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eluding Dissertation involves in it an opinion, in which Dr. Tilloch avows his usual confidence; but in which we certainly are not prepared to follow him. It relates to the identity of the person designated by the terms xaOifiini and ipthv; in other words, Dr. T. contends, that" he who sitteth upon the throne," and ','the Lamb," a mode of expression that runs throughout the Apocalypse, are not two persons, but one 1 He is consequently at much pains to prove, that in both cases Christ is intended. Accordingly where our version ascribes, - Salvation to him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb," he is for striking out the words " and unto," and ■would read—"to him that sitteth upon the throne, the Lamb." This appears to us to furnish a clue to his train of criticism formerly noticed on Rev. v. 1. and ver. 7. His argument founded on the circumstance of ri ipthv not being an attributive, but an hieroglyphical proper name may indeed shew that the construction of the Greek will not positively determine that two persons are intended, but neither on the other hand will it decide the contrary. This point must be settled by the scope of the passages in which "He that sitteth upon the throne," and "the Lamb," are distinctly spoken of. We have already remarked, that Rev. y. 1, 7. are point bjank against Dr. T. in this instance; so also is ch. vi. 16. We may remark too, that when the writer of the Apocalypse speaks of the Lamb in connection with the throne, he speaks of him as "in the midst of the throne," Ti iptht rl a»« plan Tb &p6v*; but we have seen that he speaks also of one; who "sitteth upon the throne," a distinction1 which is prominently marked, and uniformly preserved throughout the book; and though we are not allowed to suppose that this distinction refers to the divine nature, it evidently points at a distinction, which it appears to be the great object of Dr. Tilloch's strain of criticism to destroy—to wit, the personal distinction between the Father and the Son. This doctrine lies upon the very surface of Divine Revelation; and no man can have scriptural views of the economy of redemption without admitting it. If Dr. Tilloch be firm in the belief of this doctrine, the tendency of his critical remarks throughout the section is to us quite inexplicable!
In several places the expressions— "God and the Lamb" occur. Dr. T.
by considering the term, "the Lamb," as a proper name, and not an attributive, (with what correctness we do not here stop to enquire,) dexterously gets over such verses, by considering them as applying only to one person. Yet in his manner of explaining them, we cannot help noticing that we think he is not quite consistent with himself. For instance: he tells us that bprlot (the Lamb) is no attributive—it is a proper name. But if so, in those passages where xadrifiimi or 0i3; occur, connected with iptiz* by the copulative x»i, it would be proper to nullify the conjunction altogether; thus reading, "to him that sitteth upon the throne, the Lamb," rather than, "to him who sitteth upon the throne, and who is the Lamb;" for, according to the latter mode of reading, the appellation "the Lamb," has certainly more the appearance of an attributive than a proper name, into which our author resolves it.
Again, in Rev. xxii. 1. we meet with ■x T» 6pi\m T» ©e», xcd T» 'Apis, "from the throne of God and of the Lamb." We must, according to Dr. Tilloch's doctrine, understand it to mean, " from the throne of the Lamb who is God, or omnipotent," seeing that ipun is a proper name, and €>ebc an attributive. But it is clear to us, that unless some very strong reasons can be assigned from the scope of these passages, why the distinction of persons which they at first sight appear to denote, should not be taught in them, (for it is very plainly taught in many parts of the New Testament, quoted by Dr. T. himself, in a former Dissertation,) there can be no reasonable objection to our common rendering. What Greek terms, we ask, (though iftut should be allowed to be a proper name,) would better express " out of the throne of God and of the Lamb," than
ix T8 OpCvu T* ©fa, xai Ts 'Aptiu?
