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salvation of sinners;" and such general declarations as, "I hope to be saved through Christ," &.c. are sufficient to warrant a Christian church to receive those who make them; it must be objected, that such expressions do not afford the necessary evidence in the confession of the mouth, uf the " knowledge of God, and Jesus Christ whom he hath sent."

My own experience has afforded me abundant proof, that this objection is well founded. In the course of the last twenty-five years, I have been applied to for church fellowship by some scores of persons, who, though they freely declare their faith and hope in such general expressions as the above, yet, upon being particularly questioned, proved . their utter ignorance of the divinity of the Redeemer, and the great design of his death in making atonement'for sin. i was, some years past, applied to by a person who had been ten years a member of a Baptist church near to London, but who wished, on account, of a change in the place of her residence, to remove to the church of which I was then a Pastor; and though she could declare her faith in Christ in general terms, yet she was. altogether ignorant of the manifestation of divine justice in the pardon of sin through the death of Christ. It has ever appeared to me, since my connection with a Christian church, that in every instance of saving faith, from its very commencement, there must be some knowledge of Christ as ." God manifest in the flesh," and some scriptural knowledge of the death of Christ, as an atonement for sin, as a satisfaction to divine justice, and a manifestation of the divine righteousness in the forgiveness of sin; as, without this, it does not appear as possible, that there can be any hope in the divine mercy on a scriptural ground. Upon this principle I have ever acted, in conversing with persons with a view to admission into the church: and the consequence has been, a refusal to propose for communion a considerable number that have made application. It docs not appear to me, that, upon this subject, the predominant error in the churches is that of being too cautious in the reception of applicants for communion; for they are, generally, too intent upon ■having great additions to their number, to fall into any considerable error in that direction; but I fear it is a general

and prevailing error among them to receive persons without a due trial of their .knowledge of Christ. It is admitted, that if this error were generally corrected, the number added to the churches would be much reduced; liut it would be attended with the great advantages of increased purity of communion; advanced conformity to the divine will; and fewer instances of exclusion from Christian communion.

S. II.

Mr. Editor,

In p. 75 of the number of your Magazine for March, a Query, subscribed "A Constant Reader," is proposed by one of your correspondents, which deserves some attention; as it appears that the Querist has not been led to put it for the mere sake of provoking a discussion upon a very perplexing subject, but rather in the hope that the result of the discussion, will tend to clear up his doubts in regard to the safety of his own state: a circumstance, certainly, of very considerable moment.

It would have been very agreeable to me, in attempting to answer your correspondent's query, to have found myself at liberty to quiet at once his feaTs, by assuring him, that no one can be the subject of such desires as he has pointed out, hut those who shall ultimately be made partakers of the salvation that is through Christ Jesus with eternal glory; and of course to have drawn the namral conclusion. That as he has been the subject of these desires, his state is safe, and his relationship to God clearly ascertained. This, I say, Sir, would Jiave been very agreeable; but I am afraid, that if the task he has imposed, be faithfully discharged, the result will be far otherwise than what he appears to me to be anticipating.

I think it would have been better had he sought for peace to his own mind in another way, than by instituting an enquiry into such a mysterious subject. But as he proposed it, it is not likely that he would be satisfied with any answer to his query, which did not embrace the subject he has pointed out.

But even in closing with the subject, I intend to touch but slightly upon that branch of it which.the question more immediately requires as an answer; arid to avoid entirely, as a matter that is too high for me, that most inexplicable OX THE GROUNDS pF C

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branch of it which involves the question, "How the will of man can counteract the agency of that Being, the operations of whose Spirit are found to be so efficacious."

The question, you will observe, is, "Whether it be possible for the unrenewed mind, under any circumstances (such as illumination, conviction of sin, &c. &c.) to be the subject of real desire after spiritual blessings, or to desire holiness or conformity to the law of God, from an apprehension of its moral beauty or excellency?" Now, Sir, it appears to me from the whole complexion of this case, that the only answer which would serve your correspondent, while he looks for relief to bis mind from the solution of this perplexing subject, is an answer that would be in the negative. But if we answer in the negative; if we say, That it is not possible for any hu,t a real believer, a true child of God", to be the subject of real desire after spiritual blessings, or to desire holiness qr conformity to the law of God, from an apprehension of its moral beauty or excellency, what are we to make of those parts of the word of God that seem to admit it? In that word, cautions against apostatizing from the faith are numerous. And it will not avail your correspondent to allege, that the probability is, that those who apostatized from the faith were never really renewed; for what better evidence can your correspondent have of his own mind having been renewed, than those gave, whom the Apostle Paul, in his Epistle to the Hebrews, supposes may fall away. They are said to have been enlightened, and to have tasted of the heavenly gift, made partakers of the Uoly Spirit, and tasted of the good word ofGod^and of the powers of the world to come. For your correspondent then, or any other professed Christian, to trust to their mind having beenreneWed as an evidence of the safety of their state, wrben they have fallen into sin, or when the truth, from whatever cause, has lost its influence over their hearts and affections, is a most dangerous course, and calculated to lull the ni'wA iflto the most fata} security.

