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face; otherwise the atmosphere will in their subsequent practice. Were greatly hurt the efficacy of the appli- we to introduce, and embrace as a cation. Where lime-rubbish of old maxim,-" That every new propobuildings cannot be easily got, take sition, merely on account of its powdered chalk, or common lime, noveliy, must be rejected, "-our after having been slaked a month at knowledge would no longer be proleast. As the growth of the tree gressive, and every kind of imwill gradually affect the plaster, by provement must cease. raising up its edges next the bark, That the juice of the sugar maple care should be taken, where that would produce a saccharine subhappens, to rub it over with the stance answering the purposes of sufinger when occasion may require gar has been known many years, and (which is best done when moistened particularly by the inhabitants of the by rain), that the plaster may be eastern states; but that there was a kept whole, to prevent the air sufficient number of this kind of tree and wet from penetrating into the in the states of New York and Pennwound. WILLIAM FORSYTH. sylvania, only, to supply the whole
United States with this article, is a
fact whichwas notso well ascertained, Remarks on the manufacturing of or so satisfactorily authenticated, till
Maple Sugar. Published by a within a year or two past; and that society of gentlemen, at Philadel- the sugar of this tree was capable of phia, for the general information being grained, and produced, in quaand benefit of the citizens of the lity, equal to the best imported, was United States of America, in in some measure problematical till July, 1790.
withineven two or three months past,
when the arrival of several chests in H
E who enables another to ob- the city of Philadelphia, made last
tain any necessary of life either spring on the Delaware, removed cheaper or more independently than every douht in the minds of those heretofore, adds a new source of who have seen it, as to the truth of this happiness to man; and becomes last fact. more or less useful, in proportion A person who had many years to the number of those who partici- been acquainted with the usual pate in the benefits of his discovery. way of making this article, being The transitions, however, made from desirous of improving the method, one stage of improvement to an- obtained the instructions of a refiner other, are not sudden, but gradual; of sugar in Philadelphia, and, with which 'probably arises from that these before him, began his expestrong and almost universal disin- riments in February last, at Stockclination in the mind, at departing port, about three miles below the from the beaten path, or from longo junction of the Mohock and Poestablished customs. Hence men, patchtunck branches of the Delafrequently at first, treat with neglect ware. He soon discovered that the or contempt, that which, after- business was yet in its infancy, that wards, on better information and a great and even essential improvethorough knowledge of facts, they ments might be made therein, which believe, and, without reserve, adopt would require a departure from
the methods, heretofore in general The pamphlet concludes as foluse in boiling down the green sap, lows: graining the syrup, &c. and which, In all sugar plantations it will be if attended to and adopted, would advantageous to cut out the difenable him lo produce sugar, in ferent sorts of timber which grow colour, grain, and taste, equal, if not intermixed with the sugar-maple, superior, in reputation, to any im. and even those of that species which ported. His sentiments and hopes are not thriving, promising trees. on this head have been fully con- The timber so cut out will serve for firmed by the result of his experi- fuel for the boilers, and leave greatments; for the sugar he has made er openings for the rays of the sun and sent down to this city, in the toenter, which will have a tendency opinion of well-qualified judges, is to improve and enrich the remainequal to the best. sugars imported ing trees. The ground so cleared from the West-India islands.
of all except the maple-tree, it has The person above-mentioned, been observed, is particularly fawhose judgment on this subject is vourable for pasture and the growth much to berelied on, as well from his of grass. i Whether this tree is experience in the business, as his es. injuredorimpoverished by repeated tablished character for candour and tappings,” is an inquiry to be exintegrity, is clearly of opinion, that pected, and has been frequently four active industrious men, well made of late, by persons who have provided with materials and conve- anxiously wished for the success of niencies proper for carrying on the this business. It has been before business, may turn out, in a com- observed, that it will bear much mon season, which lasts from four to hardship and abuse, and it may
be six weeks, forty hundred weight of added, that there are instances, pargood sugar, that is, ten hundred to ticularly among the old settlements each man. If four men can effect on the North River, of trees which this, how great must be the product have been tapped for fifty years or of the separate or associated labours upwards, and continue to yield their ofthe many thousands of people who sap in the season, equal to any now inhabit, or may inhabit, the brought into use of later time; inimmense tracts ofland which abound deed, it is asserted with confidence, with the sugar-maple tree ! what a by persons who have had some years new and extensive field opens for experience, that these trees, by use, these considerations ! what an inte become more valuable, yielding a resting and important object to sap of a richer quality. How far the cause of humanity presents it- a careful cultivation of them, the self to our view! an object that stirring and manuring the soil in deserves the countenance of every which they stand, may improve good citizen, and that highly merits their value, remains to be ascertaineven national encouragement ! ed in future; though it may be ex
(Then follows a detail and de. pected that this, like almost all scription of the necessary utensils other trees and plants, may, from a and materials, with the process or natural state, be greatly and essenmode of manufacturing the sap of tially improved by the hand of art. the maple.]
