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that, a considerable time before, he quently repeated. After one or had been bitten in the left cheek by two unsuccessful attempts, he swala strange dog, which leaped at his lowed a small quantity of water, face in passing while he was at work but with a violent struggle, sucin the street. The accident affected ceeded by universal tension ; and he him so little, that the precise date of would not be persuaded to make it had escaped his memory.
He another trial, guessed it to have happened more He complained that cold air afthan three months ago. Since that fected his throat with a similar un-' time he had been twice afflicted easiness; and when asked where the with complaints supposed to be impression was felt, pointed to his pleuritic, which were removed by throat, immediately under the thybleediog, blistering, and otherreme- roid cartilage. The opening of the dies, of which he could give no ac- door always made him complain. count. He had been bled twice. His discourse was somewhat ine" within the last week, and had a coherent, and he frequently refered, blister on the left side of the chest with some degree of terror, to the when I saw him.
circumstance of the bite. - On Monday, November the 29th, By his wife's account, he had in the evening, his wife had ob- been a sober industrious man; abserved, for the first time, that he stemious with respect to food; and swallowed some gin and water with addicted to no practices likely to reluctance and difficulty; the unea- pervert his imagination. His age siness in swallowing liquids soon be- was thirty nine; his evacuations came his principal complaint, but were in a natural state. the bite was not recollected till The scar on his cheek, which was Thursday evening; when a medical between the ear and the angle of gentleman, who was applied to, in- the jaw, but rather more advanced, quired whether he had ever been was hardly discernible: his wife rebitten by a dog. Even then he re- membered to have seen it bloody. collected the circumstances but im- I had him removed to the hospital perfectly. He got down solids with as soon as possible, that he might great ease during the whole com- enjoy every advantage of attenplaint.
dance: and till I could have the When I desired bim to drink a satisfaction of consulting with my little water, he shewed strong marks brethren, ordered him to take a boa of disgust, but, recollecting himself, lus, containing a scruple of bark, six said he would try; that he did not grains of musk, and half a grain of believe the dog to have been mad, opium: he was immersed in the cold (an idea in which I encouraged bath: and was directed to swallow, him) and that he was not afraid of as often as possible, a portion of a
As soon as he touched the mixture of vinegar and water. cup, I perceived some spasmodic After his removal, as his wife had contractions of the muscles of deglu- informed me that the sound of water tition, and when he raised it towards distressed him, I directed some to be his mouth the muscles of the cheeks poured out in the passage adjoining were strongly contracted, and a sort to his room.,' He started at the of convulsive gulping was very fre- noise, looked wildly round, begged
to be sent home, and said he was not porridge, the usual breakfast of the afraid of water.
house; and hedrank several draughts At five o'clock in the afternoon of his mixture without any striking we met in consultation, when the appearance of disgust, in our prehorror of water, and difficulty of sence; but his eyes were heavy, and swallowing it, were ascertained in inclined to fix, his pulse much sunk presenc of all the physicians to the and there was a constant tendency house.
to low delirium. We therefore We agreed to scarify the cicatrix concluded that the termination of on the cheek deeply, and to apply the disease approached:but directed a blister over the incisions : a bolus, that the plan we had agreed on containing a scruple of bark, fifteen should be pursued as long as he grains of musk, and two grains of should be capable of swallowing: opium, was directed to be given Before I left him he retched several every four hours; two drachms of times, and brought off some wind : strong mercurial ointment were ap- half a grain of emetic tartar was plied to the throat, arms, and groins; directed to be added to his next amixture of eight ounces of distilled bolus, but he did not live to take it. vinegar, and twelve ounces of de- At a quarter past ten he swallowed coction of bark, was ordered, of some of his mixture, and immewhich three or four table-spoonsful diately after threw up a part of it were to be given as frequently as again. He then fell into convulpossible; and a poultice, consisting sions, and died in the course of a few of three drachms of galbanum, two minutes. - ? scruples of opium, and one drachm I was very desirous of examining of camphor, was applied, after the the body as early as possible, that the mercurial friction to the throat.
