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the indignation excited by the con same periods justly possesses the fident petulance of the answer, in- highest reputation. The following formed him that the letter had been character of the first and secondvowritten by him.-These anecdotes lumes was drawn up by that gentleare still remembered. The abuse of man, and is well entitled to be inthe History, which began in Scot- serted in a narrative of Dr. Henry's land, was renewed in some of the life: “ Those who profess a high periodical publications in South Bri- esteem for the first volume of Dr. tain ; though it is justice to add Henry's History, I may venture to (without meaning to refer to the say, are almost as numerous as those candid observations of English cri- who have perused it, provided they tics,) that in both kingdoms the as- be competent judges of a work ofthat perity originated in the same quare nature, and are acquainted with the ter, and that paragraphs and criti. difficulties which attend such an uncisms written at Edinburgh, were dertaking. Many of those who had printed in London. The same spi- been so well pleased with the first, rit appeared in Strictures published were impatient to see the second on the second and third volumes; volume, which advances into a field but by this time it had in a great more delicate and interesting ; but measure lost the attention of the the doctor hath shewn the maturity public. The malevolence was suf- of his judgement, as in all the rest, ficiently understood, and had long so particularly in giving no performbefore become fatal to the circula- ance to the public that might aption of the periodical paper from pear crude or hasty, or composed which it originally proceeded. The before he had fully collected and book, though printed for the author, digested the materials. I venture had sold beyond his most sanguine with great sincerity to recommend expectations; and had receivedboth this volume to the perusal of every praise and patronage from men of curious reader who desires to know The first literary characters in the thestate of Great Britain, in a period kingdom; and though, from the which has hitherto been regarded alarm which had been raised, the as very obscure, ill supplied with booksellers did not venture to pur- writers, and not possessed of a single chase the property, till after the one that deserves the appellation of publication of the fifth volume, the a good one. It is wonderful what work was established in the opinion an instructive, andeven entertaining of the public, and at last rewarded book, the doctor has been able to the author with a high degree of compose from such unpromising macelebrity, which he happily lived to terials : Tantum series juncturaque enjoy.

pollet. When we see those barbaDr. Henry was

no doubt en rous ages delineated by so able a couraged from the first by the de- pen, we admire the oddness and cided approbation of some of his singularity of the manners, customs, literary friends, who were allowed and opinions, of the times, and to be the most competent judges of seem to be introduced into a new his subject; and in particularby one world ; but we are still more surof the most eminent historians of the prised, as well as interested, when present age, whose history of the we reflect that those strange per


sonages were the ancestors of the ofstate, of his majesty's intention to present inhabitants of this island.- confer on him an annual pension for The object of an antiquary hath life of a hundred pounds, “consibeen commonly distinguished from dering his distinguished talents, and that of an historian; for though the great literary merit, and the imlatter should enter into the province portance of the very useful and la. of the former, it is thought that it borious work in which he was so should only be quanto basta, that successfully engaged, as titles to his is, so far as is necessary, without royal countenance and favour.” The comprehending all the minute dis- warrant was issued on the 28th of quisitions which gave such supreme May, 1771; and his right to the pleasure to the mere antiquary. pension commenced from the 5th of Our learned author hath fully recon- April preceding. This pension he ciled these two characters. His enjoyed till his death, and always historical narratives are as full as considered it as inferring a new obthose remote times seem to demand, ligation to persevere steadily in the and at the same time his enquiries prosecution of his work. From the of the antiquarian kind omit nothing earl of Mansfield he received many which can be an object of doubt or other testimonies of esteem, both as curiosity. The one as well as the a man and as an author, which he other is delivered with great perspi- was often heard to mention with the cuity, and no less propriety, which most affectionate gratitude.-The are the true ornaments of this kind octavo edition of his History, pubof writing. All superfluous embel- lished in 1788, was inscribed to his lishments are avoided; and the rea lordship. The quarto edition had der will hardly find in our language been dedicated to the king. any performance that unites toge. The property of the work had therso perfectly the two great points hitherto remained with himself. But of entertainment and instruction."— in April, 1786, when an octavo The gentleman who wrote this cha- edition was intended, he conveyed racter died before the publication of the property to Messrs. Cadell and the third volume. The progress of Strahan; reserving to himself what the work introduced Dr. Henry to still remained unsold of the quarto - more extensive patronage, and in edition, which did not then exceed particular to the notice and esteem eighty-one complete sets. A few of the earl of Mansfield. That ve. copies were afterwards printed of nerable nobleman, who is so well the volumes of which the first imentitled to the gratitude and admi- pression was exhausted, to make up ration of his country, thought the additional sets : and before the end merit of Dr. Henry's History so con- of 1786, he sold the whole to Messrs. siderable, that without any solicita- Cadell and Strahan. By the first tion, after the publication of the transaction he was to receive 10001. fourth volume, he applied personally and by the second betwixt_3001. to his majesty, to bestow on the and 4001.; about 14001. in all. These author some mark of his royal fa- sums may not be absolutely exact, as

