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in India, found it necessary to en. productions almost spontaneously, trust them with the superintendence where subsistence is amazingly of the cities and provinces too re- cheap, where few clothes are needmote to be under their own imme- ed, and houses are built and furnishdiate inspection. In these stations ed at little expence, this rate canthey often acquired such wealth and not be deemed exorbitant or opinfluence, that offices conferred du. pressive. As long as the husbandring pleasure, continued in their man continued to pay the establishfamilies, and they came gradually ed rent, he retained possession of the to form an intermediate order be- farm, which descended, like protween the sovereign and his sub- perty from father to son. jects; and by the vigilant jealousy These accounts given by ancient with which they mantained their authors of the condition and tenure own dignity and privileges, they of the renters of land in India, agree constrained their rulers to respect so perfectly with what now takes them, and to govern with equity. place, that it may be considered al.

Nor were the benefits of these most as a description of the present restraints upon

the
power
ofthe so-

state of its cultivation. In every vereign confined wholly to the two part of India, where the native, superior orders in the state; they Hindoo princes retain dominion, extended, in some degree, to the the Ryots, the modern name by third class, employed in agriculture. which the renters of land are distinThe labours of that numerous and guished, hold their possessions by a useful body of men are so essential lease, which may be considered as to the preservation and happiness of perpetual, and at a rate fixed by society, that the greatest attention ancient surveys and valuations. This was paid to render their condition arrangement has been so long estasecure and comfortable. According bished, and accords so well with to the ideas which prevailed among the ideas of the natives, concerning the natives of India(as we are in- the distinctions of casts, and the formed by the first Europeans who functions allotted to each, that it visitedtheir country), the sovereign has been inviolably maintained in is considered as the sole universal all the provinces subject either to proprietor of all the land in his do- Mahomedans or Europeans; and, minions, and from him is derived to both, it serves as the basis on every species of tenure by which his which their whole system of finance subjects can hold it. These lands is founded. In a more remote pewere let out to the farmers who cul- riod, before the original institutions tivated them, at a stipulated rent, of India were subverted by foreign amounting usually to a fourth part of invaders, the industry of the hustheir annual produce paid in kind. * bandman, on which every member in a country where the price of of thecommunity depended for subwork is extremely low, and where sistence, was as secure as the tenure the labour of cultivation is very in- by which he held his lands was considerable, the earth yielding its equitable. Even war did not inter

rupt

Strabo, lib. xv. p. 030. A. Diod. Sic. Įib. ii. p. 53.

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rupt his labours, or endanger his only when the mind is perfectly at property. It was not uncommon, ease and neither feels nor dreads we are informed, that while two oppression, that it employsits active hostile armies were fighting a battle powers in forming numerous arin one field, the peasants were rangements of police, for securing ploughing or reaping in the next its enjoyments and increasing them. field in perfect tranquillity. These Many arrangements of this nature maxims and regulations of the an- the Greeks, though accustomed to cient legislators of India have anear their own institutions, the most perresemblance to the system of those fect at that time in Europe, observed ingenious modern speculators on po- and admired among the Indians, litical economy, who represent the and mention them as instances of produce of land as the sole source of high civilization and improvement. wealth in every country, and who There were established among the consider the discovery of this prin- Indians three distinct classes of ofciple, according to which they con- ficers, one of which had it in charge tend, that government of na

to inspect agriculture, and every tions should be conducted, as one kind of country work. They meaof the greatest efforts of human sured the portions of land allotted wisdom. Under a form nf govern- to each renter. They had the cusment, which paid such attention to tody of the Tanks, or public reserall the different orders of which the voirs of water, without a regular society is composed, particularly the distribution of which, the fields in cultivators of the earth, it is not a torrid climate cannot be rendered wonderful that the ancients should fertile. They marked out the course describe the Indians as a most happy of the highways, along which, at race of men ; and that the most in- certain distances, they erected telligent modern observers should stones, to measure the road and dicelebrate the equity, the humanity, rect travellers. To officers of a and mildness, of Indian policy. A second class was committed the in Hindoo rajah, as I have been in: spection of the police in cities, and formed by persons well acquainted their functions, of course, were many with the state of India, resembles and various; some of which only 1 more a father presiding in a nume- shall specify. They appropriated rous family of his own children, houses for the reception of strangers; than a sovereign ruler over inferiors, they protected them from injury, subject to his dominion. He endea- provided for their subsistence, and, vours to secure their happiness with when seized with any disease, they vigilant solicitude ; they are attach- appointed physicians to attend them; ed to him with the most tender af- and, on the event of their death, fection and inviolable fidelity. We they not only buried them with decan hardly conceive men to becency, but took charge of their ef. placed in any state more favorable fects, and restored them to their reto their acquiring all the advantages lations. They kept exact registers derived from social union. It is of births and of deaths. They viz