At page 366, the Doctor says, "The passage in Rev. vii. 10. has been already noticed, 'Salvation be to our God, the sitting one. on the throne, even the Lamb.' Unto the Lamb is quite improper, as the Greek has here no preposition." But why should the want of a preposition before bpv'uji be any reason for discarding " unto," which is merely the sign of the dative case, when there is no objection against the preposition to in the former part of the sentence, though none in the Greek, any more than in the other instance, both nouns
being in the dative case i And at p. 316, •he had previously made the same complaint, alleging that there was equal reason for " unto " being inserted before the middle clause of the verse, viz." him that sitteth upon the throne," by reading it, "unto the sitting one upon the throne." To this, however, it is sufficient to remind Dr. Tilloch, that as x*9npl*p is a participle agreeing with 6np, and without an intervening conjunction, it would be improper—the cases are not parallel. But we must desist: we have already extended these remarks to a much greater length than suits the limits of our Journal; and we fear we owe an apology to a large proportion of our readers, who will find comparatively little interest in this protracted discussion. Our only plea is, that hitherto, so far as we know, no other Journal has noticed the volume; and if report tell true, the author is not a little elated with the flattering commendations that have been bestowed upon his book from some learned bodies and individuals to whom it has been presented. That Dr. Tilloch is a man of learning and talents, no unprejudiced person who peruses his pages will think of denying, though it may be fairly questioned, how far that learning and those talents have been usefully employed in the instance before us. It is the misfortune of a certain class of religionists, that they never can be satisfied with what satisfies other people. Hence we find them continually straining after singularities. They must have an opinion of their own, different from all the world besides. This, in any one, is a most unhappy temper of mind; but when found in a teacher of religion, or an author by profession, it is of the most pernicious consequence. We could give some notable exemplifications of this fact, in real life, were it necessary, but it is not. The book of the Revelation is confessedly obscure: it is so from the very nature of its subject, which is not only prophetical, but prophecy in its sublimest strains. The figurative language in which the visions of the Apocalypse are delivered—the variety of symbols under which the events are presignified—the extent of its prophetic information, which, commencing'with the setting up of Christ's Kingdom in the world, carries us down the stream of time to that period of awful expectation when the great plan °f divine grace shall be brought to a
glorious consummation, and the mysterious counsels of the most High respecting the Christian dispensation, shall be for ever closed in judgment—all these things conspire to render this book the most difficult portion of the New Testament writings. An illustration of it, therefore, must be regarded as a subject worthy of the noblest faculties which the Creator ever bestowed on man. In this good work, Dr. Tilloch might have been a successful labourer, could he have contented himself with thinking on some points with those that have gone before him. But straining . after originality, on almost every topic that comes in his way, he has, m our opinion, completely failed in his object. His criticisms are much too arbitrary and violent—they overshoot the mark, aswe think we have shewn in various instances in the course of our Review; and we deeply regret that he should have given us so much occasion to doubt his soundness, in certain articles of the faith once delivered to the saints.
The Modern Traveller; or a Popuilar Description, Geographical, Historical, and Topographical, of the Various Countries of the Globe. Compiled from the latest and best Authorities. PalesTine, Part I. and II. Pr. 2s. 6d. each. To be continued Monthly. London, James Duncan, 39, Paternoster-row. 1824.
Tnis publication is introduced to our notice by a short, but well-written Prospectus, in which it is very justly remarked that,
"The extensive and indefatigable researches of European Travellers during the last five-and-twenty years, in almost every country of the globe, have given in some instances quite a new aspect to our maps, and have furnished the most important accessions to geographical science. They have at the same time equally extended our acquaintance with theiphysical habits, political institutions, and domestic manners of the several nations of both hemispheres, some of which were previously known only by name. The Travels, for example, of Clarke, Dodwell, Eustace, and Hughes, in Europe; of Morier, Elphinstone, Buchanan, Fraser, Pottinger, Ouseley, Kinneir, and Porter, in Asia; of Belzoni, Lord Valentia, Burckhardt, and Richardson, in Egypt and the adjacent countries; of Lewis and Clarke, Pike and James, in North America; and of Humboldt, in Mexico; and of many others, too numerous to mention; comprise an immense mass of curious and valuable information, diffused through costly works, inaccessible to the generality of our readers, and forming collectively a moderate library. The transactions of the various Missionary Societies, also, include a very considerable portion of novel information of a strictly geographical and scientific kind, frequently presenting to us savage and uncivilized man, under a new and interesting aspect.