Did apostacy from the faith contest in laying aside a profession that is merely assumed, and kpown to be so by those who had assumed it, then your correspondent might be safe in trusting to his farmer impressions, in the absence of

VOL. x.

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present evidence, as he may have cause to be satisfied that he was sincere, lint the profession made by those who afterwards fall away, was real as far as it went, and left no room for suspicion cither to observers, or perhaps to the individuals themselves, that there was any real difference in the nature of their faith from that of others, who gave proof of its genuineness, by their continuing to endure to the end. To suppose otherwise, would be to admit, that the apostle had conjured up a case, which had, in fast, no reality, merely for the sake of terrifying others-; a kind of conduct that none should impute to the apostle.

Your correspondent then may see, not only the impossibility of his attaining to solid peace, if he seek it in this way, but that there is a danger of it involving him in greater perplexity. For if, as has been shown, otliers besides those who shall ultimately inherit eternal life, may be the subjects of the gracious influences of the Spirit of God: how can he, or any professing Christian in his situation, arrive at a comfortable assurance of the safety of his state, merely from the circumstance that he once enjoyed the supernatural influences of the Spirit of God r His faith may not have been of that kind, to which the promise of salvation is annexed—his enjoyments may not have been the enjoyments of the real people of God; but of the nature of those, of whom it is said, that they believed only for a while, for when temptation or persecution because of the word arose, they fell away.

But, further, if I understand the doctrine of the word of God aright, there is no state of attainment in the'Christian life, on arriving at which the Christian may/say, "Now my state is beyond the possibility of being changed, for I have arrived at that state of Christian perfection, which renders it impossible that any circumstance can subvert my mind, shake my faith, or undermine my hope." Such language, according to my view of the doctrine of the Scriptures, wonld be at once presumptuous and opposite to fact. The many alarming admonitions given in the word of God against departing from the faith, proceed upon, the same supposition, namely, that there is no state at which a Christian can arrive, that places him beyond the influence of temptations; and if still exposed to temptations while in the body, his safety lies, not in congratulating himself that

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he possesses such and such marks, or that he has been the subject of this or the other change, but in holding fast the beginning of the confidence, and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end; and like the Apostle Paul,-in forgetting the things that are behind, and pressing forward to the things that are before. In short, it lies not in any past attainments, but in- enduring to the end. Hence, the same apostle exhorts, "Let us, therefore, fear, lest a promise being left us of entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it." And it must be kept in view, that exhortations of this nature were not addressed merely to such believers, as had not attained unto great eminence, or whose standing in the Christian life bad been short; but exhortations of a similar .nature were addressed by the apostles of Christ unto all classes of believers. Thus the apostle Paul in addressing Timothy, (a person, the greatness of whose attainments there is. no room left for us to doubt) warns him, "To flee youthful lusts, and to fight the good fight of faith, that he might lay hold on eternal life." And the- motive that led the apostle to speak in this manner to a person possessing Timothy's character, could be no other, than that the most advanced Christian is liable to be subverted, and to come short of the prize of the high calling of God, that is in Christ Jesus.

■ Some of your readers may perhaps startle at this doctrine, and be ready to ask, what are the uses to which the past experience of the Christian are applicable; or are there any uses at all, to which they ean with propriety be applied? I answer, many. Christian attainments, while they continue to exist, are to be considered as evidences, both to the possessors themselves, and to others, of their happy state; for un. doubtedly there are things which accompany salvation. "We know," says the Apostle John, "that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren." They are evidences of their calling and election. Hence the believers were exhorted to make this sure, by adding to their faith virtue, knowledge, temperance, patience, brotherly kindness, and charity. Real Christian experience then is of the greatest use; it is an evidence to the believer's own mind, that it is the true grace of God wherein he stands, while

he experiences the Gospel producing its genuine effects upon him.

