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nature is meant to answer the pur- a more substantial kind. My own pose of teeth; the plates enable opinion is, that the whale feeds the animal to bruise as well as to upon shrimps; for I afterwards collect her food, while the hairs caught a sea wolf, having his stoacting like a net, detain small sub- mach full of them--a circumstance stances, and allow the water to which serves at least to show that escape.

the shrimp is in great abundance at I am unable to say what consti the bottom of the sea. Upon the tutes the food of the whale, though supposition that this is actually her generally it seems to consist of sub food, Nature's substitute for teeth is stances of a small size, not very solid, excellently contrived for collecting, and probably of an aqueous kind, as well as for bruizing, the means of as the elasticity of the whale-bone her support; besides, the arrangecertainly would not yield to any ment of the plates, or whale-bone, thing either hard or tough. I made is close enough to prevent such small the sailors hoist up a small whale to substances as the shrimp fromescapthe capsterns, in order that I mighting through their intervals. have an opportunity of examining I caused a piece of flesh, conher stomach; but the tackle by taining a part of the esophagus, to which she was suspended giving be extracted from the mouth of the way, and the men in the boat below whale; the alimentary canal was having narrowly escaped beinghurt, about five inches in circumference, I abandoned my design. Some and formed at a certain depth a pretend to affirm that the whale species of bason perforated by a seeats a species of polypus of the cond canal. The orifice of this small size of a bean; others, that last appeared protected by a sort of she lives on a fleshy excrescence, lining, presenting a circular canal: which I was shown; as large as an by which contrivance the food is egg, and nearly in the shape of a made to pass round it, and consemelon, The longitudinal fibres quently guarded against falling into that embrace its spherical surface, the second passage. If by accident give it very much the ribbed ap- the food should deviate from its propearance of that fruit ; while red per direction, it will be received by threads, traversing it internally, the circular canal, to be afterwards render its colour of a reddish hue; returned by the coughing of the anithe rest of it consists of a kind of mal, into its natural course. This mucilaginous substance. But I am canal is besides shut by a kind of very doubtful how far we may rea valve forming three points, one of sonably ascribe the nourishment of which, like the point of a triangle, the whale to this excrescence ; for enters wedge-ways betwixt the two having exposed it to the sun, I others. The valve consists of a found

there remained of it in a dried cartilage somewhat long but flexistate next to nothing, and yet, as ble, and is covered with flesh of a the excrements of the animal, which fine texture. The canal, formed are of a saffron colour, are by no likewise of a flexible cartilaginous means destitute of consistency, it substance, becomes thicker and seems natural to suppose, that her more capacious at a smaller distance. aliment, whatever it may be, is of It seemed, however, no where open VOL. XXXIII.

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in a relaxed state, and is probably the carcase of a whale that had been so contrived as to remain constantly dead about an hour and a half; but shut, except when the whale chooses afterseven minutesitonly rose tol7o. to dilate it for the purpose of respi- In this case, however, besides that I ration. The orifice is about four had access only to the fal, as the inches in diameter, and the canal tail had been cut off, the blood was itself is, I apprehend, what we call in a great measure discharged, and the esophagus; but an anatomist consequently I could not regard would have understood and exe- it as a fair experiment. I thrust cuted this part of my diary in a style my hand into the body of a whale to which I cannot pretend.

which had been dead some days, The fins have five cartilaginous and felt, I am sure, a greater degree bones, with articulationsresembling of heat than had been expressed those of the fingers, but very slightly by the thermometer in the former marked; perhaps in the great chain instance; but in this case I did not of animated nature, the whaleforms choose to measure the heat with that link which connects the sea- the thermometer, as it had dropped calf with the scaly tribes.

into the blubber, and was with The strength of the tail is chiefly difficulty recovered, in the first exexerted by means of an assemblage periment. of muscles running on each side of The general colour of the whale the spine. It consists of six or is black; the under part and edges seven small ones, each of which is of the mouth are white, or black three lines in diameter, and the mixed with white; the eye-lashes, whole is united by a set of nerves, the navel, the paps of the female, and covered by a membranous sub- and the organs of sex, are white; stance.