"With a view to compress this fund of on tertaining matter within narrower limits, different collections have been made of the more popular works, on a reduced scale. The series of voyages and travels published in 1800 by Dr. Mavor, extended to no fewer than twenty-eight volumes; and were the collection brought down to the present date, more than twice as many on the same plan would be insufficient to include the works of reputation which have since appeared. Pinkerton's collection forms seventeen volumes in quarto. But, besides the objection to such collections, which arises from their bulk and costliness, they are necessarily liable to that of incompleteness. Some of the best works are the exclusive copyright of individuals. Others, which may be of too scientific a character to be generally interesting, or which may be excluded as of inferior merit, contain details of the most important kind. And there is this further objection to collections, that, in giving the journals of more travellers than one over the same territory, repetition is inevitable; and sometimes conflicting statements occur, which require to be investigated, in order to determine which is the more correct, or how far they may be reconciled.
"To obviate these difficulties, and, at the same time, realize the object of compressing and arranging this various mass of information in a popular form, it is proposed to publish a digested account of each separate country, comprising its geographical features, its manners, customs, polity, Ac. as they may be gathered from the collective works of the best English and Foreign travellers. The labour employed in such analysis will obviously be immense, and the cost of the materials considerable; but the Proprietors have resolved to spare neither pains nor expense to render the work as comprehensive and complete as possible—so that it may form, in fact, a depository for the collective stores of our modern explorators and topographers; and present, if the expression may be allowed, a series of cosmoramic views of the actual state of the various countries. The publication is obviously
designed to be of a popular and useful, rather than of a scientific character; and with this view, authentic anecdotes, serving to illustrate national character, and other amusing details, will be freely admitted. At the same time, the most studious attention will be paid to topographical accuracy; and it will be an object carefully kept in view, to rectify the mistakes which are to be found in the most popular geographical works. Maps will be given on a small scale, but modelled on the best authorities, so as to include the latest discoveries. Brief historical notices will also be prefixed to the description of every country, including its ancient geography, its supposed aborigines, and the principal revolutions of which it has been the theatre. And, with respect to the uncivilized portions of the habitable continent, the sketch will exhibit the progress of discovery. So far as possible, its natural history, botany, geological features, volcanic phenomena, and other natural curiosities, will be fully described; together with the costume, physiognomy, and domestic habits of the natives; their traditions, religion, and literature; their public buildings, arts, and ancient monuments: in fact, all the multifarious information for which we are indebted to the indefatigable researches of modern Travellers."
From this extract, our readers will be enabled to form a tolerably correct estimate of what this publication is intended to be. Two Parts only have yet made their appearance; and considering these as a fair specimen of what are to follow, we feel ourselves fully warranted to pronounce it an undertaking, which merits the patronage' of the public at large. We have seldom met with a publication which combines so many recommendatory qualities. The paper, the print, and the embellishments, are given in a style of corresponding excellence; and yet these are among the least important of its useful properties. The materials are judiciously selected, and skilfully arranged; the itinerary commences at one extremity of acountry, and is continued to the other, till it exhibits a complete description of the whole territory. Thus the reader is presented with the observations and impressions of the travellers at each particular place, generally in their own words, with the most striking incidents by which their route was diversified. But its crowning virtue to many will be, its extraordinary cheapness! The two Parts now before us, comprise the whole MATTHEW HBNRY
of Palestine, or the Holy Land :—a country, every acre of which, is connected with associations interesting to the antiquary, the biblical critic, and the Christian reader. They form a volume of nearly 400 pages, with a map of the country—a ground plan of the city of Jerusalem—an engraved view of the city, and another of Bethlehem, at the moderate cost of five shillings 1 ftirt III. containing Syria, will be published on the 1st ofMay.
