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but the words and the doctrine of the inspired apostle. He is very solicitous to inculcate this; for he soon after exhorts him, "The things which thou hast heard of me, the same commit tliou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also," ch. ii. 2; he tells him, "Thou hast fully known My DocTrine," ch. iii. 10; he enjoins him, "Continue thou in the things which thou hast learned, and hast been assured of, knowing Of Whom thou hast learned them," ver. 14; and he refers him to " the Scripture given by inspiration of God," as the only source from which the pure principles of religion can be derived, and declares it to be "profitable for doctrine, and able to make wise unto salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus," ver. 15, 16. That it was his purpose, studiously to distinguish this pure, simple doctrine of the gospel from, and to contrast it with, the curious speculations which affected ingenuity might build upon it, the abstract definitions and distinctions by which men might atlempt explaining it with precision, the nice and puzzling questions concerning it which they might agitate, and likewise all the unscriptural, technical, and philosophical terms which they might invent or adopt under colour of expressing the exact truth, and effectually excluding the contrary error, is clear from the whole series of his discourse. When he desires Timothy " to put them in remembrance of the things" which he had said, he adds, "charging them before the Lord, that they strive not about words," ch. ii. 14, about contending modes of expression. When he directs him "rightly to divide the •word of truth," he immediately subjoins, *' but shun," as absolutely inconsistent ■with this, "profane and vain, empty babblings," ver. 15, 16: he could not have used an expression more significant at once of abhorrence and contempt. • Intent on stigmatizing them, he again reprobates them in terms of detestation, "But foolish and unlearned questions avoid," ver. 23. unlearned in truth they always are, however much they may assume the guise of learning or of penetration. It is no less evident that the apostle in this place calls words sound, with an express design to mark their wholesome or practical tendency: he even labours to force this into view,"and to keep it in view. He declares that this is an essential part of his idea of " the form

of sound words;" he carefully includes it in his very description of them; he says, they are the words "which are in faith and Love, which is in Christ Jesus," ch. i. 13. Whenever he mentions the refinement^ and subtleties which he so anxiously excludes from sound doctrine, he never fails carefully to specify their having no moral, or their having an immoral tendency. They are not only " to no profit," but to great hurt, "to the subverting of the hearers," ch. ii. 14. They are so far from producing love, that they " gender strifes," ver. 23. They not only do not promote godliness; but,, in proportion as they are indulged, "they will increase unto more ungodliness, and will eat as doth a canker," ver. 16, 17. In the progress of his discourse, he again predicts that apostasy which he had foretold in his first epistle, and described as a " departure from the faith;" and here he describes it as a contradiction to the practical tendency of sound doctrine; he marks it by the corruption of morals consequent on that apostasy, and after enumerating several vices which Were to abound in these "perilous times," ch. iii. 1—4, he sums up the character of them, in this, "Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof/' ver. 5. Farther, when he recommends the Scripture as the only untainted source of Christian doctrine, he takes particular care to remark, that it "is profitable for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works," ver. 16, 17.

Immediately after this, he gives Timothy a very solemn charge to indefatigable diligence in preaching and applying the word, ch. iv. 1,2; in enforcing which he employs the phrase sound doctrine: "For the time will come, when they will not endure sound doctrine," ver. 3, and he employs it in the very same sense as formerly. He characterizes it by its simplicity, in opposition to all human refinements and determinations: it is the word, ver. 2; it is the truth, unmixt with any fables, ver. 4, with any of the precarious or false opinions, the doubtful speculations, the disputable niceties, which, he foresaw, would arise in the Christian church, and usurp the name of sound doctrine. He characterizes it by its moral tendency: it is fit to be applied to reprove, and rebuke sin, and exhort to holiness, ver. 2, purposes to which practical doctrine alone is applicable. He characterizes it by both these qualities, in his description of the persons who "will not endure it," ver. 4: their aversion to it is owing to " their own lusts," to a vitiated taste loathing the plain truths of" the gospel, peculiar prejudices producing delight in empty subtleties, or corrupt passions disgusting them against the holy doctrine of the gospel, and attaching them to frigid, abstract notions which touch not the heart, and to loose opinions which give countenance or licence to their favourite vices. Prompted by such lusts, " they heap to themselves teachers," such as gratify their ill-directed curiosity or their prejudices, by dwelling on the distinctive subtleties of some human system; such as by amusing them with these, divert their attention from good practices; such as propagate principles consistent with an immoral life; "having itching ears;" taking pleasure in hearing only what tickles them, by falling in with their distempered notions or their corrupt inclinations.

