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James, in North America; and of Humboldt, in Mexico; and of many others, too numerous to mention; comprise an immense mass of curious and valuable information, diffused through costly works, inaccessible to the generality of our readers, and forming collectively a moderate library. The transactions of the various Missionary Societies, also, include a very considerable portion of novel information of a strictly geographical and scientific kind, frequently presenting to us savage and uncivilized man, under a new and interesting aspect.
"With a view to compress this fund of on tertaining matter within narrower limits, different collections have been made of the more popular works, on a reduced scale. The series of voyages and travels published in 1800 by Dr. Mavor, extended to no fewer than twenty-eight volumes; and were the collection brought down to the present date, more than twice as many on the same plan would be insufficient to include the works of reputation which have since appeared. Pinkerton's collection forms seventeen volumes in quarto. But, besides the objection to such collections, which arises from their bulk and costliness, they are necessarily liable to that of incompleteness. Some of the best works are the exclusive copyright of individuals. Others, which may be of too scientific a character to be generally interesting, or which may be excluded as of inferior merit, contain details of the most important kind. And there is this further objection to collections, that, in giving the journals of more travellers than one over the same territory, repetition is inevitable; and sometimes conflicting statements occur, which require to be investigated, in order to determine which is the more correct, or how far they may be reconciled.
"To obviate these difficulties, and, at the same time, realize the object of compressing and arranging this various mass of information in a popular form, it is proposed to publish a digested account of each separate country, comprising its geographical features, its manners, customs, polity, Ac. as they may be gathered from the collective works of the best English and Foreign travellers. The labour employed in such analysis will obviously be immense, and the cost of the materials considerable; but the Proprietors have resolved to spare neither pains nor expense to render the work as comprehensive and complete as possible—so that it may form, in fact, a depository for the collective stores of our modern explorators and topographers; and present, if the expression may be allowed, a series of cosmoramic views of the actual state of the various countries. The publication is obviously
designed to be of a popular and useful, rather than of a scientific character; and with this view, authentic anecdotes, serving to illustrate national character, and other amusing details, will be freely admitted. At the same time, the most studious attention will be paid to topographical accuracy; and it will be an object carefully kept in view, to rectify the mistakes which are to be found in the most popular geographical works. Maps will be given on a small scale, but modelled on the best authorities, so as to include the latest discoveries. Brief historical notices will also be prefixed to the description of every country, including its ancient geography, its supposed aborigines, and the principal revolutions of which it has been the theatre. And, with respect to the uncivilized portions of the habitable continent, the sketch will exhibit the progress of discovery. So far as possible, its natural history, botany, geological features, volcanic phenomena, and other natural curiosities, will be fully described; together with the costume, physiognomy, and domestic habits of the natives; their traditions, religion, and literature; their public buildings, arts, and ancient monuments: in fact, all the multifarious information for which we are indebted to the indefatigable researches of modern Travellers."
From this extract, our readers will be enabled to form a tolerably correct estimate of what this publication is intended to be. Two Parts only have yet made their appearance; and considering these as a fair specimen of what are to follow, we feel ourselves fully warranted to pronounce it an undertaking, which merits the patronage' of the public at large. We have seldom met with a publication which combines so many recommendatory qualities. The paper, the print, and the embellishments, are given in a style of corresponding excellence; and yet these are among the least important of its useful properties. The materials are judiciously selected, and skilfully arranged; the itinerary commences at one extremity of acountry, and is continued to the other, till it exhibits a complete description of the whole territory. Thus the reader is presented with the observations and impressions of the travellers at each particular place, generally in their own words, with the most striking incidents by which their route was diversified. But its crowning virtue to many will be, its extraordinary cheapness! The two Parts now before us, comprise the whole MATTHEW HBNRY
of Palestine, or the Holy Land :—a country, every acre of which, is connected with associations interesting to the antiquary, the biblical critic, and the Christian reader. They form a volume of nearly 400 pages, with a map of the country—a ground plan of the city of Jerusalem—an engraved view of the city, and another of Bethlehem, at the moderate cost of five shillings 1 ftirt III. containing Syria, will be published on the 1st ofMay.