Matthew Henry at Hackney. To which are added, Strictures on the Unitarian Writings of the Rev. Lant Carpenter, LL. D. 8vo. pp. 136, 4s. 6d. SociniAirisii is such an ill-disguised sort of infidelity, that it seems scarcely deserving of half the pains employed in its refutation. No serious Christian, we should think, could be in any danger from a creed which not only leaves out, but which finds no substitute for, the great doctrines of Christianity. It deflies to us a Saviour, without proffering the intercession of the saints; and takes away the cross, without so much as giving us a crucifix in its stead. It desolates the sanctuary of its altar, of its priest, and of the atoning blood; leaving the guilty without pardon, and the dying without hope. It lays waste the inheritance of Him who is appointed heir of all things; converts the church of God into a heathen temple, and fills it with the priests of paganism. There may, indeed, be some who lay hold on tbeskirts of such a system, to take away the reproach of open or avowed unbelief; but it seems impossible that any reai Christian should have any fellowship, any sympathy at all with it. It has moreover been so completely vanquished and put to flight, first by Horsley, then by Fuller, afterwards by WardJaw, by Bevan, and Pye Smith, that nothing remains but a company of fugitives, who have fled like the Benjamites before the men of Judah.
But if, as the Author of this classical and elegant pamphlet believes, these enemies of the Christian faith are still active in their endeavours to "corrupt our Encyclopaedias, our Reviews, our Travels, and spread the effluvia through our reading rooms and public libraries," P- 114, there may be good reason for his having prepared a little nitric acid for purifying the atmosphere within its in
AT HACKNEY, &C. . 163
fluence ; otherwise, we should think the system must eventually perish in its own corruption.
In the work before us the venerated "Matthew Henry" is summoned from the shades, made to revisit the scene of his former labours, and behold what desolations have been made in the church. Placed in the pulpit he once occupied, he delivers a warning lecture, summing up and exhibiting as he proceeds, the early opinions respecting the Deity of Christ, not only from the Prophetic and Rabbinical writings, but as they were traditionally and symbolically preserved in the mythology of all the ancient heathen nations.
The next section consists of a Critical Examination of the Unitarian Version' of the New Testament, so far at least as concerns the doctrine of the Trinity, the Deity of Christ, and the Atonement. The mis-translation and evident corruption of a number of passages are ably exposed; and though the writer has not always succeeded in placing his remarks in juxtaposition, they discover considerable learning and acuteness.
The testimonies of the early Christian Fathers then follow; and the pamphlet closes with some pointed Strictures on the Writings of Dr. Carpenter, which we esteem the ablest portion of the work. The anonymous author, whom we suspect to be a layman, is entitled to commendation for learning and ability so zealously devoted to the cause of truth, and for the entertaining and instructive performance which we have now the pleasure of introducing to our readers.
A Concise View of the leading Doctrines connected with the Socinian Controversy. Edinburgh, Waugh and Innes; London, F. Westley. 18mo. pp. 190, pr. 2s. 1824.
This little volume contains a selection of extracts from the writings of Dr. Dwight and Dr. Wardlaw, on the subject of the Socinian controversy; and they are so arranged, as to give the most luminous view of the doctrines of the divinity of Christ—the personality of the Holy Spirit—and of Atonement for sin. The work is not intended for those who have access to the volumes from which the materials are drawn, but for that numerous class of readers who are debarred access to them. The anonymous Editor has selected those parts of the writings of the above mentioned authors, which place their sentiments in the most striking point of view; and we can safely say^ that the arguments in support of the foregoing doctrines are stated with greater force in this little volume, than will be easily found any where else in so small a compass. The publication issues from the Edinburgh press; and we learn from the Preface, that it has been occasioned by the discovery, that more than usual zeal has been manifested of late to introduce the doctrines of Socinus into the Northern Metropolis. As an antidote to the poison of Socinianism, we certainly think this manual has considerable merit; and we cordially recommend it for dissemination in those parts of the country, where these souldestructive principles particularly prevail. We have only further to add, that Mr. Maclaurin's matchless Sermon, on glorying in the Cross of Christ, is given by way of Appendix to the volume.
