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To ascertain the particular rank branch of art which it has not sponto which the arts are entitled, taneously adopted. might perhaps be a matter of some I have thus made a faint attempt difficulty. That they ought by no to elucidate an idea which I conmeans to interfere with the attain- ceive to be of considerable importment of moral science is certain; ance; and though I pretend not to and perhaps several branches of na- have balanced with an accurate tural philosophy, closely connected hand the comparative merit of the with the utility of mankind, may sciences, it is enough for my purhave a stronger claim on our time pose, if I induce others to reflect, and abilities; but that they are in- that there is a considerable difference variably to be postponed to the stu- in the degree of attention that ought dy of nature in all its branches can- to be paid to them. And it will, I not be allowed. From the contem- hope, sufficiently appear, that the plation of heroic actions, whether cultivation of the moral sense ought communicated by the pen or the to be the grand object of our endeapencil, feelings are incited, strongly vours, and that even the improveconnected with the first and leading ment of our intellect is laudable, object of our pursuit, and of great principally, as it promotes this great importance to the advancement of end. virtue and the improvement of Let it however be permitted me human life.
to remark, that throughout this I must also remark, that as an un- essay, I have considered every invaried application to one pursuit is dividual of mankind as engaged to not only irksome to us, but fre- improve his abilities, and thereby quently defeats the end it aims at, promote his own happiness to the those occupations, by whose assist- utmost of his power ; but that I by ance the mind can relax without de- no means would be thought to debilitating, and amuse without de tract from the characters of those grading itself, must ever stand high men who have employed their time in our estimation; and by being in- and talents in the pursuit of partitermingled with our more serious cular sciences, even to the exclu. labours, will afford a degree of sion of others; and by arriving at cheerfulness, vigour, and activity, eminence in them, have extended which will tend more than any other the bounds of human knowledge, and means to insure success in higher smoothed the way for future trapursuits.
vellers. Infinite are the obligations Of an endeavour to fix the com- mankind are under to the illustrious parative excellence of the polite characters who have thus devoted arts with each other, the result themselves to the public good: but would be of little use, nor is the we may reasonably expect to stand subject susceptible of novelty. There excused, if, whilst we enjoy the is no great difficulty in influencing fruits of such generous ardour, we the judgement to the pursuit of any aim at the security of our private particular study; but the sentimental happiness, and prefer the secret confaculty chooses its own objects, and sciousness of a proper discharge of seldom makes a proficiency in any the duties of life, to the popular ap
probation, probation, which deservedly waits was a very unequal antagonist, he upon those who have successfully submitted to an evil which he could exerted their abilities on subjects not remedy, and is content to be which have little or no connexion ruined by the expences, and torwith the promotion of virtue and mented by the follies of a vulgar the advancement of moral recti- termagant,
for the sake (as he says) ftude.
of peace and quietness.
Very differ ent was the opinion and the fate of
his brother Edward.-Determined The happiness of a married life;
from not to be made miserable by a lowthe Loiterer, a periodical work. born vixen, he early attached him
self to lady Caroline Almeria HoraF
: Charles Sedley was the most gether with the blood, the spirit cautious in the grand affair of and the pride of a long line of North choosing a wife; and after mature British nobility.--After a long and deliberation, discovered that fash- tedious courtship, in which she took s ionable women were vain, and ac- care to make him completely sen
complished women affected. He sible of the honour done to him, her Etherefore married the daughter of ladyship obligingly condescended to is one of his tenants, with no charm give him her hand; and still more excepting a little health and fresh- obligingly introduced to his acness, and no acquirements beyond quaintance and his house something those of a country boarding-school; more than a dozen of her great rebeing persuaded that because she lations, who have ever since taken was ignorant she must be humble, up their abode with him. and because low-born, unexpensive.
After this, it is needless to say But of both these inferences he lived how much he is master in his own to experience the falsity; for his family: since every subject of concara sposa soon became intoxicated jugal discussion is immediately laid : by the possession of pleasure of before this impartial jury; who inwhich she had till then entertained no 'stantly pronounce judgement on the. idea, entered with eagerness into case, and exhort him to pay proper every species of fashionable dissipa- regard to a woman of lady Caroline's tion, and paid small regard to a hus- understanding, accomplishments, band, for whom she felt little grati- and rank. So that he possesses no tude and less affection.
