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If bees continue in one hive for then it does not begin bearing till four or five years, they always de- it is about twenty years of age. In generate, and become both fewer this province they reckon, that five and weaker: the reason is, the trees should produce two pounds combs for breeding are generally of silk. and on purpose made larger than I had the curiosity to examine the rest ; every time'a bee is hatched their method of feeding the silkin one, a skin or coat is left behind worms in Spain. These industrious which reduces the size; and, in time, spinners are spread upon wicker it becomes too small to produce a shelves, which are placed one above bee of its proper dimensions ; and the other all round, and likewise in occasions a necessity for their hav. the middle of each apartment, so as ing frequently new habitations, to leave room only for the good wowhich they will always accept, if man to pass with their provisions. you provide them a good situation, In one house, I saw the produce of and clean hives.

six ounces of seed, and was informed, My situation is a good one, by ac- that to every ounce, during their cident, or otherwise; for I could feeding season, they allow sixty arnot have afforded to have made it robas of leaves, valuedat two pounds so by planting.

five shillings. Each ounce of seed In the parish of Isleworth, twenty is supposed to yield ten pounds of four years ago, there were not ten silk, at twelve ounces to the pound. stocks of bees; and now, through the March 28th, the worms began approbation of my management, to hatch; and May 22nd, they there are more than two hundred. went up to spin.

In the interme. I hope what has been thus simply diate space, on the eleventh day stated may be worthy yourattention, they slept; and, on the fourteenth, and that I may be admitted a claim. they awoke to eat again, receiving ant.

food twice a day till the twenty-se. My Lords, and Gentlemen, cond day. Having then slept a seI am your most humble cond time, without interruption, for and obedient servant, three days, they were fed thrice

THOMAS MORRIS. a day; and thus alternately conti, No. 20, Battle-bridge.

nued eating eight days, and sleep

ing three, till the forty-seventh day; Mulberries and silk, in Spain, from after which theyeat voraciously for Townshend's travels through

ten days, and not being stinted, Spain, in the years' 1786 and consumed sometimes from thirty to 1787.

fifty arrobas in four-and-twenty hours. They then climbed

up

into THEmulberry of Valencia is the rosemary bushes, fixed for that

white, as being most suitable purpose between the shelves, and to a well-watered plain. In Grana- began to spin. da they give the preference to the

Upon examination, they appear black, as thriving well in elevated evidently to draw out two threads stations,as more durable,more abun- by the same operation, and to glue

, dant in leaves, and yielding a much these together, covering them with finer and more valuable silk. But wax. This may be proved by spi

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in may be in darkness : let them re- sometimes spoil them, and then they main thus half an hour ; then, with should be destroyed. a stick rap the bottom hive, but My neighbours say, that, when I not so hard as to injure the combs; did, the bees will lose the most comcontinue rapping half an hour ; then passionate master in this kingdom. untie the cloth, and take away the Indeed I, however, have destroyed upper bive, into which the noise has none but from necessity, and have driven the bees, and place it on the been, for near twenty-four years, table and cloth from whence you remarkably successful. took them, and shake them out on I have now forty stocks in good the cloth, and they will run into the condition, though the loss of momouth of their proper hive. If ne- thers, or some unforeseen accident, cessary, repeat this operation, and may happen to some before sumall the bees will be saved; this saves the trouble and loss of smothering The loss of a mother

may them with sulphur, as was the cus- koown, by the bees ceasing to tom; and the bees in one day will work, and mourning incessantly: forget the injury, and work as usual. they will sometimes, in that case, But in case but little honey is left leave their hive, and try to force in their two hives they must be fed; themselves into one that is near. thus, in two hours your honey may This circumstance should be nobe taken, and the bees préserved; ticed ; for the old hive may be well the honey you have obtained in this stored and when they have left it as way may be dark, but will make

a residence, they will yet return excellent mead; but better and with their companions, and carry brighter will be produced by those away the honey: some, for want of which work in glasses.

observing this, have wondered how Hives will not be beneficial in a heavy hive, that has been left, has barren countries; but should be become light., near gardens, shrubberies, orchards But though the mother be lost, if of cherries, or farms, where clover, there be eggs, they will sometimes peans, saintfoin, or French wheat, stay and hatch them; and if any

