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being regarded, the agents who bear them are thrown into dungeons, and mercenary armies sent forth to enforce a new government upon them at the point of the bayonet.

When, in consequence of such acts of malfeasance and abduction on the part of the government, anarchy prevails, and civil socicty is dissolved into its original elements, in such a crisis, the first law of nature, the right of self-preservation, the inherent and inalienable right of the people to appeal to first principles, and take their political affairs into their own hands in extreme cases, enjoins it as a right towards themselves, and a sacred obligation to their posterity, to abolish such government, and create another in its stead, circulated to rescue them from impending dangers, and to geçare their welfare and happiness.

Nations, as well as-indişiduals, are amenable for their acts to the public opinion of miankind. A statement of a part of our grievances is therçfore submitted to an impartial world, in justification of the hazardous but unavoidable step now taken, of severing our.polrical connection with the Mexican people, and assuming an independent attitude among the nations of the carth.

The Mexican government, by its colonization lavis, invited and induced the Anglo American population of Texas to colonize its wilderness under the pledged faith of a written consti-tuition, that they should continue to enjoy that constitutional liberty and republican government to which they had been habituated in the land of their birth, the United States of America.

In this expectation they have been cruelly disappointed, inasmuch as the Mexican nation has acquiesced to the late changes made in the government by General Antoniu Lopez de Santa Anna, who, baving overturned the constitutior of his country, now offers, as the cruel alternative, either to abandon our homes, acquired by so many privations, or submit to the most intolerable of all tyranny, the combined despotism of the sword and the priesthood.

It hath sacrificed our welfare to the state of Coahuila by which our interests have been continually depressed through a jealous and partial course of legislation, carried on at a far distant seat of government, by a hostile majority, in an unknown tongue, and this too, notwithstanding we have petitioned in the humblest terms for the establishment of a separate state government, and have, in accordance with the provisions of the national constitu• tion, presented to the general congress a republican constitution, which was, without a just cause, contemptuously rejected.

It incarcerated in a dungeon, for a long time, one of our citizens, for no other cause but a zealous endeavour to procure the acceptance of our constitution, and the establishment of a state government.

It has failed and refused to secure, on a firm basis, the right of trial by jury, that palladium of civil liberty, and only safe -guarantee for the life, liberty, and property of the citizen.

It has failed to establish any public system of education, although possessed of almost boundless resources, (the public domain,) and although it is an axium in political science, that unless a people are educated and enlightened, it is idle to expect the continuance of civil liberty, or the capacity for self government.

It has suffered the military commandants, stationed among us, to exercise arbitrary acts of oppression and tyranny, thus trampling upon the most sacred rights of the citizen, and rendering the military superior to the civil power.

It has dissolved, by force of arms, the state congress of Coahuila and Texas, and obliged our representatives to fly for their lives from the seat of government, thus depriving us of the fundamental political right of representation.

It has demanded the surrender of a number of our citizens, and ordered military detachments to seize and carry them into the interior for trial, in contempt of the civil authorities, and in defiance of the laws and the constitution.

It has made piratical attacks upon our commerce, by commissioning foreign desperadoes, and authorizing them to seize our vessels, and convey the property of our citizens to far distant parts for.confiscation.

It denies us the right of worshiping the Almighty according to the dictates of our own conscience, by the support of a national religion, calculated to promote the temporal interest of its human functionaries, rather than the glory of the true and living God.

It has demanded us to deliver up our arms, which are essential to our defence--the rightful property of freemen-and formidable only to tyrannical governments.

It has invaded our country both by sea and by land, with the intent to lay waste our territory, and drive us from our homes; and has now a large mercenary army advancing, to carry on against us a war of extermination.

It has, through its emissaries, incited the merciless savage, with the tomahawk and scalping knife, to massacre the inhabitants of our defenceless frontiers.

It has been, during the whole time of our connection with it, the contemptible sport and victim of successive military revolutions, and hath continually exhibited every characteristic of a weak, corrupt, and tyrannical government.

These, and other grievances, were patiently borne by the people of Texas, until they reached that point at which forbearance ceases to be a virtuc. We then took up arms in defence of the national constitution. We appealed to our Mexican bretbren for assistance: our appeal has been made in vain; though months have elapsed, no sympathetic response has yet been heard from the interior. We are, therefore, forced to the melancholy conclusion, that the Mexican people have acquiesced in the destruction of their liberty, and the substitution therefor of a military government; that they are unfit to be free, and incapable of self government.

The necessity of self-preservation, therefore, now decrees our eternal political separation.

We, therefore, the delegates, with plenary powers, of the people of Texas, in solemn condention assembled, appealing to a candid world for the necessities of our condition, do hereby resolve and declare, that our political connection with the Mexican nation has for ever ended, and that the people of Texas do now constitute a FREB, SOVEREIGN, and INDEPENDENT REPUBLIC, and are fully indested with all the rights and attributes which properly belong to independent nations; and, conscious of the rectitude of our intentions, we fearlessly and confidently commit the issue to the supreme Arbiter of the destinies of nations. la witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names


President and Delegate from Red Rider.
ALBERT H. S. KIMBLE, Secretary.
C. B. Stewart,

John S. Roberts,
James Collinsworth,

Robert Hamilton,
Edwin Waller,

Collin McKinney,
A. Brigham,

A. H. Latimore,
John S. D. Byrom,

James Power, Francis Ruis,

Sam. Houston,
J. Antonio Navarro,

Edward Conrad,
William D. Lacy,

Martin Palmer,
William Menifee,

James Gaines,
John Fisher,

William Clark, jun.,
Matthew Caldwell, Sydney O. Pennington,

William Motley,

Samuel P. Carson, Lorenzo de Zavala,

Thomas J. Rusk,
George W. Smyth,

William C. Crawford,
Stephen H. Everett, John Turner,
Elijah Stepp,

Benjamin Briggs Goodrich,
Claiborne West,

James G. Swisher, William B. Leates,

George W. Barnet, M. B. Menard,

Jesse Grimes, A. B. Hardin,

E. 0. Legrand, Jobn W. Bunton,

David Thomas, Thomas J. Gazley,

S. Rhoads Fisher, R. M. Coleman,

John W. Bower, Sterling C. Robertson, J. B. Woods, George C. Childress, Andrew Briscoe, Baily Hardiman,

Thomas Barnett, Robert Potter,

Jesse B. Badgett, Charles Taylor,

Stephen W. Blount. I do hereby certify that I have carefully compared the foregoing Declaration, and find it to be a true copy from the original filed in the archives of the Convention.

Given under my hand this 17th day of March, 1836.

Secretary of the Condention,

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