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* Strab. lib. xv..p, 1030, Ą.

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sited the public markets and exa- thority of the chiefs in every small mined weights and measures. The tribe or community; their decisions third class of officers superintended are dictated by their own discretion, the military department; but, as the or founded on plain and obvious objects to which their attention maxims of equity. But as controwas directed are foreign from the versies multiply, cases similar tosuch subject of my inquiries, it is un- as have been formerly determined necessary to enter into any detail must recur, and the awards upon with respect to them. *

these grow gradually into preceAs manners and customs in India dents, which serve to regulate fudescend almost without variation ture judgements. Thus, long before from age to age, many of the pecu- the nature of property is defined by liar institutions which I have enu- positive statutes, or any rules premerated still subsist there. There is scribed concerning the mode of acstill the same attention to the con- quiring or conveying it, there is grastruction and preservation of tanks, dually formed, in every state, a body and the distribution of their waters. of customary or common law, by The direction of roads, and placing which judicial proceedings are distones along them, is still an object rected, and every decision conformof police. Choultries, or houses built able to it is sabmitted to with refor the accommodation of travellers verence, as the result of the accuare frequent in every part of the mulated wisdom and experience of country, and are useful as well as

ages. noble monuments of Indian munifi. In this state, the administration of cence and humanity. It is only justice seems to have been in India amung men in the most improved when first visited by Europeans. state of society, and under the best Though the Indians, according to forms of government, that we is. their account, had no written laws, cover institutions similar to those but determined every controverted which I have described ; and many point, by recollecting what had nations have advanced far in their been formerly decided ; t they assert, progress, without establishing an ar- that justice was dispensed among rangement of police equally perfect. them with great accuracy, and that

In estimating the progress which crimes were most severely punishany nation has made in civiliza. ed. But in this general observation tion, the object that merits the is contained all the intelligence greatest degree of attention, next to which the ancients furnish concernits political constitution, is the spi- ing the nature and forms of judicial rit of the laws, and nature of the proceedings in India. From the time forms by which its judicial proceed- of Megasthenes, no Greek or Roings are regulated. In the early and man of any note appears to have resirude ages of society, the few dis- ded long enough in the country, or putes with respect to property which to have been so much acquainted arise, are terminated by the interpo- with the customs of the natives, as to sition of the old men, or by the au- be capable of entering into any detail

with Strabo, lib. xv. p. 1034. A. &c. Diod. Sicul. lib ii. p. 354. + Strabo, lib. xv 1035. D.

I Diod. Sicul. lib ii. p.

154.