Experiments, therefore, will not be Vol. XXXIII.
unworthy unworthy the attention of those ci. be employed in rubbing, and aid. tizens situated in the more interior ing other necessary operations. part of the States, if it shall thereby If a tub of warm water be in be found that these trees can be rea- readiness, let the body be placed in dily propagated, either from the seed it up to the neck, and continued in or young plants, and be brought to it half an hour. the water should thrive, so as to be equal in their not be hotter than can be comfortproduct, if not superior, to those ably borne by the assistants; and which have been strewed over the the heat of all the applications be. country without the aid of man. fore directed should be moderate' To what an extent of cultivation When the body is taken out of may not this lead! There will be no the tub of water, it must be wiped risk or disadvantage attending the dry, laid upon the bed, and treated experiment; and it certainly de- according to the rules already given. serves encouragement.
3. During the foregoing operations, put the pipe of a pair of bel.
lows into one of the nostrils, the Directions of the Lancashire Hu- other nostril and the mouth being
mane Society for the recovery closed by an assistant; and blow of persons apparently dead by gently, till the breast be a little drowning : and other species of raised. Let the mouth and nostril suffocation.
then be left free, and an easy presDROWNING.
sure made upon
the breast. Repeat
this imitation of natural breathing 1. THEN the body is taken till signs of returning life appear,
out of the water, strip when it is to be gradually disconand wrap itclosely in a coat, blan- tinued. ket, or other warm covering, and N. B. If no bellows be at hand, convey it gently to the nearest com. let an assistant blow into the nostrils modious house, with the lface up of the drowned person, with his wards, and the head a little raised. breath, through a quill, reed, or any
2. Lay it on a bed, or mattress, other small pipe. which has been heated by a warm- 4. When breathing begins to be ing-pan, in a chamber containing a renewed, let a feather dipt in spirit fire; or, during summer, in the sun- of hartshorn, or sharp mustard, be shine. Dry the body completely occasionally introduced into the noswith warm cloths, and afterwards trils. Pepper or snuff also may be rub it diligently, but gently, with blown into them. A glyster should hot flannels on the left side, near now be given without delay, com the heart. Apply to the hands and posed of equal parts of wine and feet cloths wrung out of hot water, hot water, with a small table spoonand heated bricks, or bottles, or ful of flower of mustard, or a teabladders half filled with hot water or spoonful of powdered pepper, gin. bags of hot grains or sand, to the ger, or other spice. Rum, brandy, stomach and arm-pits. Let a heal. or gin, mixed with six times its thy person, of the same sex with quantity of hot water, with the adthe sufferer, lie down unclothed, dition of mustard, &c. may be used on the right side of the body; and instead of wine.
5. As soon as the patient can and foment the legs and feet with swallow, administer to him, by water of a moderate degree of spoonfuls, hot wine, or spirits mix- heat. ed with water.
2. When a child has been smo6. When life is completely re- thered under the bed-clothes, if the stored, the sufferer should remain at body be too hot, as is commonly the rest in a warm bed, be supplied case, expose it for a short time to a moderately with wine-whey, ale- stream of fresh air, and sprinkle a posset, or other nourishing drinks, little cold water on the face and and gentle sweating should be en- breast; then fill the lungs, and folcouraged.
low the other directions above deli
vered. Hanging: i. If a medical assistant be
No other means but those here
present, let him take a few ounces of recommended are ever to be emblood from the jugular veins ; or ployed, except by the authority of apply a cupping-glass to the neck.
some judicious physician, or of one 2. The other methods of treat
of the medical assistants of the soment are to be the same as recom
ciety. mended for the
N. B. In all the above cases, imof drown
recovery éd persons.
mediately dispatch a messenger for
medical assistance; send, also, anoSuffocation by noxious vapours, or lightning
ther messenger to the nearest house Sprinkle the face, and the whole where warm water, grains, or other body with cold water, if the heat things of the same nature may be of the sufferer be above or equal to procured, with a good fire, and a that of a living person. But if the
warm bed for the reception of the body feel cold, apply warmth gra
person. dually ; and use the means directed under the head of drowning. A small quantity of blood may also be Canals in Spain, from Townshends taken from the jugular veins.