Matthew Henry at Hackney. To which are added, Strictures on the Unitarian Writings of the Rev. Lant Carpenter, LL. D. 8vo. pp. 136, 4s. 6d. SociniAirisii is such an ill-disguised sort of infidelity, that it seems scarcely deserving of half the pains employed in its refutation. No serious Christian, we should think, could be in any danger from a creed which not only leaves out, but which finds no substitute for, the great doctrines of Christianity. It deflies to us a Saviour, without proffering the intercession of the saints; and takes away the cross, without so much as giving us a crucifix in its stead. It desolates the sanctuary of its altar, of its priest, and of the atoning blood; leaving the guilty without pardon, and the dying without hope. It lays waste the inheritance of Him who is appointed heir of all things; converts the church of God into a heathen temple, and fills it with the priests of paganism. There may, indeed, be some who lay hold on tbeskirts of such a system, to take away the reproach of open or avowed unbelief; but it seems impossible that any reai Christian should have any fellowship, any sympathy at all with it. It has moreover been so completely vanquished and put to flight, first by Horsley, then by Fuller, afterwards by WardJaw, by Bevan, and Pye Smith, that nothing remains but a company of fugitives, who have fled like the Benjamites before the men of Judah.
But if, as the Author of this classical and elegant pamphlet believes, these enemies of the Christian faith are still active in their endeavours to "corrupt our Encyclopaedias, our Reviews, our Travels, and spread the effluvia through our reading rooms and public libraries," P- 114, there may be good reason for his having prepared a little nitric acid for purifying the atmosphere within its in
AT HACKNEY, &C. . 163
fluence ; otherwise, we should think the system must eventually perish in its own corruption.
In the work before us the venerated "Matthew Henry" is summoned from the shades, made to revisit the scene of his former labours, and behold what desolations have been made in the church. Placed in the pulpit he once occupied, he delivers a warning lecture, summing up and exhibiting as he proceeds, the early opinions respecting the Deity of Christ, not only from the Prophetic and Rabbinical writings, but as they were traditionally and symbolically preserved in the mythology of all the ancient heathen nations.
The next section consists of a Critical Examination of the Unitarian Version' of the New Testament, so far at least as concerns the doctrine of the Trinity, the Deity of Christ, and the Atonement. The mis-translation and evident corruption of a number of passages are ably exposed; and though the writer has not always succeeded in placing his remarks in juxtaposition, they discover considerable learning and acuteness.
The testimonies of the early Christian Fathers then follow; and the pamphlet closes with some pointed Strictures on the Writings of Dr. Carpenter, which we esteem the ablest portion of the work. The anonymous author, whom we suspect to be a layman, is entitled to commendation for learning and ability so zealously devoted to the cause of truth, and for the entertaining and instructive performance which we have now the pleasure of introducing to our readers.
A Concise View of the leading Doctrines connected with the Socinian Controversy. Edinburgh, Waugh and Innes; London, F. Westley. 18mo. pp. 190, pr. 2s. 1824.
This little volume contains a selection of extracts from the writings of Dr. Dwight and Dr. Wardlaw, on the subject of the Socinian controversy; and they are so arranged, as to give the most luminous view of the doctrines of the divinity of Christ—the personality of the Holy Spirit—and of Atonement for sin. The work is not intended for those who have access to the volumes from which the materials are drawn, but for that numerous class of readers who are debarred access to them. The anonymous Editor has selected tliose parts of the writings of the above mentioned author?, which place their sentiments in the most striking point of view; and we can safely say^ that the arguments in support of the foregoing doctrines are stated with greater force in this little volume, than will be easily found any where else in so small a compass. The publication issues from the Edinburgh press; and we learn from the Preface, that it has been occasioned by the discovery, that more than usual zeal has been manifested of late to introduce the doctrines of Socinus into the Northern Metropolis. As an antidote to the poison of Socinianism, we certainly think this manual has considerable merit; and we cordially recommend it for dissemination in those parts of the country, where these souldestructive principles particularly prevail. We have only further to add, that Mr. Maclaurin's matchless Sermon, on glorying in the Cross of Christ, is given by way of Appendix to the volume.
