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thinks herself at liberty to violate happiness restored, by the means them whenever her own interest employed by the National Assembly makes it appear convenient. and by his residence near the assem

Your desire to cause justice be- bly, no sacrifice would have aptween nations to be observed, and peared to him too great, which to maintain the friendship that might conduce to such an event; subsists between your kingdom and he would not even have mentioned our empire, will certainly induce his own personal deprivation of liyou to disregard this pretended berty, from the month of October, convenience, which cannot be ob- 1789. But at present, when the tained but with the detriment of result of every transaction is only treaties, and does not allow us to the destruction of royalty, the viodoubt, that the instances which we lation of property, and the endannow renew to you, both in our gering of persons; when there is name and the name of the empire, an entire anarchy through every will effect a cessation of all the in- part of the empire, without the novations made since the begin- feast appearance of any authority ning of August, 1789, as far as sufficient to control it; the king, they affect the states and vassals of after protesting against all the acts our empire; that they will operate performed by him during his capthe re-establishment of the latter in tivity, thinks it his duty to submit the enjoyment of all the revenues to the French nation the following of which they have been deprived; account of his conduct. and, finally, that the re-establish- In the month of July 1789, the ment of all things, on the foot de king, he declares it upon

his contermined by the treaties, will be science, had no fear on coming the consequence.

amongst the Parisians. In the We entreat your majesty to make month of October of the same known to us if this be your full in- year, being advised of the conduct teption. The more prompt your

of some factious persons, he appreanswer,

s, and the more conformable hended that his departure might to received custom, the less doubt afford them a pretence for fomentwe shall entertain of the sinceritying a civil war.

All the world is of your desire, and that of your informed of the impunity with nation, to cultivate peace and which crimes were then commitfriendship with the empire. We ted. The king, yielding to the wish your majesty every thing that wish of the army of the Parisians, can contribute to your happiness. came with his family, and estaGiven at Vienna, Dec. 3, 1791. blished his residence at the Thuil

leries. No preparations had been

made for his reception, and the Memoir, or Proclamation, left by the king was so far from finding the French King, and presented to

accommodations to which he had the National Assembly of France been accustomed, that he was even on Tuesday, June 21, 1791.

without the comforts common to

persons of any condition. While the king had any

Notwithstanding every hope of seeing order and straint, he thought it his duty,




the morning after his arrival, to confirmation of the laws should be assure the provinces of his intention given in concert with the king. to remain in Paris. A sacrifice The Assembly ejected the king still more difficult was reserved for from the constitution, when they him; he was compelled to part refused him the right of sanctioning with his body guards, whose fidelity the constitutional laws, and perhe had experienced, two had been mitted themselves to arrange in massacred, and several wounded, that class those which they pleased, while in obedience to the order at the same time limiting the extent which they had received not to fire of his refusal, in any instance, to All the art of the factious was em- the third legislature. They voted ployed in misrepresenting the con- bim 25 millions per annum, a sum duct of a fạithful wife, who was which was totally absorbed by the then confirming all her former expences necessary to the dignity good conduct; it was even evident, of his house. They left him the that all their machinations were use of some domains under certain directed against the king himself. restrictions, depriving him of the It was to the soldiers of the French patrimony of his ancestors; they guard and of the Parisian national were careful not to include in the guard that the custody of the king list of his expenses those for serwas committed, under the orders vices done to himself, as if they of the municipality of Paris. could be separated from those ren.

The king thus saw himself a pri- dered to the state. soner in his own state ; for in what Whoever observes the different other condition could be be, who traits of the administration, will was forcibly surrounded by persons perceive, that the king was ex. whom he suspected ? It is not for cluded from it.