Our objection, then, does not lie against every use that may be made of past experience; it is only pointed against substituting it in the room of that truth, which alone can inspire either the newly awakened sinner, or the backsliding believer with good hope, when his sins have separated him from his God, and when he has lost the conscious sense of his interest in Christ.

Had your correspondent then, instead of the course he has adopted, betaken himself to that foundation, which the Gospel lays for the hope of the guilty, for a renewal of his peace, he would have acted a wiser part, and have kept the prescribed course. But if what has been said should convince him of his error (for I am jealous that he has a hankering after a delusive doctrine,) the door of mercy is open, the accents of the Gospel sound thus in his ears— "Come unto me all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest."—"Ho! everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters." And, aggravated as his case may appear to himself to be, on account of his sins being comniitted against the light, provision still is made for such; for it ever remains a truth, that " if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, who is also the propitiation for our sins."

Let your correspondent, then, call to mind that which at first inspired him with good hope toward God.

I am, Sir, respectfully,

. W. M.

MK. ARCHIBALD M'LEAN TO MR. RICHARDS, OF LYNN.

LETTEIt IV.

Edinburgh, Dec. 18,1789

My Dear Sir,

I received your letter by Capt. West, together with the guinea and pamphlet, for which I return you my thanks. I have been anxious to know of your affairs for a long while past, but have got no account, excepting once a hint from T. Sherraton. I have been twice at London and twice at Hull since our correspondence has dropr, and would have doubtless taken the route of Lynn, if you had not signified that the visit would not be very acceptable'as matters stood. Perhaps my coming might have

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brought matters to a speedier issue, and saved you a good deal of fruitless labour and vexation; but that would have depended much upon your own concurrence; and in such matters I never choose to interfere without being expressly called thereto. Nothing, however, can be more romantic than an attempt to reform a society, gathered and constituted upon the. usual plan, into the union and order of an apostolic •church. This has often been tried, but I never heard of one instance wherein it succeeded. Various causes may be assigned for this, such as men's attachment to, and conceit of their former way as a society—the affront which it offers to their pride, to suppose that they have been essentially wrong in their constitution, union, and order as a church— their aversion to being thought fluctuatingand changeable—their not perceiving the importance of the apostolic order and discipline, as being absolutely necessary to their union in the truth as a body, and inseparably connected with their walking in love, and continuing stedfast in the faith and obedience of the Gospel —their want of a due regard to the authority of God- in his word, which leads them to set aside some of his commands, under the idea that they were local and temporary vand others of them as trifling and indifferent, if not altogether inexpedient and improper—their regard to the opinions and practices of modern professors, which weighs more with many, than the sayings and example of Christ and-his apostles, &c. &c. Now when the greater part of a society are of this complexion, they cannot as a body be reduced to the primitive plan. In order to this, the children of God, who tremble at his word, must abandon such a connexion as unscriptural, and unite among themselves upon the profession of the one faith, and their full purpose of heart to cleave unto the lord and one another, in observing all things whatsoever Christ hath commanded, receiving none into their fellowship, however near,and dear unto them, but such as make the same profession.. Nor is this all, the faithful and impartial use of the Scripture discipline must be kept up, otherwise the purest and best constituted society will soon grow corrupt in their communion.

I aui happy to hear that a number of you have united together in a. social connexion. Some of them, you say,

hesitate about the washing of the saints' feet. I cannot conceive why any humble simple-minded Christian should hesitate a moment upon this point, after seriously reading John xiii. 3—11. (See my Note, Commission, p. 269, 270.) If neither Christ's example, nor his most express and pointed injunction, can determine the judgment, it cannot be supposed that I can say any thing to make the matter any clearer. I do not think that any of Christ's commands are local or temporary rites, or to be explained away by our knowledge of foreign climates, or ancient customs and dress. This precept, in particular, is founded in the very genius and spiritof his religion; and is a striking expression of humility, condescension, and brotherly love; objections to it, therefore, must arise from some deficiency in these. We do not look upon it as a rite at all, but as a beneficial act of kindness, when needful; and we know very well how refreshing it is after a journey on foot; yet we consider it as a religious appointment, for though it is not an act of religious worship, yet it is an appointment of Christ; and when we do it to his disciples because they belong to him, and because he hath commanded it, then we do it religiously, or from a religious principle, even as we feed the hungry and clothe the naked from the same principle, and are enjoined in whatsoever we do, to do all to the glory of God, 1 Cor. x.Sl. As to 1 Tim. v. 10. it doc9 not show that it ought not to have been universally observed when needful. We may as well argue, that because the widow to be taken into the number, was to be well reported of for good works, to have lodged strangers, relieved the afflicted, and to have diligently followed every good work, that these things were not universally observed among Christians, and therefore must be-now laid aside! The first Christians were not all alike attentive to their duty; but it is the lata of Christ, and not their neglect that must be our rule. f