Travels through Spain and PorFrost.
tugal, in the years 1786 and 1787. Take the body to the nearest room with a fire-place, but not near THE Ebro is navigable from the fire. Rub it with snow, or cold Logrono to Tudela; and the water. Attempt warmth and breath- canal, which begins at Tudela, is ing by slow degrees, in the way finished as far as Zaragoza, from directed for the recovery of drowned whence it will be carried ten leagues persons.
lower before it enters again into
the Smothering in child-birth by con- Ebro. At Amposta, below Tore finement under bed-clothes, &c. taso, there is another canal, which
1. In still-born children, blow opens into the bay of Alfarques, to air into the mouth, through a quill, obviate the inconvenience which or any small tube, till the breast be arises from the frequent shifting of a little raised ; then gently press the Ebro, near its mouth. Not far the chest, and repeat this process from Zaragoza, the canal passes the till natural breathing begins. Gent- mountain of Torrero, by an open ly rub the body with warm flannels, cast of forty feet the mean depth;
A a 2
for more than a quarter of a leaguetion of this may be done merely by or about one mile in length. The the spade, without the aid of either twelve leagues which they have pick-axe or barrow; whereas the finished from Tudela, cost sixty mil- Spanish canals contain near fortylions of reals, which in sterling is nine and one-ninth cubic yards in six hundred thousand pounds; the each yard in length, the greatest twelve leagues are nearly equal to part of which is to be moved, to a fifty-three miles English, upon a great distance, and from a considersupposition that they are statute able depth, increasing commonly in leagues, of twenty-five thousand hardness in proportion to the depth. Spanish feet; but if we suppose This, however, will serve to show them to be ordinary leagues, of six the wisdom of our people in the thousand six hundred varas each, north of England, who by expethe twelve leagues will be only forty- rience have learned to make their two miles and a small fraction. On canals very narrow. With them the former supposition, the expense three boats of thirty tons are pre, will be found eleven thousand six ferred to one of ninety; and to carry hundred eighty-two pounds, four thirty tons, they construct their shillings per mile; or six pounds boats about seventy feet long, seven twelve shillings and eight-pence per wide at top, and six at bottom; draw, yard. This expense appears to be ing four feet of water. But such con. enormous; but if we consider that temptible canals would not suit the the canals in Spain are nine feet ambition of a Spaniard, nor coindeep, twenty feet wide at bottom; cide with his ideas of grandeur. and fifty-six at top; and if we con, As we crossed this canal near Zasider the cutting through a mountain ragoza, on our way to Madrid, we open-cast more than a mile, we stopped to examine the 'works ; shall not think it unreasonable. and I must confess that I never saw
In a calculation which Mr. White any so beautiful, or so perfect in worth made for a canal to be made their kind, as the locks and wharfs, from Salisbury to Redbridge (A.D. nor did I ever see med work with 1771), he supposed the depth four greater spirit, or in a better manner. feet and a half, and the width at The number of men employed is bottom fourteen feet. In these cir. three thousand, of which two thoucumstances he allowed threepence sand are soldiers, the others peahalfpenny for every cubic yard; but sants; to the former they give three had the canal been deeper and reals a day in addition to their pay; wider, he must have made his esti- but they work mostly by the piece, mate double, treble, or even more,
and receive what they earn. not merely according to the quan- The canal begins at Segovia, sixtity, butin proportion to the distance teen leagues north of Madrid, and to which that quantity must be re- is separated from the southern canal moved, and the perpendicular by the chain of mountains which we height to which it must be pre- passed at Guadazama. From Seviously raised. Mr. Whitworth's govia, quitting the Eresma, it crosses canal does not contain more than the Pisuerga near Valladolid, at the ten cubic yards in each yard of junction of that river with the length, and a considerable propor- Duero, then leaving Valencia, with