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no doubt might be left upon the will also be immediately evident for former of these circumstances, I di- another reason. The less deep blue rected the workmen to take out, at colour of the flame at a subsequent two different periods, a quantity of period in the operation is probably the metal where it was working owing to the absence of fixed air, most strongly. Both proved, on ex- or at least to its being produced amination, to be spungy, cellular, moresparingly, the oxygène being and full of bladder holes.
now nearly consumed. It will not The heavy inflammable air, I im- appear surprising, that the oxygène agine, is produced in this manner : in this case should be consumed bethe oxygène of the imperfectly re- fore the charcoal,if it be considered, duced metal combines, with the 1. that grey iron contains a large charcoal to form fixed air ; at the portion of plumbago; and 2. that same time another portion of char- fixed air contains a much larger coal is thrown into an elastic state, quantity of oxygène than of charthat is, into inflammable air, and coal ; near three times as much, burns on the surface with a very according to our best experiments deep blue flame, on account of the on its formation : so that I ascribe admixture of fixed air. The heat the subsequent fermentation, acwhich is so obviously generated in companied with the lighter coloured the mass
at the beginning of the flame, almost entirely to the con. fermentation. I attribute to the com- version of the charcoal into an bination of the oxygène and char- elastic fluid. A very experienced coal; a fact which, with several philosopher, 1 am well aware, has others, as I have already remarked asserted, that water is necessary to on another occasion, * shews, if not this conversion; an opinion, con. the falsehood, at least the imper- cerning the justness of which I fection of the modern doctrine on have long entertained great doubts. the subject of heat. The acidify. Whenever I have distilled charcoal ing principle, it would appear, has per se, I have found the first portions some power of generating heat of gas to contain fixed air; an apa independent of its condensation. pearance owing, as I believe, to the Here abundance of elastic matter decomposition of water absorbed is discharged ; yet, notwithstanding from the atmosphere; but, after the heat absorbed by its formation, continuing the process for some and that which flows out of the time, there has still been a producmetal in all directions, the whole tion of inflammable air; but from mass becomes hotter. The oxygène this neither lime-water nor milk of cannot be supposed to have much lime would absorb any portion, specific or latent heat, because it though, when fired with vital or undoubtedly exists in the iron in common air, it would produce fixed a very condensed state. Neither air ; and, if moisture was added to does the appearance of the mass the charcoal, inflammable and fixed allow me to ascribe this generation air would be generated anew. of heat to the burning of the in- Moreover, it appears, from the exflammable air at the surface, as periments of Dr. Austin and some
* Chymical opinions of a philosopher of the last century.
others, that charcoal consists of the The very copious production of hydrogène and azote of the French elastic Auids, during an hour, and chymists. How far it may be difficult, often during a much longer space, or impossible, entirely to convert for, in this instance, the process was charcoal, in itsordinary state, into remarkably successful and short, gas, is a point I wish to see more fully does not seem favourable illustrated by future experiments. ingenious hypothesis, according to At present, it seems obvious that the which water is the embodying circumstances of the operation I principle of all elastic fluids. I have described are particularly fa- have never, indeed, considered this vourable to this conversion : for, I. as very probable; and, after the obnot to mention the violence of the servations I have related, I see no heat, we have this substance in a means of defending it. Will it be very attenuated state, so that, very said that the pig iron, as being in probably, the expansive power of some sort of a calx of iron, contains fire is very little, if at all, counter- water. acted by the attraction of cohesion, In annealing crude iron, with or which cannot be said in the case of without charcoal, it is well known the most minute mechanical division to increase in all its dimensions. I we can effect. 2. The attraction have seen bars originally straight of the particles of the iron for one bent like an S, when long exposed another will produce an effort to to heat in circumstances where they extrude the intermixed particles of could not extend themselves end. charcoal, and thus enable it more ways. I suppose this phenomenon readily to assume the elastic form. may be owing to a very small be
Now, during the continuance of ginning of this fermentative motion, the lighter-coloured blue flame, the which acts as an internal principle mass, as I observed, shews no power of expansion. Cast iron bars, not of generating heat within itself;a in contact with charcoal, would, circumstance which indicates that according to this supposition, by the heat produced in the former long annealing lose of their weight; part of the operation does not de- or if the heat was too low for the pend on the burning of the gas at elastic fluid to be discharged from ibe surface; and I think inspection their substance, they would probawill satisfy any one that it is pro- bly blister like steel : an appearduced in the heart of the mass. ance undoubtedly owing to the geIt may indeed be objected, that the neration of air. Mr. Horne, in his metal, now brought nearer to the Essay on Iron, somewhere remarks, state of malleable iron, may require that on opening these blisters he has a greater supply of heat to keep it heard a whistling noise as of air at the same temperature. It is less rushing out. fusible, as we are well assured. By During the whole of this process, referring back to the minutes you frequent jets of white sparks, of a will observe, how very often it was dazzling brightness, played from necessary to turn the flame upon the the surface of the metal. They mass during this second fermenta- would have afforded an extremely tion, in order to keep it in a state in beautiful spectacle but for the in. which is could be worked.
