrifices There remained one last pre. of the 23rd of June were all liis rogative, the most acceptable of work, but his cares were not under the whole, that of pardoning cristood. When the States-General minals, and changing punishments: gave themselves the name of the you took it from the king, and the National Assembly, it may be recol- juries are now authorized to interlected, how much influence the faca pret, according to their pleasure, tious had upon several provinces, the sense of the law. Thus is the how many endeavours were used royal majesty diminished, to which to overcome the principle, that the the people were accustomed to re,


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