O grow. Lime-trees, or Green-house royal seed be among the eggs, they plants, set out in the spring, orange may survive, and become a good or lemon-trees, are useful, and pro- stock; but this is not often the duce excellent honey ; where there is room, it is worth while to plant About a month ago, I was desigooseberries, currants, sweet mar. red to look at five stocks at Richjoram, peppermint, or the like. mond, in order to purchase them;

Though I am not fur preventing one of the heaviest was without a bees from swarming whenever they mother. I purchased that, and one are inclined, yet I acknowledge that more where the mother was lost: it is sometimes necessary to destroy I found twelve pounds of honey, but some stocks.'

no eggs, and therefore the bees If they have lost their mother, would not have staidlong: the other and neither swarm nor work much, three were old, and the honey black, they should not be kept.

and therefore of no use but to stand The moth, or other accident, will and swarm another year.

case.

If bees continue in one hive for then it does not begin bearing till four or five years, they always de- it is about twenty years of age. In generate, and become both fewer this province they reckon, that five and weaker: the reason is, the trees should produce two pounds combs for breeding are generally of silk. and on purpose made larger than I had the curiosity to examine the rest ; every time a bee is hatched their method of feeding the silkin one, a skin or coat is left behind worms in Spain. These industrious which reduces the size; and, in time, spinners are spread upon wicker it becomes too small to produce a shelves, which are placed one above bee of its proper dimensions ; and the other all round, and likewise in occasions a necessity for their have the middle of each apartment, so as ing frequently new habitations, to leave room only for the good wowhich they will always accept, if man to pass with their provisions. you provide them a good situation, In one house, I saw the produce of and clean hives.

six ounces of seed, and was informed, My situation is a good one, by ac- that to every ounce, during their cident, or otherwise ; for I could feeding season, they allow sixty arnot have afforded to have made it robas of leaves, valuedat two pounds so by planting

five shillings. Each ounce of seed In the parish of Isleworth, twenty is supposed to yield ten pounds of four years ago, there were not ten silk, at twelve ounces to the pound. stocks of bees; and now, through the March 28th, the worms began approbation of my management, to hatch; and May 22nd, they there are more than two hundred. went up to spin. In the interme

I hope what has been thus simply diate space, on the eleventh day stated may be worthy yourattention, they slept; and, on the fourteenth, and that I may be admitted a claim. they awoke to eat again, receiving ant.

food twice a day till the twenty-seMy Lords, and Gentlemen, cond day. Having then slept a ser I am your most humble cond time, without interruption, for and obedient servant, three days, they were fed thrice

THOMAS MORRIS. a day; and thus alternately conti, No. 20, Battle-bridge.

nued eating eight days, and sleep

ing three, till the forty-seventh day; Mulberries and silk, in Spain, from after which theyeat voraciously for Townshend's travels through

ten days, and not being stinted, Spain, in the years 1786 and consumed sometimes from thirty to 1787.

fifty arrobas in four-and-twenty

hours. They then climbed up into VAE mulberry of Valencia is the rosemary bushes, fixed for that

whiteas being most suitable to a well-watered plain. In Grana- began to spin.

between the shelves, and

purpose da they give the preference to the

Upon examination, they appear black, as thriving well in elevated evidently to draw out two threads stations, as more durable,more abun- by the same operation, and to glue dant in leaves, and yielding a much these together, covering them with finer and more valuable silk. But wax. This may be proved by spi

THI

rit of wine, which will dissolve the in Greece, it continued little notiwax, and leave the thread. Having ced by the rest of Europe, from the exhausted her magazine, the worm year 551 of the Christian æra, till changes her form, and becomes a Roger Il. king of Sicily, pillaged nymph, till, on the seventy-first Athens, A. D. 1130, and brought day, from the time that the little silk-worms to Palermo. From animal was hatched, when she comes thence they were speedily conveyed forth with plumage, and, having to Italy and Spain ; but, till the reign found her mate, begins to lay her of Queen Elizabeth, silk stockings eggs. At the end of six days from were unknown in England; and, with this period of existence, having an- respect to Scotland, there isin being swered the end of their creation, a MS. letter, from James VI. to the they both lie down and die. This earl of Mar, requesting the loan of would be the natural progress; but, apair, in which the earl had appeared to preserve the silk, the animal is at court, because he was going to killed by heat, and the cones being give audience to the French emthrown into boiling water, they be- bassador, gin winding off the silk.