In consequence of this, Dr. they are set down from memory; Henry was informed by a letter but there cannot be a mistake ofany from lord Stormont, then secretary consequence on the one side or the

X 2



other.—Dr. Henry had kept very the same favourable reception from accurate accounts of the sales from the public which has been given to the time of the original publication; the former volumes. It was written and, after his last transaction with under the disadvantages of bad Messrs. Cadelland Strahan, he found health, and great weakness of body. that his real profits had amounted in The tremulous motion of his hand the whole to about 33001.; a striking had increased so as to render writing proof of the intrinsic merit of a work much more difficult to him than it which had forced its way to the had ever been : but the vigour of public esteem, unprotected by the his mind, and his ardour, were uninterest of the booksellers, and in impaired ; and, independent of the spite of the malignant opposition general character of his works, the with which the first volumes had to posthumous volume will be alasting struggle.

monument of the strength of his faThe prosecution of his History culties, and of the literary industry had been Dr. Henry's favourite ob- and perseverance which ended only ject for almost thirty years of his with his life. life. He had naturally a sound Dr. Henry's original plan extendconstitution, and a more equal and ed from the invasion of Britain by larger portion of animal spirits than the Romans to the present times. is commonly possessed by literary And men of literary curiosity must

But from the year 1785, his regret that he has not lived to come bodily strength was sensibly impair. plete his design; but he has certained. Notwithstanding this, he per. ly finished the most difficult parts of sisted steadily in preparing his sixth his subject. The periods after the volume, which brings down the accession of Edward VI. afforded History to the accession of Edward materials more ample, better diVI. and has left it in the hands of gested, and much more within the bis executors almost completed. reach of common readers. Scarcely any thing remains unfinish- Till the summer of 1790, he was ed but the two short chapters on able to pursue his studies, though arts and manners; and even for not without interruptions. But at these he has left materials and au- that time he lost his health entirely; thorities so distinctly collected, that and, with a constitution quite worn there can be no great difficulty in out, died on the 24th of November supplying what is wanting. It is of that year, in the 73rd year of his hoped that this volume may be rea- age. Hewas buried in the churchdy for publication some time in the yard of Polmont, where it is propresent winter, or the spring of 1792; posed to erect a monument to his and that it will be found entitled to memory.





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An account of some appearances at- hour after it was put in, the charge

tending the conversion of cast consisting of 21 cwt. of grey pig into malleable iron ; in a letter iron was nearly melted. The workfrom Thomas Beddoes, M. D. to man now began to stir the liquid sir Joseph Banks, bart. P.R.S.; mass : for this purpose he used from the Philosophical Transac- sometimes an iron lever, and sometions.

times a kind of hoe ; but he first,

turned the flame from off the metal, Sir,

which is done by letting down a OU are undoubtedly well ap- damper upon the chimney corres

prized of an alteration lately ponding to that with which ordiintroduced into our manufactories nary - reverberatory furnaces are of iron, in consequence of which provided, and by raising the dampthe 'reverberatory has been substi- er of a second chimney, which protuted in the place of the finery fur- ceeds immediately from the fire.