convenience of looking on so hot a
wass. They arose, no doubt, from from a solution of zinc in the same the burning of small portions of acid, incapable of producing the iron.
colour upon silver. The appearThe effect of so much stirring as ance, the want of a martial astrinI have noted down, does not require gent taste, and the dissolving action to be explained.
of caustic alkali, led me to conclude, The workman' was clearly of that the colour in each experiment opinion, that the fermentation of with iron was derived from sulphur. hard or white crude iron is less than I leave it to the adherents of of grey in this process; a fact which phlogiston to accommodate these perfectly coincides with the pre- phenomena to their doctrine; conceding observations, since that spe- sidering it, for my own part, as cies contains less plumbago, or in superfluous to bestow any further other words, less matter fit to pro- attention upon a system which, after duce elastic Auids.
a long discussion, has been fully reIn order to prove the extrication futed in all its modifications, and of fixed air, during the fermentation which indeed seems on the eve of of the metal, I once thought of in- being universally abandoned. troducing lime-water in an iron I have the honour to be, &c. vessel within the body of the fur
THOMAS BEDDOES. nace; but when I considered that the fire-place was not divided by any partition from the body of the Account of the management and furnace, and that the whole build
mode of preserving bees, to the ing was full of burned air, I omitted best advantage for procuring the experiment, from a persuasion honey ; from the Transactions of that, even if the lime-water should the Society for the encouragebecome turbid, the fixed air might ment of Arts, Manufactures, and come from another source.
Commerce, vol. ix.
MONG the ,
class manufactured with coaks. I can- the most satisfactory account of ma. not, however, ascribe any of the ef- naging and preserving bees, to the fecis I observed to its presence. best advantage, for collecting honey. There can be little doubt, that some If gentlemen would but ornaportion was perpetually extricated ment their gardens with so noble a with the inflammable air during the piece of furniture as an apiary, whole process; for on dissolving properly situated and carefully ma. pieces of the stamped, or rather the naged, they might be furnished rolled iron in weak muriatic acid, with the valuable article of honey, silver held in the extricated air was without adulteration,
and also tarnished as much and as soon as by wholesome mead, little inferior to air from specimens taken out of the foreign wine. furnace at different times during the Give me leave, gentlemen, to lay process. I could not but conclude, before you the method of managing that the tarnishing matter came '
my own bees, of which many ladies from the iron, when I found the air and gentlemen have been eye
witnesses, and have been served by deep, and fourteen diameter, conme with as good honey as any taining each aboạt five Winchester in England.