Silk-worms, in close rooms, are much subject to disease; but in the On some circumstances relative to open air, as in China, they are not silk-worms ; from the French of only more healthy and more hardy, M. Faujas de St. Fond. but make better silk. It appears to be precisely the same with them. A work does not allow me to

LTHOUGH thebounds of this as with the sick confined in hospitals, orfoundlingsshut upinworkhouses; enter into the particular details, on for this reason, the ingenious abbé the construction of a proper place Bertholon recommends procuring for the keeping of silk-worms, it is, from China some of the wild silke however, necessary to say a word worms, and leaving them in the or two on its interior order and proopen air, protected only by a shed portions; but to avoid prolixity, I from rain. He is persuaded that the refer the public to a very simple race might thus be made so hardy, plan, which I have had made, and in process of time, as to survive all from which directions may be tathe variations of the seasons.

ken. In China they have three kinds It will be seen, by the above-menof silk-worm, two living on the tioned plan, that the inside of the leaves of the ash and of the oak; building is forty feet long, by onethe third thriving best on a species and-twenty wide. The length of of the pepper-tree, called sagara,

the boards of a table must besix feet, whose silk, remarkable for strength, and the width four feet six inches; washes like linen, and is not apt to for when made five feet wide, they be greased.

are too large and less convenient : The progress of this article of lux- five of these tables must be placed ury in Europe, after it had been in- on a line lengthways, which forms troduced from Asia by two monks, a line of thirty feet long, above who brought worms to Constanti- which are placed six other rows of nople, was very slow. There, and tables, at the distance of fifteen

inches,

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Inches one above the other; this 'that the rooms, destined for the -forms in all six and thirty tables, purpose, should never be more exI which occupies half the room. On tensive than to allow of room for the the other side are placed in a pa- raising ofseven oreightounces ofthe rallel line, and in the same order, seed. It is preferable, on those esthe same number of tables; so that tates which abound in mulberrythe total number amounts to seventy trees, to construct several separate - tables. : I bave, between the two buildings and to confide to differ

rows, that is to say, the gallery ent people the care of each, from which runs through the middle of whence the greatest advantages the building, an empty space, of would result, the attention and care four feet wide, for the conveniency would be more reunited, emulation of attending to the tables; a like would animate the work, and rivalspace is left quite round the room; ship redouble zeal and application. which ought to be at least ten feet The room of which I have given high; if circumstances will admit the plan, containing seventy tables,

of giving it twelve feet in height, would suffice for seven ounces of it would be better.

the seed; strictly speaking, it would • General experience,' says M. contain a greater quantity, but I Rigaud de Lisle, has ascertained, would not advise the exceeding of that an ounce of the seed well kept, seven ounces. and well managed, occupies, on

Instead of having four chimneys, their fourth casting, ten tables, six one in each angle, I requirebut two, feet long, and five wide which may placed at the extremity of the line serve as a rule for placing in the which cuts transversely the great toom only the necessary number of side of the plan ; they must be ounces.

placed opposite to each other. It is certain, that when a small Two stoves, made either of brick quantity only of silk-worms are rais. or of delf, must be placed at each ed, they succeed better, because the extremity of the line that divides attention to them is less divided, the building by the middle, in the and that every circumstance concurs smaller side of the plan; the place to their advantage. In this case, would, by this method, be better then, an ounce of the seed occupies and more equally heated, whenever at least ten tables, of six feet long, circumstances required it. by five wide; but if five, six, seven, Four air-holes, a foot in diameter, eight ounces, or even more, of seed either round or of a square form, are raised in the same place, there closed with wooden shutters, should necessarily'exists a proportional di- be placed at the four angles of the minution in the produce to the ground (for I. suppose the room to augmentation, and to the quantity be either on the first or second floor): of silk-worms raised; and whatever They will answer two purposes, viz. trouble or care may be taken, it is that of acting as ventilators, in case impossible that eightounces can suc- of need ; and that of conveying ceed so well as two ounces, or that away, through those openings; the sixteen should equal the success of litter, and all the filth, and even eight ounces. It is, therefore, at the mephitic air ; which from its present known to the best observers, weight, fills always the lower reVol. XXXIII.

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