appearances attending this dread. About nine o'clock the same even ful disorder might be fairly ascering I saw him again. He had swal- tained ; the inflamation of the stolowed his medicines without much mach , described in former dissecreluctance, but was more inco- tions, having been often attributed herent, and complained greatly of to the action of the gastric juice. cold,
Accordingly, the body was opened During the night his delirium in- by Mr Simmons, at a quarter becreased:
he was very restless, im- fóre three o'clock on Saturday afpatient, and intractable. He threw ternoon, in presence of most of the himself out of bed repeatedly, and physicians and surgeons of the hoswith his nails scratched the hand of pital. one of the keepers who attemped In the brain, which was the part to replace him. However, he took first examined the only preternatural four boluses, and swallowed more appearance was a distention of the than a pint of his mixture. He had pia mater, on both hemispheres, one stool before morning.
with a limpid fluid. The quantity At nine o'clock on Saturday morn- of water in the lateral ventricles, at ing, December 4th, we met again the basis of the brain and round the in consultation. We found that his spinal marrow, appeared to be somedifficulty in swallowing liquids was what unusual. The lungs were unless : he had taken some very thin commonly sound, excepting, one
slight adhesion at the posterior part the diagnosis, can only be regarded of the left lobe. The trachea was as the symtom of a symtom. The perfectly sound. The pericardium local inflammation, even when conadhered pretty firmly to the heart in sidered in connection with theslight its whole compass. The stomach effusion visible in the brain, is very and intestines seemed, externally, inadequate to the explanation of the sound; but on opening the @so- patient's death. phagus, a morbid appearance pre- The relief from the difficulty of sented itself. About two inches swallowing liquids, observable toabove the cardia the epidermis of wards tbe close of this case, is not a the oesophagus was abraded in irre- solitary instance; the disease has gular points, and exposed an in- even been said to exist without any Hamed surface of a dark red colour: horror of water, or difficulty of restill lower the abrasions became li ceiving it into the stomach. near, and extended into the stomach The ease with which solids were itself. The edges of the epidermis, swallowed by our patient admits an surrounding the abrasions were un- obvious explanation. In the irri. equal and elevated. A similar af- table state of the esophagus, the fection was traced along the lesser comparitively small degree of concurvature of the stomach, but fainter traction, necessary for the descent in its progress to the pylorus, where of solid food, is performed without it was least discernible, and about difficulty. For the deglutition of which it seemed to terminate. The liquids a very strict contraction is whole of the inflamed parts bore a required, which strains and irritates striated appearance, darkest in the the inflamed parts, and consequently cesophagus, and lightest and more occasions great distress. indistinct towards the
pylorus. The Little information respecting the stomach was half full of a dark-co- practice in hydrophobia can be loured Auid, which smelt strongly of drawn from this case ; yet if other musk. The other viscera were in observations should confirm the & natural state.
opinion, that a peculiar inflammaAs no more than four hours and a tion exists in the stomach and esor half elapsed between the patient's phagus, in all instances of this disdeath and the dissection, I believe ease, I concieve that some measures the abrasion observed may be fairly should be taken to counteract it, considered as the effect of the dis. though it appears to be only a sympease, especially as the stomach con. tom of the general disorder. Blise tained a considerable quantity of ters applied to the throat, or befluid ; but although the preterna. tween the shoulders, might be usen tural irratability, produced by this ful; and if another similar case specific inflammation, completely should unhappily occur to me, I explains the peculiar sensibility to should certainly employ them. Our cold water and cold air, yet the patient had a recent blister on his dread of water, though constituting side,
Lieutaud • See Mead's works; Lieutaud, Precis de la Med. Prat.; and some late articles in the newspapers,
Lieutaud" enumerates very ex- cruize, measures forty eight feet tensive appearances of inflama- from the head to the extremity of tion and suppuration in the stomach the tail, and twenty-six in the large and bowels of hydrophobic patients est circumference, which is at the discovered on dissection, and other head. The head is a little more in · writers have mentioned inflama- length than two-fifths of the whole tion of the stomach, in such cases, body; the opening between the two in general terms; but perhaps ours branches of the tail, is a little less is the most satisfactory examination than the length of the head, with yet obtained, on account ofits near two feet and a half in depth; the ness to the death of the patient. breadth of the fins is three-eights of Lieutaud mentions the adhesion of that of the tail ; and their length a the pericardium to the heart, among little more than their breadth. The other appearances.