In writing to Titus, as well as to Timothy, the apostle several times applies the epithet sound to doctrine, to speech, or to faith; and he applies it invariably in the same sense. Among the necessary qualifications, and the indispensible duties of a Christian bishop, he specifies this, "Holding fast the faithful word, as he hath been taught, that he may be able, by sound doctrine, both to exhort and convince {he gainsayers," Tit. i. 9. This sound doctrine is the simple doctrine of revelation, as proposed in revelation unadulterated with any thing of human invention: he expressly says so; it is the faithful, the sure, the indubitable word, as he hath been taught. It is doctrine of a practical nature; for by it he might "be able to exhort." That he was desirous of expressing both these characteristics of it, and that particularly in opposition to all unscriptural and unprofitable speculations, is evident from his description (ver. 10, 11, 12.) of the gainsayers whom Christian teachers were to convince By this sound doctrine; that is, by shewing that their refinements had no foundation in it, not by setting up other human explications in opposition to theirs. They were vain talkers, venting frivolous notions under the specious, boasting shew of wisdom and philosophy, of depth or of precision; and by this means

"deceivers, teaching things which they ought not." Their opinions were immoral; they were unruly; they "subverted whole houses;" they flattered the corrupt propensities of the Cretans, who had been justly characterized "always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies." On account of both these depravities of their doctrine, the apostle commands Titus to "rebuke them sharply," to expose the futility and immorality of their notions, ,l that," says he, " they may be sound in the faith," ver. 13, that they may return to the simple and practical doctrine of the gospel, which is the sole object of faith. To keep in view, by what means they had departed from this, he adds, "Not giving heed to Jewish fables;" what these were, we have already seen; "and commandments of men," definitions, determinations, and impositions of human invention, by which they "turn from the truth," ver. 14, or pervert it: and by perverting it, by deviating from its simplicity, they deviate likewise from that holiness which is its end; "they profess that they know God," often that they know him more perfectly, and understand his will more accurately than others; "but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate," ver. 16. It is in direct opposition to these false teachers, that the apostle immediately subjoins in the text, "But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:" and what he here principally meant by it, he professedly and largely explains in the following verses, "That the aged men be sober," and so on, ch. ii. 2—10: it is the inculcating of the plain moral duties of life in every condition. When, among the duties of aged men he mentions, sound in faith, ver. 2, and among those of Titus, sound speech, ver. 8, there can be no doubt that he uses the expression io his ordinary and invariable meaning; and in the latter case he explains it by gravity, weight, or importance, and by uncorruptedness, ver. 7, freedom from all taint of a foreign mixture; aud he says, that it " cannot be condemned;" being the simple doctrine of the gospel, not one human explication opposed to another, it cannot be retorted by the adversary, so " that he that is of the contrary part, must be ashamed,'' ver. 8, confounded and silenced.

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The Works of Samuel Stennetl, D.D., late Pastor of the Christian Church assembling in Little Wild Street, London: now first collected into a body. With some Account of his Life and Writings, by W. Jones,' Author of The History of the Christian Church, ifc. 3 vols. 8vo. pp. 1070. pr. £1. 7s. London: T. Tegg, Clieapside, and Jones, Lovell's Court. 1824.

It has been well and truly said, that the best monument which can be raised to the memory of an author is a good edition of his works. This opinion, we are pleased to find, is gaining ground with the religious part of the community; and we hope it will every year acquire strength and permanence. How it is to be accounted for, that the family and friends of Dr. Stennett have been so tardy in evincing this mark of respect to his memory, it is now useless to enquire. His various productions from the press have never ceased, from the day of his death, to be in public request, and printers and booksellers have continued to find their interest in multiplying copies of them in profusion. But nearly thirty years have been suffered to elapse before«ny attempt has beenniade to furnish a neat and uniform edition of his writings, such as the author himself would have been pleased to witness, had he been still on earth, or, if the speculation may be allowed, such as, even from the superior state to which we trus't he is removed, he may yet contemplate with satisfaction. The desideratum, however, is now supplied, and we congratulate our readers upon it. True glory, as Cicero tells us, consists in doing what deserves to be written, or in writing what deserves to be read. The character of Dr. Stennett will stand the test of examination by this criterion, both as a Christian and an author. Few indeed are the authors who have possessed clearer views of the Gospel—imbibed more of its benevolent spirit—or shewn more anxious concern for the best interests of mankind. The usefulness with which the great Giver of all good has honoured his works must have added to the bliss of the writer, and excited

his most ardent praises that he had been employed in "turning many to righteousness." If the glorified spirit of our author can be acquainted with what passes on earth, he will rejoice that, though he has left "the earthly house of his tabernacle," and no longer shares in the imperfections and sorrows of the world, he is yet privileged in instructing us on the most important subjects. By a new edition of his works he will be introduced to hundreds, perhaps to thousands, who have hitherto scarcely heard of his name; and his labours, through the blessing of God, may long continue to promote the increase and the purity of the church on earth—add to the number of the inhabitants of heaven—and swell the praises of the God of salvation.