gallons, with a flat top, made of In April 1789, I had twenty-one well-seasoned deal, an inch thick, stocks of bees, all in good condition, four holes at the top, one exactly and wanting no feeding; the spring over the mouth of the hive, the being friendly, they began to swarm other three in a right angle; viz. in the middle of May, and conti- Take an inch centre-bit; make nued till the latter end of June; and three holes as near as possible, so at that time I had about fifty swarms, that you have but a small partition notwithstanding I endeavoured to of wood between them; let them be prevent such
increase, by made smooth and neat ; then take glassing them; but many of the a circular piece of half-inch broad, stocks swarmed before the glasses tack it over those holes which are or small hives were full, for the mo- made in the hive, and let them be thers of all the stocks bred a pro- made to fit so close that no moth can digious quantity of working bees, get in among the young bees; so which was the reason of their swarm- that, when a swarm is put in one ing so many times. What I call a of these hives in May, or the bemother, most writers on bees call a ginning of June, and begins to fill queen; but I am clear that she is the hive with combs, brood &ç. the mother of the whole empire or which you may easily perceive, by stock, and suffers none of the royal means of small pieces of glass, three seed to live, except what are in- inches square, put in the back of tended to go forth with the young the hive, to observe their operaswarm, and a sufficient quantity of tions, and the bees have filled their drones, which are the males, and hive, and appear very busy at the sit upon the eggs, as the mother mouth, open gently the hole on the lays them, in the cells prepared for top next the mouth, or rather right that purpose; while the working over the mouth, and place a probęes continue their labour in ga- per glass over the hole, with prothe ring honey and wax. I have of- per sticks placed in the glass for ten seen the drones sit in a formal ihe bees to hang their work upon; manner over the combs, where the otherwise they would be a long brood is hatching, while the other time filling their glass, which if bees were very busy at work. they kindly take to, they will fill in
What I mean by a stock of bees, twelve or fourteen days. is an united company, consisting of But if your stock still increases, three sorts, viz. a mother, a great and, perhaps, lies out at the mouth number of working bees, and some of the hive, you must open a second drones; and they are congregated hole at the top, and then a third, within themselves by a strict union, and so on to the fourth, if the bees and defend their hive or box from increase, and continue to lie out at any molestation ; for the working the mouth: and yet for all this, mabees would instantly resent an in- nyofmy hives have swarmed and left jury, with the fury of their stings. their glasses, &c. half full of honey.
My own hives are made in the Here give me leave to observe, following manner; nine inches that nature steps in to preserve the
bees, when all other efforts are in- keep working without swarming effectual. The bees have swarmed, you most likely will get sixteen or settled on a bush, or about a tree, seventeen pounds of honey in a where there is no hope of their liv- month's time, and save all the bees ing without being hived; as they alive ; and such a stock will, except have left a good home, well stored by accident, make a good stock with honey, and settled where there next season. is none, and where they cannot My hives, made as before demake any. This has been the case scribed, have a board at the top, last summer: for the mothers of the seventeen inches wide, that is a full bees, through the kindliness of the inch wider than the outside of the season, have bred great quantities, hive, that one may stand on another; so that we had a great many poor and thus you may make complete stocks that wanted feeding in the colonies of bees with a small exmonths of October and April. pence, for three bives make a com
This summer, many complain of plete colony. When hives are having what they call bad luck with made in this manner, they cost but their bees, and say honey will be 12s. but in Octagon boxes, 11. 10s. scarce; but, thank God, out of I much prefer straw hives, well seventy-six or seventy-seven hives, made, to wooden ones, because the I have had as follows;
joints of the wood often give way,
Ib. by being exposed to the weather Glasses and small hives filled, and the sweat of the bees; and the
thirty-one, weighing, 153 moth-fly (the greatest enemy they Virgin honey,
160 have) gets in and lays her eggs in Stock or common honey, 125 the comb, and the warmth of the
bees hatches them to their own de
438 struction; therefore straw hives are This I call a good year, though preferable, as well as cheaper than some have been better. Ihave also wood. furnished many gentlemen and la- My method of managing straw dies apiaries with bees, and have hives is thus : when I make use of now thirty-seven good stocks for an old straw hive, I dip it into a next season, besides an increase of copper of boiling water, so that, if sixteen stocks, and the honey above there should be any moths eggs, mentioned. My bees are, for the they must be destroyed; but I let most part, well situated for collecting the hive be perfectly dry, before I honey, and also for swarming, viz. use it. in the parishes of Isleworth and Hives should be well made, and Twickenham, in Middlesex. closely sewed together; but many
I never intend to prevent my are sold not worth using. bees from swarming, but leave them The best situation for the houses at liberty to swarm, or not to swarm. is a little to the west of the south ; Those stocks, the mothers of which for the sun shining into the mouth of do not breed so fast as others, of the hive too early, calls the bees course cannot swarm so early; abroad before the coldstream is extherefore I put on them glasses, or haled from the flowers, and the small hives: if the stocks 80 glassed vernal juice turned into honey: but