He had no part the purpose of censuring the Pa, in the completion of laws ; his risian national guard, that I recal only privilege was, to request the these circumstances, but for that Assemblytooccupy themselvesupon of giving an exact statement of such and such subjects. As to the facts; on the contrary I do justice administration of justice, he could to their attachment, when they only execụte the decrees of the were not acted upon by factious judges, and appoint commissioners, persons. The king convened the whose power is much less considerStates-General; granted to the tiers able than that of the ancient attoretats a double representation; the ney-general. union of the orders, the sacrifices There remained one last pre. of the 23rd of June were all his rogative, the most acceptable of work, but his cares were not under the whole, that of pardoning cri. stood. When the States-General minals, and changing punishments: gave themselves the name of the you took it from the king, and the National Assembly, it may be recol- juries are now authorized to interlected how much influence the fac- pret, according to their pleasure, tious had upon several provinces, the sense of the law. Thus is the how many endeavours were used royal majesty diminished, to which to overcome the principle, that the the people were accustomed to re,


cur, as to one common centre of With respect to the finances, goodness and beneficence.

the king had recognized, before The societies of friends of the the States-general, the right of the constitution are by much the strong. nation to grant subsidies; and, on est power and render void the the 23rd of June, he granted every actions of all others. The king thing required from him upon this was declared the head of the army; subject. On the 4th of February yet the whole conduct of it has the king intreated the Assembly to been in the committees of the take the finances into their conNational Assembly,withoutany par. sideration, with which they someticipation : to the king was granted what slowly complied. But they the right of nomination to certain have not yet formed an exact acplaces, but his choice has already count of the receipt and expendimet with opposition. He has been ture; they have adopted hypothetiobliged to alter the duty of the cal calculations; the ordinary congeneral officers of the army, be tribution is in arrear, and the recause his choice was not approved source of twelve hundred millions of by the clubs. It is to these that of assignats is nearly perfected. the revolt of several regiments is Nothing is left to the king but barto be imputed. When the army ren nominations; he knows the no longer respects its officers, it is difficulty of such a government; the terror and the scourge of the and, if it was possible that such a state; the king has always thought machine could go on without his that officers should be punished immediate superintendence, his like the soldiers, and that these majesty would only have to regret, latter should have opportunities that he had not diminished the of promotion according to their taxes, which he has always desired, merit.

and, but for the American war, As to foreign affairs, they have should have effected. granted to the king the nomination The king was declared the head of ambassadors, and the conduct of the government of the kingdom, of negotiations ; but they have and he has been unable to change taken from him the right of make any thing without the consent of ing war. The right of make the Assembly. The chiefs of the ing peace is entirely of another prevailing party have thrown out sort. What power would enter such a defiance to the agents of the into a negotiation, when they king, and the punishment inflicted knew that the result must be upon disobedience has excited such subject to the revision of the Na- apprehensions, that these agents tional Assembly? Independent of have remained without power. the necessity for a degree of se The form of government is crecy, which it is impossible should especially vicious in two respects. be preserved in the deliberations of The Assembly exceeds the bounds the Assembly, no one will treat but of their power, in taking cogniwith a person, who, witl:out any zance of the administration of jusintervention, is able to fulfil the tice, and of the interior parts of the contract that may be agreed upon. kingdom; and exercises, by its


committee of researches, the most rested, and the letters which he barbarous of all despotisms.-As- carried opened. sociations are established under the During this time the assembly pame of friends of the constitution, appeared to insult the king; he dewhich are infinitely more danger- termined to carry to Paris the words ous than the ancient corporations. of peace: upon the journey, it was They deliberate upon all the func resolved that no cry of vive le roi ! tions of government, and exercise should be permitted. There was a power of such preponderance, even a motion for carrying off that all other bodies, without ex. the king, and putting the queen cepting the national assembly it in a convent, which was loudly self, can do nothing but by their applauded. order.