Dr. Stennett was indeed an excellent man. He belonged to a. family that God has long honoured with piety, talents, and usefulness. He sustained a distinguished rank among the ministers with whom the Baptist denomination was blest in the last century, and his talents and virtues procured him universal esteem and respect. He was a Christian of the primitive school. As a preacher, his character was delineated in the Protestant Dissenter's Magazine by his friend Dr. Winter, and is copied from that work by the present compiler of his Memoirs. *

"Few preachers knew better than Dr. Stennett how to blend argument with pathos—how to convince the judgment, and to touch the finest feelings of the heart. His discourses were at once rational and affectionate; and, what stamps on them the highest character, they were scriptural. Large was his acquaintance with revealed religion. From that hallowed source he had skill to derive whatever could inform, awaken, comfort, and invigorate. And as he never entered the pulpit without deeply feeling the importance of the work in which he was about to engage, so hespoke from the heart. He was evidently interested to a very high degree in the welfare of his hearers, and it was his desire, his prayer, his labour, that they might- be saved. This inspired him with that sort of eloquence that insensibly wins on the mind. In comforting the afflicted, and encouraging the weak, there was a soothing tenderness, not in his language only, but in his delivery, which was well adapted to gain their attention, by convincing them that the preacher felt for their happiness;—and though this was perhaps his particular forte, yet at other times, when he wa3 reasoning with the" opposer of religion, expostulating with the careless and indifferent, and urging the slothful to activity and diligence, there was an animation and energy in his attitude and his countenance which added grace to his most forcible exhortations."

Considered as an author, the writer of the Memoir before us says,

"If we carefully examine his style, we shall find his compositions characterized by the highest qualities of good writing; insomuch that we think it would be difficult for a young minister to select a better model for imitation. He was a perfect roaster of the English language, and from his earliest appearance as an author had accustomed himself to such accuracy, both in preaching and writing, that he rarely allowed a careless, inelegant, or negligent expression to escape him on any occasion. His mind was enriched with a copia terborum, and this enabled him uniformly to clothe his ideas in the most appropriate terms. Perspicuity is a prominent feature in his style of writiag. For, not only can his meaning be understood, but it is so happily expressed upon every occasion, that it would need some pains to misunderstand him. Yet his language is as remarkable for a chastened simplicity as it is for any other property. We never find Dr. Stennett going in quest of the sesquipadalia verba; there is no affected strut— no deep imposing sound—no great swelling words of vanity introduced into his periods for the sake of display: his prose is the prose of Addison; and while it is level to the capacity of the unlettered reader, it is never slovenly or negligent. It is always the best adapted to the subject of which he is treating, and we should find it difficult, in any instance, to remove a word, arid replace it with a better." Vol. I. xxvii. xxviii.

This, it will be said, is high praise, but it is fully borne out by the volumes before us. The subjects are as important as the style is correct; and it would not be ^in easy task to select an author who is more calculated to convince the judgment—subdue the affections—and influence the conduct of his readers.

The first volume is introduced with a neat portrait of the author, and an ac

count of his life and writings, extending to nearly forty pages. Our readers will not expect us to say much on this part of the volume: for though this Review is not written by the Editor of the work, praise might be accounted the flattery of a friend, and it shall therefore be left to speak for itself.

The Memoir is succeeded by the Doctor's seventeen Discourses on Personal Retigion. The subjects and texts on which they are founded we will subjoin.—The Nature of Religion, 1 Cor. iv. 20.—The Reality of Religion, 2 Tim. iii.5.—TheSamenessof Religion, 1 Cor. xii. 13.—The Importance of Religion, Luke x. 42.—The Difficulties attending Religion, Matt. xvi. 24.—The Difficulties of Religion surmounted, Matt. xi. SO.— The Pleasantness of Religion, Prov. iii. 17.—The Fruits of Religion, Rom. vi. 22.—The Divine Origin of Religion, James iii. 17.—Christ the grand Medium of Religion, Eph. ii. 10.—The Means of Improvement in Religion, 2 -Pet. iii. 18.—Improvement in Religion the Fruit of Divine Influence, Hos. xiv. 5. —The Use of Religion in a Time of Affliction, Psalm xlvi. 10.—Perseverance in Religion the Christian's Duty, Judges viii. 4. — Religion an abiding Principle, Phil, k 6.—The Use of Religion in Death, Psalm xxiii. 4.—The Final Consummation of Religion in Heaven, Rom. vi. 22.