the general effect of the two last is The brain consists of a substance that of a white fleur de lis. The resembling soft tallow, with thread, scar of a wound, to which this anior filiaments crossing it in all di- mal is extremely liable, particularly rections. As to the quantity be- on the back, tail, and fins, from the longing to this species, I can only accidents of the ice, and the hostilisay in general, that in this instance ties of the sword fish, is always it was sufficient to fill a large pail. white. The white colour is much The solid flesh runs in strong

fibres more prevalent on the body of an like that of the ox, is of a red co- old than that of a young whale, and lour, and about three inches in probably depends on this species, as depth ; immediately over the flesh in land animals, on the circumstance lies the blubber, which in some parts of age and the state of the bodily is from eight to ten, and in others fluids. from twelve to fourteen inches Adhering to the skin, and very deep; the whole being covered frequently under the fins, we meet with a black skin ten lines in thick, with a species of sea-louse, which

feeds and thrives in this situation ; Like all the native animals of cold it is about the size of a small bean. regions, the whale has a great stock The back of the whale is comof blood and animal heat. I intro- monly represented higher and more duced Reaumur's thermometer into arched than it really is; a mistake

ness.

which probably has arisen from the or more accelerated motion, the appearance she makes upon the sur largest is the elephant; and among face of the water. In this attitude, those which sometimes walk, but as well as in that of diving, the more commonly soar aloft in the back only is visible, the head being air, the most distinguished for size sunk between the back and the na- is the cazoot or ostrich. sal bones. The elevation of the Now I am unacquainted with former is about two feet, and that of any thing in the aqueous fluid analothe latter a foot and a half above gous to these tribes, except the ma-, the level of her body.

drepore, which is of an immense The female, as I have already ob- extent, and, like vegetables, fixed served, seems to have only one cub to the soil; and the whale, which, at a birth. I conceive there is a can quit the ground like the ostrich, specific difference in the size of the and roam at discretion through the whale in these seas, that of the north incumbent fluid. I know not wheappearing longer but more slender ther beings have been formed to than that of the south west; and I creep or walk under the water of am sure I have seen small whales be great deep; but if there be any which were of a greater age than close analogy between the inhabiothers of much larger size.-The tants of the aerial and aqeous whale which was the subject of the Auids, and if I may compare the above remarks, being of the ormadrepore to the American tree, dioary size, yielded sixty barrels of and the whale to the cazoot or osoil; there are some, though rare, trich, of what enormous size must fron which are obtained a hundred that animal be, which, correspondand fifty; and there are many ing to the elephant, treads the soil which furnish from fifteen to twenty at the bottom of the ocean. As to barrels only.

crabs, lobsters, and the larger speWhen I reflect on the enormous cies of the same genus, which crawl size of these fishes, which I should on theborders of the sea, I consider regard, if I may be allowed so to them as races of mere insects, which express myself, as forming a part of frequent the mountainous ridges of the winged tribes of the aquatic the marine soil. It should seem highfluid, I cannot help calling to re- ly probable, from analogy, that in the membrance the animals of the most great chain of beings which replendistinguished magnitude, which ish the terraqueous globe, there are people the aerial Auid, and which many links which have never yet are endowed with an organized sys- fallen within the sphere of human tem, and with principles of life and observation. My conjecture on the growth, suited to the particular subject receives some countenance mode of their existence.

from the many curious discoveries Attending to such as are perma- made by naturalistsin modern times, nently fixed in the soil and of men who, with infinite industry and superior dimensions, I observe the penetration, have pursued this chain vast and majestic trees of America to a very great extent. holding the first place. Among I may, perhaps, have dwelt too beings which creep or walk, whe- long on the article of the whale; but ther with a slow and restrained this being the animal of the largest

dimensions

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dimensions hitherto discovered in them with fire-flies, which be our planet, I thought him entitled catches alive at night, and confines to more than ordinary notice; had with moist clay, or with cow-dung: I been more conversant in the lan- that such Aies are often found in his guage and science of anatomy, the best, where pieces of cow-dung are above observations on his structure also stuck, is indubitable ; but as and economy, would have been their light could be of little use to more technical, as well as instruc- him, it seems probable that he only tive.