other advantage over his brother It was in vain he argued, im- than the privilege of being made plored, and threatened; too weak miserable in the very best company,
; for reason, too obstinate for intreaty, “The two Sedleys,” said my old and too passionate for remonstrance, friend, Frank Blunt, on entering she heard him with the vacant laugh my room the other morning, of folly, or answered him in the a couple of silly fellows, and are pert virulence of vulgar invective; deservedly punished for their folly. the only part of her country educa. Hewho sets out in a wrong road must tion, which she never forgot.
not wonder if he does not reach his After battling it in vain for some journey's end. Had I followed months with an enemy to whom he their example I should have been
as miserable as they are—but I have vance."-"Indeed, my dear,” rechosen wisely, and am happy-very plied the husband, “I am very sorhappy. I have married a woman ry it should be inconvenient to you of the genteelest manners and the to receive him, but really Mr. sweetest disposition. I wish, my is such a particular friend that I dear friend, you would come over could not avoid inviting him."and take your mutton with us to-day, “Lord, you are always bringing and you shall be convinced, that some particular friend or other from when a man chooses well, marriage Oxford with you, and I suppose this is the happiest state upon earth.” particular friend means to sleep here As I love to see my friends happy, I to.night, but I am sure I don't readily accepted his invitation, and know where to put him : the worst accompanied him to his house, which bed-chamber has been just washed, is
easy ride from Oxford. The la- and I shall certainly not let him go dy received us in the most gracious into the chintz-room with his dirty manner, and testified the highest sa- boots. If he does stay, he must tisfaction at seeing any friend of her sleep in the green garret. I dare say husband's,-giving him at the same he has been used at college to sleep time a gentle
rebuke, for having so without curtains, and I believe the much out-staid his time, and ex- glazier mended the windows yesterposed her to all those uneasy sensa- day.”..Sorry am I to say, that I tions which she always felt in bis heard no more of this curious alterabsence. He excused himself in cation, and the more so as I may the most tender manner, and they possibly never again have such anoboth left the room, in order to pre- ther opportunity of making myself pare either the dinner, or themselves. acquainted with the regulations of İ, of course, took up a book; but domestic economy : but the servant whether the author was particularly just then unluckily entered to make stupid, or whether I was in a bad preparations for dinner, and made humour for reading, I know not, such a clattering with his knives but I soon flung it down, and began and forks, that I totally lost Mr. to amuse myself with my own re- Blunt's answer, and could only disflections. They were, however, cover that (whatever it was) it was soon interrupted by a dialogue, not spoken in a low and submissive tone of the most tender kind, between of voice. the master and mistress of the house, Soon after this, the master and which the thinness of the partition mistress of the house, the breast of suffered me to hear with tolerable mutton, and the minced chicken, correctness.” Indeed, my dear all made their appearance, and we Mr. Blunt, I wonder you could sat down apparently in high good think of bringing your friend here humour with each other!- Nothing to-day, when you know there is farther, worth notice, passed during nothing in the house but a breast of the visit, and I returned to Oxford mutton, and some minced chicken in the evening (in spite of thei for the children's dinner; besides, earnest and sincere endeavours tode the servants are all ironing—But tain me), where I surveyed my owo you men have no sort of contri. fire-side with peculiar complacency,
and thanked my stars, that I had fectation); my reasons, I say for escaped the honours of the green writing to you while you' remain in garret.