jaw bones, uniting before in an I should conceive blood-letting eliptical form, are eighteen feet to be a very ambiguous remedy in each; the gums are fourteen in this complaint : with us it was pro- length, and contain the roots of the hibited by the state of the pulse, the beard or whalebone attached to the advanced period of the disease, and upper jaw, whose extremity forms the free use made of it, a few days the snout or muzzle of the fish. The before, by the patient.
eyes are placed laterally on each The large use of mercurial fric- side of the head; the orbit from one tions is said to have been successful corner of the eyelid to the other is in hydrophobia. It has perhaps five inches; and the eye-ball, which been suggested by the determina is three inches in diameter, is coition to the salivary glands, so re- vered with a kind of retina, shewing markable in the course of the dis- the black of the pupil partially in ease. I own I have some doubts the form of a vertical oval. At -respecting the propriety of using a one foot distance behind the eyes remedy which produces so great a stand the ears, with a very small degree of irritability, in the state of tube not exceeding the bore of a high irratation attending hydropho- tobacco-pipe; the orifice of the bia. The appearance of the in. tube, which creeps in a spiral line famed parts approaches to the eryacross the flesh and fat, seems loaded sipelatous state ; and the whole with the humours of the ear train of symptoms seems to require The nostrils are seated five or six the aid of the cold bath, and the free feet before the eyes, but in a high use of bark and opium.
plane, and run across the upper Manchester, Dec. 12, 1790. jaw ; their orifice forms the arch of
a circle, whose radius is seven
inches; but the nasal duct graduNatural history of the whale : from ally diminishes, and at the distance
De Page's Travels round the of a foot, internally, does not exWorld.
.ceed five. The nostrils are sepaWhale of the middle size, rated by a membrane two inches
creases * Precis de la Medecine pratique, tome ü. p. 92, 8vo. Paris, 1777..
creases in dimension furtherup; the inches ; and is formed inwardly of a skin round the orifice is soft and hard substance approaching to the flexible, with the capacity ofclosing consistency of bone, covered with a for the purpose of excluding the fine kind of flesh. A little withi water; the intermediate membrane the aperture is a fold of cartilagiis likewise formed to dilate and nous substance of a rough and irrecontract, in such a manner as to gular surface, before which is the open-and shut the canal; the use of urinary passage, and behind it a cathe' nostrils in this, as in other ani- nal of a smaller size; close to the mals, is respiration, which the whale longitudinal, slit behind is the performs by blowing the water anus. backwards.
In the structure of the mouth we The navel and the general struc- find only three bones, the two bones ture of the parts of generation, are of the lower jaw and the nasal bone, very much the same in the whale as to which are attached two large in quadrupeds. We observe in the lips covering the beard, and a vast male an eliptical cavity or sheath tongue of a soft substance, fourteen about four feet in length, and eight feet in length, six in breadth, and inches in depth ; 'which, from a ro- three in thickness. tundity in the flesh, appears almost The palate is composed of the
close. Three or four inches from whale-bones arranged in plates the commencement of this cavity, on each side of the upper jaw, to backwards, are two holes, " which which they are attached by a white contain the testicles, and near which substance of the nature of hard tal. · is the penis. The penis extends low, but finer and more compact in the whole length of the sheath or the grain. The plates run parallel cavity, and terminates in a point, in to each other, but a little curved, which is a small perforation for the and, making a sweep on each side purpose of animal evacuation. At the mouth, towards the throat, prethe distance of a foot behind these sent the appearance of a vaultor goparts is the anus, or excremental 'thic arch. They are from ten to duct, presenting an opening of three eleven feet in length, by five inches inches.
-and a half in their common breadth, In the female we find two teats, with two lines in thickness. They placed laterally before the parts are disposed surface against surface of sex, and nearly six inches in di- in the manner of leaves presenta ameter; the nipple is hard, and ing their edges to the eye, so that shrinks under the surface of the teat, the breadth of the plates becomes which is somewhat globular in its the depth of the palate. The paformation; the nipple is two inches late is covered with a kind of hair,
in length, by one and a half in di- which is about fifteen inches longat ameter, and terminates in a point. the extremity of the plates, and - The lacteal canal winding near the seems to be nothing more than the
surface, leads to a small bason orre- continuation of the small fibres of éservoir, and has its termination at the whale-bone. The plates beanother of greater dimensions. come smaller as they approach the Theexternal distinction of sex con- lip of the jaw, where they termisists in a longitudinal slit of eleven nate in a point. This provision of