feeds on them. He may be taught, with ease, lo fetch a piece of paper,

or any small thing that his master On the Bayd, or Indian gross-beak; point out to him : it is an attested

by Athar Ali Khan, of Delhi. fact, that if a ring be dropped into [From the Asiatic Researches.] a deep well, and a signal given to

him, he will fly down with amazing HE little bird called Bayà, in celerity, catch the ring before it Bàbùi in the dialect of Bengal, Cíbù to his master with apparent exultain Persian, and Tenawwit in Ara- tion; and it is confidently asserted, bic, from his remarkable pendent that if a house, or any other place, n'est, is rather larger than a sparrow, be shown to him once or twice, he with yellow-brown plumage, a yel- will carry a note thither immediatelowish head and feet, a light-colour- ly, on a proper signal being made. ed breast, and a conie beak very One instance of his docility I can thick in proportion to his body. myself mention with confidence, This bird is exceedingly common having often been an eye-witness of in Hindostan: he is astonishingly it. The young Hindu women, at sensible, faithful, and docile, never Banares, and in other places, wear voluntarily deserting the place very thin plates of gold, called ticas, where his young were hatched, but slightly fixed, by way of ornament, not averse, like most other birds, to between their eye-brows, and, when the society of mankind, and easily they pass through the streets, it is taught to perch on the hand of his

not uncommon for the youthful limaster. In a state of nature, he ge- bertines, who amuse themselves nerally builds his nest on the high with training Bayàs, to give them a est tree that he can find, especially signal, which they understand, and on the palmyra, or on the Indian fig- send them to pluck the pieces of tree, and he prefers that which hap- gold from the foreheads of their pens to overhang a well or a rivu- mistresses, which they bring in triet: he makes it of grass, which he umph to the lovers. The Bayà feeds weaves like cloth, and shapes like a naturally on grass-hoppers, and large bottle, suspending it firmly on other insects, but will subsist, when the branches, but so as to'rock with tame, on pulse macerated in water: the wind, and placing it with its en- his flesh is warm and drying, of easy trance downward, to secure it from digestion, and recommended, in mebirds of prey. His nest usually con- dical books; as a solvent of stone in sists of two or three chambers ; and the bladder or kidneys; but of that it is the popular belief, that he lights 'virtue there is no sufficient proof.

The

The female lays many beautiful tomed himself to read a book eggs, resembling large pearls; the printed in a small character, and .white of them, when they are boiled, that frequently in the close of the is transparent, and the flavour of evening, when the light was not fathem is exquisitely delicate. When vourable for the purpose. many Bayàs are assembled on a As this is an uncommon fact, and high tree, they make a lively din, may serve to confirm the propriety but it is rather chirping than of the doctrine I have alluded to, I singing their want of musical ta- thought it might be proper to conlents is, however, amply supplied by municate it to the society. their wonderful sagacity, in which they are not excelled by any feathered inhabitants of the forest.

Instance of living animals found

inclosed in solid bodies. (From

the European Magazine.] Case of a person becoming short

THE more a fact is , (From vol. 3 of Memoirs of the of nature, the more it merits the atManchester Literary Society."]

tention of the philosopher and amaI

When once sufficiently consince, mentioned in this society, firmed, however contrary it may

be that a method had been recom- to prevailing opinions, it is entitled mended, but where, or by whom I to a place in the rank of knowledge. do not recollect, of preventing the The most obstinate scepticism cannecessity of using spectacles in ad- not destroy its certainty, and can vanced

age.

It consisted in the only afford a proof of the presumppractice of reading a very small tion and pride, which leads us to print by the light of a small candle. deny whatever we are incompetent By this means, the humours of the to explain. The following phenoeye being protruded, the chrystal. mena are of this kind. They are line lens was supposed to be hin- such as have occurred to us in the dered from losing its convex form, course of our reading; and we have and assuming that flatness which it collected them from the hope that acquires in old persons.

some one, whose studies

may

have I lately met with a gentleman, been directed to such objects, will who, contrary to what generally enlarge the list. The nore they happens to men as they advance in are multiplied, the greater light life, was, at the age of fifty, be will probably be thrown upon them; come short-sighted : whereas, when and it will perhaps one day be matyounger,

bis

eyes had not that fault; ter of surprise, that we have been and who, instead of being obliged to so long ignorant of their cause. use convex glasses, had found it ne- In 1683, Mr. Blondel reported cessary to employ concave ones, and to the academy, that, at Toulon, to procure them still more the older oysters, good to eat, were frequenihe grew. This change in his sight, ly found inclosed in pieces of stone. he informed me, he first observed In 1685, M. de Cassini mentions after having for some time accus- a similar fact, from the testimony of

M.

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