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rupt his labours, or endanger his only when the mind is perfectly at property. It was not uncommon, ease and neither feels nor dreads we are informed, that while two oppression, that it employs its active hostile armies were fighting a battle powers in forming numerous arin one field, the peasants were rangements of police, for securing ploughing or reaping in the next its enjoyments and increasing them. field in perfect tranquillity. These Many arrangements of this nature maxims and regulations of the an- the Greeks, though accustomed to cient legislators of India have anear their own institutions, the most per resemblance to the system of those fect at that time in Europe, observed ingenious modern speculators on po- and admired among the Indians, litical economy, who represent the and mention them as instances of produce of land as the sole source of high civilization and improvement. wealth in every country, and who There were established among the consider the discovery of this prin- Indians three distinct classes of ofciple, according to which they con- ficers, one of which had it in charge tend, that the government of na- to inspect agriculture, and every tions should be conducted, as one kind of country work. They meaof the greatest efforts of human sured the portions of land allotted wisdom. Under a form of govern- to each renter. They had the cusment, which paid such attention to tody of the Tanks, or public reserall the different orders of which the voirs of water, without a regular society is composed, particularly the distribution of which, the fields in cultivators of the earth, it is not a torrid climate cannot be rendered wonderful that the ancients should fertile. They marked out the course describe the Indians as a most happy of the highways, along which, at race of men ; and that the most in- certain distances, they erected telligent modern observers should stones, to measure the road and dicelebrate the equity, the humanity, rect travellers. To officers of a and mildness, of Indian policy. A second class was committed the ins Hindoo rajah, as I have been inspection of the police in cities, and formed by persons well acquainted their functions, of course, were many with the state of India, resembles and various; some of which only 1 more a father presiding in a nume- shall specify. They appropriated

. rous family of his own children, houses for the reception of strangers; than a sovereign ruler over inferiors, they protected them from injury, subject to his dominion. He endea- provided for their subsistence, and, vours to secure their happiness with when seized with any disease, they vigilant solicitude ; they are attach- appointed physicians to attend them; ed to him with the most tender af- and, on the event of their death, fection and inviolable fidelity. We they not only buried them with decan hardly conceive men to be cency, but took charge of their ef. placed in any state more favorable fects, and restored them to their reto their acquiring all the advantages lations. They kept exact registers derived from social union. It is of births and of deaths. They via

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sited

* Strab. lib. xv. p, 1030. A.

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sited the public markets and exa- thority of the chiefs in every small mined weights and measures. The tribe or community; their decisions third class of officers superintended are dictated by their own discretion, the military department; but, as the or founded on plain and obvious objects to which their attention maxims of equity. But as controwas directed are foreign from the versies multiply, cases similar to such subject of my inquiries, it is un- as have been formerly determined necessary to enter into any detail must recur, and the awards upon with respect to them. *

these grow gradually into preceAs manners and customs in India dents, which serve to regulate fudescend almost without variation ture judgements. Thus, long before from age to age, many of the pecu- the nature of property is defined by liar institutions which I have enu- positive statutes, or any rules premerated still subsist there. There is scribed concerning the mode of acstill the same attention to the con- quiring or conveying it, there isgrastruction and preservation of tanks, dually formed, in every state, abody and the distribution of their waters. of customary or common law, by The direction of roads, and placing which judicial proceedings are distones along them, is still an object rected, and every decision conformof police. Choultries, or houses built able to it is sabmitted to with refor the accommodation of travellers verence, as the result of the accuare frequent in every part of the mulated wisdom and experience of country, and are useful as well as

ages. noble monuments of Indian munifi.

In this state, the administration of cence and humanity. It is only justice seems to have been in India amung men in the most improved when first visited by Europeans. state of society, and under the best Though the Indians, according to forms of government, tha we dis- their account, had no written laws, cover institutions similar to those but determined every controverted which I have described ; and many point, by recollecting what had nations have advanced far in their been formerly decided ;t they assert, progress, without establishing an ar

• that justice was dispensed among rangement of police equally perfect. them with great accuracy, and that

In estimating the progress which crimes were most severely punishany nation has made in civiliza- ed. | But in this general observation tion, the object that merits the is contained all the intelligence greatest degree of attention, next to which the ancients furnish concernits political constitution, is the spi- ing the nature and forms of judicial rit of the laws, and nature of the proceedings in India. From the time forms by which its judicial proceed- of Megasthenes, no Greek or Roings are regulated. In the early and man of any note appears to have resirude ages of society, the few dis. ded long enough in the country, or putes with respect to property which to have been so much acquainted arise, are terminated by the interpo- with the customs of the natives, as to sition of the old men, or by the au- be capable of entering into any detail

with Strabo, lib. xv. p. 1034. A. &c. Diod. Sicul. lib ii. p. 354. + Strabo, lib. xv 1035. D.

| Diod. Sicul. lib ii. p. 154.

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