Art. I. A Speech delivered before the Synod of Glasgow und Ayr, on the 15th of October, 1823, in thecase of Principal jfi-Farlane, on the Subject of Pluralities. By Thomas Chalmers, D.D. With a Preface by Stevenson M'Gitl, D.D. Glasgow, Chalmers and Collins, and Whitakers,London, pp. 24,8vo.pr.6d. Art. tl. An Appeal to all classes, on the subject of Church Patronage in Scotland: with a plan for its amendment, [q. abolition !] Glasgow, Chalmers and Collins, and Whitakers, London, pp. 40, Art. III. Plurality of Offices in theChurch of Scotland Examined, with a particular reference to thecase ofthe very Reverend Dr. hV-Farlane, Principal of the University of Glasgow. By the Rev. Robert Burns,MmisterqfSt.George's Church, Paisley. Glasgow, Chalmers and Collins, and Whittakers, London, pp. 300, 12mo. pr. 3s. &d. bds. 1824. In our Magazine for December, 1823, (See Vol. IX. p. 389.) we announced the proceedings of the Presbytery of Glasgow, on the motion for inducting Dr. M'Farlane into the ministry of the High Church of that city—K>n which occasion the motion was negatived. The case next proceeded to the Synod of Glasgow . and Ayr, -where it was again discussed, and again negatived by a majority of five votes. Dr. M'Farlane has still an
appeal to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, at their Annual Meeting in the ensuing month of May, where it will receive its final adjudication. To this meeting, the friends of Reform in Scotland are looking forwards with no little portion of anxiety; and in the meantime, they are quite upon the alert to enlighten the public mind, by exposing the monstrous abuses to which the practice of holding pluralities has never failed to give rise. On this subject, the two pamphlets mentioned at the head of this article will be found interesting; but Mr. Burn "Buiks'," may almost be'said to exhaust the subject, and we strongly recommend it to the attentive perusal of such of our readers as have leisure and inclination to examine it. Did our columns admit of it, we conld produce some highly interesting extracts, but we are compelled to forego the pleasure. Should our good friends in the North succeed in carrying their point on the present otcasion, they will establish a precedent which may probably stimulate the good people on this side tire Tweed, to set about cleansing the Augean stable! Bit hie labor 1 hoc opus est!! Such an undertaking in England would be tdo'rtst for any power short of Omnipotence itself.
Memoirs of Mrs. Elizabeth A. Ult/ct, Suttott Street, Nicholas, LmcohuU" extracted from her Diary and le*" To which is added, a Sermon on tf**" of Iter death. By Thomas ReclttoBoston, Printed, and Sold by Ba)d*w Cradock and Joy, London, pp. I30 18mo. pr. Is. Od. bds. 1823.
Though we arc not partial to 8* biography, we may nevertheless rep* that the subject of this Memoir, appeal to have been "a decidedly pious cW ■meter," as the fashionable phrase g« Of Mt. Rogers's Sermon we cati spe with greater confidence as tottsusfc tendency. The text is 2 Tim. i. 12." f" I knew whom I have believed," &c- M he has given a scriptural and able ill* tration of the words, demonstrating tn faith in Christ is the best preserver against the fear of death. In readin: we were strongly reminded ofthestyle •preaching of our late valued 'friend,! Abraham Austin—a name, we belie' dear to Mr. Rogers, stid certainly & to ourselves.
STATE OF RELIGION IN CANADA.
From Mr. Bell's Hints to Emigrants.
9. Matilda is the next township above Williamsburg. It is thirty-three miles above. Cornwall, and fifteen below Prescott. A congregation was formed here some years ago, and a place of worship erected, but the want of a minister has greatly hindered its prosperity, and it is at present in a divided and scattered state.