the city to finish the celebration of the feast of Haloa,t are these: I
have received letters from Ptolemy, Letter from Menander to Glycera; the king of Egypt, in which he infrom Alciphron's Epistles. vites, by every mode of persuasion,
myself and Philemon, promising us Swear, my Glycera, by the Eleu. in a princely manner the good
sinian* mysteries, and the god- things, as they call them, of the desses who preside over them (before earth. His letters say, also, that he whose altars I have already sworn has written to Philemon, who has in the presence of you only), that, indeed sent me his letters ; but they in what I now affirm and commit to are less ceremonious than those writing, I do not seek to exalt my- which are addressed to Menander, self in your eyes, or to ingratiate and less splendid in their promises. myself with you by flattery; for what Let liim consult for himself; I shall change of fortune could be so plea- want no consultations. Thou, my sant to me, bereft of you, as that I Glycera, art my counsel; thou art now enjoy? Or to what higher to me the whole synod of Areopapitch of happiness can I be exalted gites; thou art in my estimation all than the possession of your love? By the counsellors of the forum ; thou, the help of your disposition, and by Minerva, ever hast been, and your manners, old age shall wear shalt continue to be, my every thing. the appearance of youth. Let us I have sent you, therefore, the king's then enjoy our youth together, let letters, that I might not give you the us together grow old, and by the additional trouble of reading, in my gods we will together visit the transcript, what you would meet grave, lest jealousy descend with ei- with afterwards in the original. I ther of us, should the survivor enjoy wish you also to be acquainted with any of the goods of fortune. But what I mean to say in answer to let it not be my lot to seek enjoy- them. To set sail and depart for ment when you are no more; for Ægypt, a kingdom so far removed what enjoyment can then remain ? from us, by the twelve great gods ! But the reasons which induced me never entered into my thoughts ; to write to you from Piræus, where nay, if Ægypt was situated in Ægina, I am detained by ill health (you near as that is to us, I would not know my usual infirmities, which even then (sacrificing the kingdom my enemies call effeminacy and af- which I enjoy in your love) be a
wanderer * The Eleusinian mysteries were celebrated every fifth year by the Athenians at Eleusis, a borough town in Attica. This solemnity was sacred to Ceres and her daughter Proserpina. It was the most mysterious and solemn festival of any in Greece, and often called, by way of eminence, the mysteries ; so careful were they to conceal the sacred rites, that, if any person divulged any part of them, he was thought to have called down some divine judgement upon his head : and if any person, not lawfully initiated, through chance, or ignorance, or mistake, happened to be present, he was put to death.
+ The Haloan feast was in honour of Ceres, and the offerings consisted of the fruits of the earth. It takes its name from Haloas, a title of Ceres,
wanderer amidst Ægyptian multi- wealth? With whom then am I to tudes, in a place which would be to enjoy these, when my Glycera is seme without my Glycera, a populous parated from me by such seas? Will desert. With more pleasure and not these possessions be poverty to more safety I court your favour than me without her? And if I should that of satraps and of kings. Be hear that she has transferred her afsides, the loss of liberty is the loss of fections to another, will not all my security; flattery is despicable; and treasures become as ashes ? then, inFortune, though in smiles, is not to deed, in death I should bear away be trusted.
my sorrows and myself, while my I would not exchange for his Her- riches would be exposed to the culean goblets, his great cups, his plunder of my enemies. golden vases, and all the boasted Is it then any great honour to live and envied ornaments of his court, with Ptolemy, and a train of satraps our annual Choan* sacrifices, our (empty titles!) among whom friendshews in honour of Bacchus, the ex. ship is not without infidelity, nor ercises of our Lyceum, and our scho- enmity without danger ? When my lastic employments; I would not Glycera happens to be angry,
I can make such an exchange, by Bacchus snatch a kiss from her; if she conI swear, and his wreaths of ivy! tinues to look grave, I am doubly that ivy with which, in the theatre, peremptory with her; if she still I would rather be crowned in the hardens herself against me, I have presence of my Glycera, than wear recourse to tears. She then, in her the diadem of Ptolemy. In what turn, no longer able to support the part of Ægypt shall I see the people task of tormenting me, betakes herassembled and giving their votes ? self to her intreaties. These are where shall I behold a multitude the only weapons I have to cope enjoying the sweets of liberty? with ; she has neither soldiers, nor Where shall I look for the dispensers spearsmen, nor guards; I am all of justice crowned with ivy. The these to her. sacred area? the choice of magis- Is it then great and wonderful to trates the libations? the Cera- behold the Nile? And is not the micus? + the Forum ? the seat of Euphrates too a noble object of adjudgement ? Leaving then my old miration? Is not the Danube great, neighbourhood Salamis, f and Psyt- and as extensive, the Thermodon; talia, and Marathon, all Greece in the Tigris ; the Halys; and the the city of Athens, all Ionia, the Rhine? Where I to visit all the rivers Cyclades, and above all my Gly- I could enumerate, my whole life cera ;
shall I pass over into #gypt? would be sunk without looking on my For what? That I may receive gold Glycera. Besides, this Nile, beauand silver, and other articles of tiful as it is, is full of monsters; and
it * The Choan sacrifices were offered up to appease the manés of the deceased. They consisted of honey, wine, and milk; and are called Choan, from xon, a libation.
+ The Ceramicus was a range of buildings, so called from Ceramus, the son of Bacchus and Ariadne.
Salamis, an island in the Ægean Sea. So Psyttalia. Marathon, a village in Attica, rendered famous by the battle fought there, in which Miltiades, with ten thousand men, overthrew the Persian army, consisting of a hundred and ten thousand.