With regard to the translating of my book into Welsh, I cheerfully .agree, provided yuu think an edition of it could be disposed of in that part of the kingdom. There are some corrections which I have made upon it, which, in that case ought to be transmitted to you. :I in* tend, if the Lord will, to be at London sometime next Spring, to look after a translation of it into French, which I hear is now finished.' As I intend to return by the way of Hull, I know-not hut I may cast myself your way, when I shall have an opportunity of seeing you face to face. ■

I think I have heard of Winchester at London, and have conversed with some in his way, who I think are Under a most dangerous delusion, but never saw his lectures on unfulfilled prophecies. Neither have I heard any tiling of Purvis's publication, but I know the man, and that he is ati Arian. The prospect at London and Hull rs hot very great. At London they have decreased a few these two years past by removal ofmemhers, death and otherwise. Their principal exhorter, an amiable young man, died lately. At Hull, 1 think they are about ten in number. I have taken no notice of Pirie's scurrilous performance, nor do I intend to do it. He is a clergyman, and was first an Antiburgher Seceder, then a Burgher Seceder, after that a .Relief minister, then he had a separate party of his own; bin having differed with all the foregoing successive connexions, he at last set up an Independent Meeting at Newburgh, a small country village, where he continued ever since, but his congregation has dwindled almost to nothing. Dr. Walker, I believe, is pretty well, though I scarcely ever see him.

I shewed your letter to my colleagues, Mr. Brahlwood and Mr. Inglis, and we are all of opinion, that, ifyou are heartily resolved to follow out the apostolic order, and to adhere strictly and unreservedly to the word of God wherever it may lead you, and whatever rnay be the consequences as to this world, it might be of some advantage both to you and us, that you should pay us a visit, if possible, and bring Mr. Durrant along with you. This might tend much to our mutual satisfaction, and lead to that close and intimate connection, which ought to subsist among brethren embarked in one common cause. You may think of this; meantime they desire to be affectionately remembered to you. "That the Lord may encourage your heart and strengthen your hands in his work, and that he may give you that zeal, resolution and faithfulness, which the importance of his cause requires, is the earnest request of, Your affectionate and sincere friend,' Archibald M'lean.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE OMNIPO-
TENCE OF DEITY.

{From Mr. DirkU Chriltian Phihsuplitr.]
(Continued from page 69.)

0»nuwr<Et»cE is that attribute of the Divine Being, by which he can accomplish every tiling that does not imply a coniradiction—however far it may transcend the comprehension of finite minds. By his power the vast system Of universal nature was called from nothing into existence, and is continually supported, in all its movements, from age to age. In elucidating -this perfection of God; we might derive some striking illustrations from the records of his dispensations towards man, in the early ages of the world—when he overwhelmed the earth with the deluge, which covered the tops of the highest mountains, and swept the crowded population of the ancient world into a watery gravewhen he demolished Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around thpm, with fire from heaven—when he slew all the first-born of Egypt, and turned their rivers into blood—when he divided the Red Sea, and the waters of Jordan before the tribes of Israel—when he made the earth to open its jaws land swallow up Korah and all his company—and when he caused mount Sinai to smoke and tremble at his presence. But these and similar events, however awful, astonishing, and worthy of remembrance, were only transitory exertions of divine power, and are not calculated, and were never intentled, to impress the mind in so powerful a manner, as those displays of Omnipotence which are exhibited in the •material universe. We have no hesitation in asserting, that, with regard to this attribute of the Divinity, there is a more grand and impressive display in the Works of Nature, than in all theevents recorded in tfhe Sacred History. Nor ought this remark to be considered as throwing the least reflection on the fulness and sufficiency of the Scripture revelation; for that revelation, as liavinga special reference to a morel economy, has for its object, to give a more particular display of the moral than of the natural perfections of God. The miracles to which we have now referred, ana" every other supernatural fact recorded in the Bible, were not intended so rrfuck to display the pkniiuHe of the power of Deity, 'as to bear testimony to tht Divine mis sion of particular messengers,

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