10. Prescott, sometimes called Fort Wcltington, because it is in the neighbourhood of that fort, is forty-eight miles above Cornwall, and twelve below Brockville. It is rising into a place of some importance, being a port of entry, and a place at which a ferry-boat constantly plies between Canada and Ogdepsburg, in the State of New York. It was only during the last war that it began to be a village, and then Mr. Smart, of Brockville, preached sometimes, both to the country people and to t)ie soldiers of the garrison. At the time I landed there, and for some years both before and after, it was distinguished for scenes of profligacy and wickedness. The Sabbath was profaned in the most open manner, and swearing, drunkenness, and other vices, were quite common. From having resided there a few days, I had a Strang wish that the people should be provided with religious instruction. I preached to them once myself, and earnestly revested Mr. Smart to visit them as often as possible, and endeavour to promote reformation. He did so, and, in the' mean time, was lookingout for a more permanent supply. In 1820, Mr. Boyd, a young preacher from Ireland, arrived. He was engaged to teach the school in the village, and preach to the congregation on the Sabbath-day. He lodged for some time with Mrs. Jessup, a widow lady of considerable property and influence in the place. His labours were acceptable, both as a teacher and preacher. His congregation, as well as his school, greatly increased, and considerable exertions were made for his support. A call was prepared and laid before the presbytery, which Mr. Boyd having accepted, he was ordained by the presbvtery of Brockville on the 2nd of February, 1821. The prospect being encouraging, he determined, if possible, to get a church erected. Mrs. Jessup gave the ground gratis, and the fongregation contributed to the utmost of their power. Still, however, funds were wanting* to supply which, Mr. Boyd made a journey to Montreal and other places, aud collected a very considerable sum. In the course of the summer the church was
built, and in December following, I received a letter from Mr. Boyd, informing me, that on the 12th of January it was to be dedicated to the service of God, and requesting me to preach on the occasion, and assist at the administration of the Lord's Supper on the following day. To this call I attended with pleasure, and have seldom been more gratified than I was with the appearance of things when 1 reached Prescott. A handsome and commodious place of worship, capable of containing from 300 to 400 people, was not only erected, bat finished in a manner creditable to all concerned. I preached in the afternoon to a crowded congregation, and in the evening again addressed them on the nature and design of the Lord's Supper, and on the manner in which that ordinance should be observed. On the Sabbath-day, Mr. Johnstone, who was expected, not having arrived in time, I preached again to a crowded audience. After sermon the sacrament was administered to about forty communicants; and seldom have I witnessed a more solemn and interesting scene. Mr. Smart preached an excellent sermon in the evening. The day was one of the coldest I ever experienced; but the congregation had taken care to have the church furnished with a
food stove. In the course of the summer again assisted Mr. Boyd at the administration of the sacrament, when some additions were made to the church, and every thing seemed to indicate that Mr. Boyd's labours were attended with success. His plans and endeavours to promote improvement were, it is true, in certain quarters meeting with opposition. But this was to be expected. No reformation can be made without giving offence to some. Mr. Boyd has suffered some iuconvenience from the present embarrassed state of the country in a pecuniary point of view ; but he still continues his exertions with unremitting zeal; and in the last letter I received from him, he speaks of resigning his school at midsummer, and devoting himself wholly to the ministry.