In the night of the 4th and 5th, The king thinks it impossible to when it was proposed to the aspreserve such a government; and sembly to repair to the king, it as a period approaches to the la- was replied, that consistently with bours of the assembly, so do they its dignity, it could not remove : lose their credit. The new regu- from this moment the scenes of lations, instead of applying a balm horror were renewed. On the to former wounds, on the con arrival of the king at Paris, an innotrary, increase the pain of them; cent person was massacred almost the thousand journals and pam- within his sight, in the garden of phlets of calumniation, which are the Thuilleries; all those who had only the echoes of the clubs, per- declared against religion and the petuate the disorder; and never throne received the honours of a has the assembly dared to remedy triumph. At the federation, upon them.-All this tends only to a the 14th of July, the national as. metaphysical government, which is sembly declared, that the king was impossible in the execution. the chief, by which it was implied

Frenchmen! was it this that you that they had a right to name anointended in electing representatives? ther. His family was placed in a Do you wish that the despotism of situation apart from himself, but clubs should be substituted for the that was, notwithstanding, one of monarchy under which the king- the happiest moments they bave dom has flourished for fourteen passed since their stay in Paris. centuries? The love of Frenchmen Afterwards, when, on account for their king is reckoned amongst of their religion, Mesdames, the their virtues. I have had too afa king's aunts, wished to go to Rome, fecting proofs of it to be able to their journey was opposed, in conforget it. The king would not tradiction to the declaration of offer this memoir but for the pure rights, and both at Bellevue and pose of representing to his subjects Arnay le Duc, the orders of the the cooduct of the factious. Per assembly were necessary to release sons torn away by the triumph of them, those of the king being de M, Necker affected not to pro- spised. In the tumult factiously nounce the name of the king: they excited at Vincennes, the persons pursued the archbishop of Paris; who remained about the king were one of the king's couriers was are ill-treated, and they carried their Vol. XXXII.




audacity so far, as to break the near the conclusion of its long laarms of those persons in the pre- bours; the constitution was almost sence of his majesty.

completed; the tumults of the reUpon the king's recovery from volution were about to cease; and his illness, be intended to go to St. the enemies of the public welfare Cloud, and was detained. In vain

were eager, therefore, to sacrifice did M. de la Fayette endeavour to the whole nation to their venprotect his departure; the faithful geance. The king and the royal servants who surrounded his ma- family were carried off on the 21st jesty were torn away from him, instant. and he was taken back to his pri But your representatives will

Afterwards he was obliged triumph over all these obstacles. to dismiss his confessor, to approve They estimate calmly the extent the letter of the minister to the of the duties imposed upon them. foreign powers, and to attend mass The public liberty shall be mainperformed by the new rector of tained; conspirators and slaves shall St. Germain Auxerrois. Thus per- understand the intrepidity of the ceiving the impossibility of averting French nation, and we make, in any public evil by his influence, the name of the nation, a solemn it is natural that he should seek á engagement to revenge the law or place of safety for himself.

die. Frenchmen! and you the good France would be free, and she inhabitants of Paris, distrust the shall be so. It is intended to make suggestions of the factious; return the revolution recede, but it reto your king, who will always be cedes not. It is the effect of your your friend; your holy religion will, and nothing can retard its shall be respected; your govern- progress. It is necessary to accomment placed upon a permanent modate the law to the state of the footing; and liberty established kingdom. The king, in the conupon a secure basis.

stitution, exercises the power of (Signed) Louis, the royal sanction over the decrees Paris, June 20, 1791.

of the legislative body; he is the

head of the executive power, and P. S. The king forbids his mi- in that capacity, causes the laws to nisters to sign any order in his be executed by his minister. name, until they shall have received his further directions; and carried off against his will, the

If he quits his post, although enjoins the keeper of the seals to

representatives of the nation have send them to him, when required the right to supply his place. The on his behalf.

national assembly has in conse(Signed) Louis.

quence decreed, that the seal of state, and the signature of the mi

nisters of justice, shall be added to Proclamation of the National all its decrees to give them the Assembly to the French people. character of laws.

of the king would have been exeAGREAT attempt has just been cuted without being countersigned made.- The national assembly was by the responsible minister, nothing

As no order


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