If our readers can rise from the perusal of these discourses without a deeper conviction of the necessity and the advantages of personal religion than they had before, they are very differently constituted from ourselves, nor can we at all envy their spiritual state. How clearly does he delineate the nature of genuine piety! How beautifully does he exhibit the commencement— the progress—the fruits—and the completion of a work of grace on the soul! The man who could write these discourses must himself have shared largely of the religion of the heart.

Our limits will afford but one extract from this volume. It is from the discourse on "The Reality of Religion," and presents us with the testimony of a profligate to its excellence and value.

"Let the man of a dissolute and profane character stand forth, and say, whether, amidst all his ignorance, folly, and impiety, he hath not, on some occasion at least, felt an alarming attestation in his breast to the divinity of religion. There

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is such a thing surely as conscience; and that, like a faithful monitor, hath, in a thousand instances, been heard to say, 'Verily there is a reward for the righteous—there is a God who judgeth in the earth. His eye is upon thee; and all thy thoughts, dispositions, and resolutions, as well as all thine outward actions, he will one day bring into judgment.' Yea, conscience hath assumed the character of a judge, as well as 'a monitor—arraigned the sinner at its awful tribunal—entered into the secrets of his heart—and, having accused, convicted, and condemned him, hath, as it were, ordered him forth to execution. And oh! the extreme anguish of the wicked, while they fcave thus heard the sentence of divine wrath pronounced in their ears, and have felt the beginnings , of future misery, in all the fear, shame, and confusion which the present apprehension of it excites. How have their countenances changed, like Belshazzar's at the sight of the finger against the wall! and how have 'their thoughts troubled them, so that the joints of' their 'loins have been loosed,' and their ' knees have smote one against another!' To such checks, such starts, such fits of melancholy, or whatever other name may be given it, few wicked men are perfect strangers. And though, when the paroxysm is over, and the violence of their fears is somewhat abated, they may take pains to persuade themselves out of the just and natural consequences of these convictions, by fond conceits of superstition, imagination, and bodily disorder, yet surely they cannot coolly reflect on what hath passed, without shrewdly suspecting that there is such a thing as religion, and that conscience is the counterpart of God's Jioly word. Such, then, are the feelings of the profligate.

"And admitting that there are some few of this character, who, in the midst of life and health, have the happiness, as they judge it, to escape these tempests within, there are, nevertheless, innumerable instances of bad men, who, in the immediate view of an eternal world, have been obliged to join issue with the Bible, and to acknowledge, in the presence of surrounding spectators, that this is no 'cunningly devised fable,' but a most important reality. And however even the soberer part of mankind may, too many of them, think lightly of the inward power of godliness, yet, when the interesting scenes of a future state are very nearly before their eyes, there are few of them but do acknowledge, either directly or indirectly, that something more is necessary to make them meet for the enjoyment of God than that general decency of external conduct in which they have, unhappily, placed the VOL. X.

essence of religion. Thus, you see, the men who deny the power of godliness, whether we take them from among the openly profane, or those of only a mere moral behaviour, they are all obliged, at some time or other of their lives, to fall in with the convictions of conscience, and to submit to the mighty force of truth.'' Vol. I. 35, 36.

The former part of the second volume contains a series of twelve Discourses on Domestic Duties; and nowhere does our author appear to greater advantage than in these masterly compositions. The affectionate feeling, the correct taste, the strong sense, the extensive learning, and, above all, the ardent piety of the author are all brought to bear on the subjects he discusses. The public approbation has been shewn hy the numerous editions of these discourses that have been called for, and we have no doubt but their usefulness will be extensive and lasting. We have been struck with the beautiful imagery, and the happy modes of illustration that eminently characterize thess sermons, and had marked several passages for extract, but we must forego the gratification of inserting the greater part of them. The reader shall have the titles and texts of this part of the volume.—The Duties of Benevolence considered and enforced, Phil. ii. 4.—Family Religion in general, Josh. xxiv. 15. —Family Worship, Rom. xvi. 5.—Reciprocal Duties of Husbands and Wives, Eph. v. 33.—Duties of Parents to their Children, Prov.xxii. 6.—Duties of Children to their Parents, Eph. vi. l—3.— Duties of Servants to Masters, Eph. vi. 5—8.—Duties of Masters to Servants, Eph.vi.9.—Domestic Friendship, Psalm cxxxiii.—Hospitality, 1 Pet. iv. 9.—Convivial Intercourse, Job i. 4, 5.—Heaven considered as a Family, John xiv. 2.

The following remarks on the manner of spending the Sabbath are of too much importance to be passed over. We hope they will be seriously considered by our readers. The author is speaking on the heads of families obliging them regularly to attend the public worship of God: and having shewn the nature of that worship, he proceeds,—

"Now as every pious man will feel himself obliged to pay a due regard to public worship, so they who have families must be sensible it is their duty to oblige their children and servants to attend regularly upon it. At an early hour the master 2 Z

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