11. Brockville is 144 miles above Montreal, and 56 below Kingston. Bc.-fcles its public buildings, which are the jail, courthouse, and Presbyterian chnrch, it contains a nnmber of handsome private houses, many belonging to lawyers and merchants. It is the capital of the county of Leeds, and the various courts for administering law and justice are held there. The Presbyterian congregation existed many years ago, but they never bad a regular supply of preaching, nor was the church organized till Mr. Smart, their present minister, came among them. Having been unsuccessful in their applications in other quarters, they, in 1808 or 1809. applied to the London Missionary Society for religious instruction. Mr. Smart was at the time studying in the Missionary Seminary at Gosport, with a view to his proceeding to the East Indies; "but the. counsel of the Lord shall stand, and he will do all his pleasure." India was not to be the scene of his future labours. This petition was the means of changing his destination, and he was soon after ordained in London to the work of the ministry in Elizabeth Town, in Upper Canada. On his arrival, he did not confine his labours to one particular place, but travelled and preached in all the settlements between Cornwall and Kingston,—an extent of more than 100 miles. The roads were bad, and the fanners' bouses at which he lodged were often uncomfortable. His health sensibly declined, and he was forced to travel less. During the war he preached frequently to the garrison at Fort Wellington; and it was on one of these occasions that a ball from one of the American guns, on the opposite side of the river, passed over his horse's neck, and struck the ground a little beyond him, covering him and two gentlemen who walked near him with dust. It was during this war that Brockville began to rise into a village. It took its name from General Brock, who nobly fell in the act of defending the country from the invasion of the enemy. There being no church hitherto erected, Mr. Smart determined to set abont one. His congregation contributed liberally, and he raised farther supplies in Quebec, Montreal, Kinston, and other places. The building was begun in 1816, and was completed the very same day I reached Brockville, in June, 1817, and was dedicated the following day, in presence of a large congregation. Mr. Easton, of Montreal, preached in the forenoon, and I in the afternoon. A Christian church was regularly organized some years ago, arid the sacrament of the Lord's supper is administered every three months. The place of worship cost about £1400. and is a substantial stone building, affording accommodation for a large congregation; but except on particular occasions it is never filled, and for some time past the congregation has been rather upon the decrease. No blame, however, can be attached to Mr. Smart, whose character is unblemished, and whose pious labours are unremitting.
Though Sir. Smart's residence is nearly fifty miles from mine, he was almost the only Presbyterian minister with whom I could have any intercourse for five years after I came to this country. This was regarded as a very providential circumstance by ns both. Though both born in Scotland, we became acquainted in London: we were both members of Dr. Waugh's church in Well's-street, and used to attend a prayer-meeting in the vestry every Thursday Evening, consisting of young men belonging to the congregation. Here, with emotions you can better conceive than I can describe, we first, in the
presence of others, presented our supplications at the throne of grace, and spoke on some passage of Scripture which had been proposed for the occasion. And though we had both before felt a desire to preach the Gospel, yet it was assuredly here that we finally resolved to devote ourselves to the work of the ministry. A short time after, Mr. Smart went to Gosport, and I went to Glasgow to pursue my studies. For several years after he went to Canada, we were separated by a vast ocean, and never expected to meet again in this world. But how wonderful are the ways of Providence! Here we are settled over neighbouring congregations, and are members of the same Presbytery.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY.
On Friday, April 2nd, a Public Examination took place at the Central Schools of the British and Foreign School Society, on which occasion Thomas Fowell Buxton, Esq. M.P. one of the Vice-Presidents, was in the Chair. Sir Patrick Ross—Mr. Orlands, one of the Greek Deputies—Win. Evans, Esq. M.P.—the Countess of Darnley, and a respectable number of Ladies and Gentlemen were present.
The examination commenced in the Girl's School, where the Ladies previously inspected the specimens of needlework, and purchased a number of articles, which were prepared for sale. The Girls were first examined in writing and arithmetic. After this they read a passage of Scripture, on which they were questioned by the Superintendant. The Rev. George Clayton.and the Rev. J. M. Cramp, then questioned them generally on the Holy Scriptures, and the answers given by the children afforded great satisfaction to the company.
The Chairman and Visitors then adjourned to the Boy's School.
The Boys after the customary evolutions, which were made with great accuracy and dispatch, wrote specimens on slates from dictation, these were handed round to the Company and inspected.
Twelve Boys, whose diligence in the School has been rewarded by giving them extra instruction, then produced maps, which they had delineated on slates, and were examined thereon. They also exhibited the progress they had made in the elements of Trigonometry, as adapted to mechanical purposes.
About forty of the eighth class were then examined in Arithmetic, as far as the Rule of Three and Practice; the Visitors were highly gratified by the rapidity and correctness of their execution. , . The same number were then directed to read a portion of Scripture, which they did in the most clear and intelligible manner. They were questioned thereon; and in order to prove that their knowledge was not confined to the particular passage that had been read, thp.v were, ouestioned by