Art. I. A Speech delivered before the Synod of Glasgow and Ayr, on the 15th of October, 1823, in thecase of Principal fyfcFarlane, on the Subject of Pluralities. By Thomas Chalmers, D.D. With a Preface by Stevenson M'Gill, J).D. Glasgow, Chalmers and Collins, and Whitakers,London, pp. 24,8vo.pr.6ii. Art. II. An Appeal to all classes, on the subject of Church Patronage in Scotland: with a plan for its amendment, [q. abolition !] , Glasgow, Chalmers and Collins, and Whitakers, London, pp. 40, Art. III. Plurality ofOfficesin theChurch of Scotland Examined, with a particular reference to thecase ofthe very Reverend Dr. M'-Farlane, Principal of the University of Glasgow. By the Rev. Robert Uvrss, Minister of St. George's Church, Paisley. Glasgow, Chalmers and Collins, and Whittakers, London, pp. 300, 12mo. pr. 3s. 6d. bds. 1824. In our Magazine for December, 18S3, (See Vol. IX. p. 389.) weannounced the proceedings of the Presbytery of Glasgow, on the motion for inducting Dr. M'Farlane into the ministry of the High . Church of that city-^on which occasion the fnotion was negatived. The case next proceeded to the Synod of Glasgow , and Ayr, where it was again discussed, and again negatived by a majority of five votes. Dr. M'Farlane has still an
appeal to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, at their Annual Meeting in the ensuing month of May, where it will receive its final adjudication. To this meeting, the friends of Reform in Scotland are looking forwards with no little portion of anxiety; and in the meantime, they are quite upon the alert to enlighten the public mind, by exposing the monstrous abuses to which the practice of holding pluralities has never failed to give rise. On this subject, the two pamphlets mentioned at the head of this article will be found ihtetesting; but Mr. Burn "Bulks'," may almost be'said to exhaust the subject, and we strongly recommend it to the attentive perusal of such of our readers as have leisure and inclination to examine it. Did our columns admit of it, we conid produce some highly interesting extracts, but we are compelled to forego the pleasure. Should our good friends in the North succeed in carrying their point on the present occasion, they will establish a precedent which may probably stimulate the good people on this side tire Tweed, to set about cleansing the Augean stable! But hie labor.' hoc opus est.'! Such an undertaking in England would be too vast for any power short of Omnipotence itself.
Memoirs of Mrs. Elizabeth A. Ulyat, 'J Sutton Street, Nicholas, Lincolnthire: extracted from her Diary and IxUexi To which is added, a Sermon on occtmM of her death. By Tho«as R*gbks Boston, Printed, ami Sold by Baldwin. Cradock and Joy, London, pp. Wi 18mo. pr. Is. Gd. bete. 1823. Thcwgh we are not partial to autobiography, 'we may nevertheless rep* that the subject of this Memoir, appears to have been "a decidedly pious character," as the fashionable phrase goes. Of Mt. Rogers's Sermon we can speak With greater confidence as to its usCiUl tendency. The text is 2 Tim. i. 12." For I know whom I have believed,*' &c. and he has given a scriptural and able illus" tration of the Words,demonstratin'g tte' faith in Christ is the best preservative against the fear of death. In reading we Were strongly Tehrindedof the style of preaching of our late valued friend, Mr Abraham Arrstia—a name, we telieve. .dear to Mr. Rogers, and certainty fiear to ourselves.