The new process is capable place, and carries off the flame, of being indefinitely varied. I have current of air, &c. without allowing lately been favoured with an oppor- it to pass into the body of the tunity of observing one of these furnace. variations with every advantage I In fifty minutes, from the comcould desire. As in this method mencement of the operation, the the changes undergone by the me

metal had become in consequence tal during the first series of opera- of the constant stirring loose and intions lie perfectly open to inspec- coherent; it appeared about as small tion, a short description of them as gravel ; it was now also stiff and may not perhaps be unworthy the much cooled. notice of philosophical chymists. 55 m. from the same period, flame Allow me to premise further, that turned on again. Workman keeps I did not content myself with a stirring and turning over the metal ; single examination ; and, for the in 3m. it becomes soft and semisake of greater accuracy, I took mi- fuid ; flame turned off; the hottest nutes of the phenomena, and of the part of the mass begins to heave and time when they occurred. A very swell, emitting a deep blue lambent intelligent workman was at the fame. The workman calls this apsame time directed to answer all pearance fermentation. my questions, so that I enjoyed the 1 h. 1 m. blue flame breaking benefit of his experience also. out over the whole mass ; heaving lo somewhat more than half an motion also general.

1 h. 13 m. metal full as hot, or, 1 h. 50 m. a little finery cinder as the workman and myself both appears boiling up amid the mass. judged, rather hotter than at the Workman attributes the increase of instant the flame was turned off, the hissing to this. though it is now a quarter of an 1 h. 53 m. scarce any perceptible hour since.

blue flame or heaving. All the 1 h. 18 m. where there is no metal is now gathered into lumps, heaving and no blue flame the mass which the workman beats and presis sensibly cooler, and only of a dull ses with a heavy-headed tool. He red heat.

brings them successively into the 1 h. 20 m. workman observes, bottest part of the furnace, into that the metal sticks less to his tools. which the flame has been admitted. Pig iron, he says, fastens upon it He now stops the port hole in the immediately, and must be shaken door at which he had introduced off by striking the other end with a his tools, and applies a fierce flame hammer ; as it approaches more and for 6 or 8 minutes ; the metal is more towards nature (malleable then rolled. iron) it adheres less; and when the These appearances, at least the tools come clear up out of the mass most interesting of them, seem to he judges it to be fermented admit of an easy explanation ; and enough.

I offer the following observations as 1 h. 23 m. little heaving or blue supplemental to those for which flame; metal sciffer, and of a dull we are already indebted to the red; flame turned on and soon off Swedish and French chymists on again.

this important branch of metallurgy. 1 h. 26 m. by constant stirring I assume the following propositions the metal is become as fine as sand. as already proved by these philoWorkman remarks, that the flame, sophers. 1. That cast iron is iron which re-appears over the whole imperfectly reduced, or, in other mass, looks more kindly. It is words, that it contains a portion evidently of a lighter blue co- of the basis of vital air, the oxygène lour.

of M. Lavoisier. 2. That it con14 h. fame turned on and soon tains a portion of plumbago, with off again. Mass ferments strongly. which grey cast iron most abounds. Hissing noise heard; this noise 3. That plumbago consists of iron was distinguishable in some degree united to charcoal. 4. That fixed ever since the blue flame and heav- air, which I would rather call caring motion became visible, but al- bonic acid air, consists of oxygène ways faint till now.

and the constituent parts of cbar. í h. 40 m. less blue flame.

coal. 1 h. 48 m. flame twice turned on The heaving or swelling motion, and off in this interval. Metal now so conspicuous in the process, is clots, stands wherever it is placed, doubtless owing to the discharge of without any tendency to flow, and an elastic fluid ; and the lambent no liquid pig iron now remains in deep blue flame, breaking out in the bason of the furnace ; the mass spots over the whole surface, shews has been constantly stirred and that this elastic fluid is an inflamturned over.

mable gas of the heavy kind. That


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