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bed above, as announced by the University, will be adopted also by the College.
It is hardly necessary to add, that the erection of the two se. minaries must prove a singular benefit to the community. Not only will the establishment of King's College satisfy those who bad conscientious (though, as we think, most unfounded and mistaken) scruples respecting the supposed defects of the University; not only will it relieve the fears (no better grounded, as we conceive) of such as were alarmed at seeing any collegiate body unconnected with the church, but an incalculable advantage will be gained by the means of academical education being doubled, in a situation, where, if four colleges, instead of two, were erected, the supply would soon be found all too little for the demand. And not only will the amount of instruction be increased, its quality will be improved. A most wholesome rivalry will be excited between the two bodies; and both the managers, in their administration, and the professors, in their tuition, will be stimulated, by competition, to furnish the prime blessing of sound and useful learning in the best manner, and on the most reasonable and convenient terms. That any the least danger to the ancient universities can arise from the utmost prosperity of both the new foundations, and of the others which assuredly, though on a more limited scale, will follow in other parts of the kingdom, we bold to be entirely out of the question. Even King's College, which, for obvious roasons, is the more likely to receive pupils at the expense of Oxford and Cambridge, can, to those great and flourishing seminaries, be an object of no alarm. Their houses are over, flowing with pupils, for whom, even after great additions to their vast buildings, they can find no room. Never was there such a tendency, at least in modern times, and when the laity furnished the principal demand for academical instruction, to resort thither in quest of it, But were it necessary for the prosperity of the old establishments, that this good disposition should be increased, nothing surely is more likely to augment the number of families who send their sons to college, than the erection of the new Institutions in the immediate neighbourhood of the numberless individuals of the metropolis, till now only acquainted with universities by name. Among these will be found many, who, when the taste for academical education has been extended, will prefer Oxford or Cambridge for one son, while the others may be sent to the nearer seminaries; and as even King's College, though a more regular school of divinity than the University, will be less eligible for those destined to the sacred profession than the old endowments, to which so much valuable i
patronage is annexed, we may rest assured that its greatest success will never, in any sensible degree, interfere with the interests of Oxford or Cambridge. Accordingly, the list of its patrons comprehends the names of various eminent persons, connected with those illustrious seminaries by the closest ties,their representatives in parliament,-several heads of houses, in their individual capacity,—two or three of the colleges themselves, as bodies corporate, and many public men, whose known attachment to the ancient universities, is the surest pledge, that, in supporting the new foundation, they feel assured they are not acting an unfriendly part towards the old. · It is impossible to survey these proceedings without the most lively gratification, at the mighty proofs which they afford of the improving spirit of the age, and the earnest, still more cheering which they give of improvement yet more universally diffused and with a more swiftly accelerated pace. Whatever may have been the motives of some in joining the founders of King's College, nay, though we were to admit what has certainly been surmised, that some among the founders themselves were actuated by feelings of a hostile nature towards the London University, or at least towards the principles of its constitution, ill understood by them, we cheerfully overlook any little impurities which may tinge the source, lost as they are in the wholesome stream that is rising from it. What friend of education could stop to inquire why the leaders of the hierarchy took up the cause of National Schools—when he saw that the result was to plant two or even three, for every one established before, by the more humble individuals who began the good work? Who but hailed, with unmixed delight, the entry of bishops into the wide and almost untrodden field of Infant instruction ?* Where then shall bounds be placed to the joy of the advocates of knowledge, when they behold the most powerful persons in the state, the heads of the Government, the Law, and the Church, all uniting in the great effort to bring home to every man's door the benefits of a liberal education, and to domesticate among the myriads of busy men that throng the scene of all trades and all professions, and among
* We have before adverted to the worthy and pious Bishop of Win. chester, before he quitted his former diocese, calling upon his clergy to explain why Infant Schools were not founded in their several parishes. His brother, Dr J. B. Sumner, has been since raised to the Bench
-one of the greatest ornaments, for talents, learning, and integrity, of the English Church-whose elevation affords a striking contrast to the wretched policy that prescribed the neglect of Paley.
the idlers that Ait round the haunts of fashion and pleasure, those calm pursuits of science and letters, which were once deemed only fit for sequestered spots on the sacred streams, and for the chosen few who people their margins ? In feeling thankful for the change, let us not forget that many of those who have suffered themselves to undergo it, deserve the utmost praise for the effort they must have made to conquer their prejudices; although it may be quite true, that in some, one prejudice has overcome another.
But great as the wish of all must be to see both institutions proceeding in the spirit of honest emulation to the attainment of their common object, and arduous, and hitherto successful as the efforts have been, of those who are founding King's College, to press forward their good work, some time must needs elapse before the London University can have any competitor; and we are therefore now to consider what claims to the support of the community it holds out, in the statement which the Council have published of their preparations.
It appears that the most important of the professorships have been filled up, if we except Moral Philosophy and History. Thus all the Medical School is complete, except Surgery, and that, for the present, is to be taught with Anatomy. In the School of Law, the professors of English Law and General Jurisprudence are appointed; the chair of Civil Law not being yet filled. The department of General Education is also nearly complete; there are professors of the language and literature of Greece and Rome and England; Germany, Italy, and Spain; of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; of Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, and Comparative Anatomy; of Political Economy; of Hebrew, Hindostanee, and Oriental Literature. To the vacant chairs already mentioned, must be added those of Geology, Mineralogy, French Literature, and the application of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy to the Arts.
Where so many names of acknowledged eminence appear, it would be invidious to mention particulars; but we may state, as an indication of the desire evinced by the Council to obtain the ablest teachers in every resort of learning and science, that of the eleven professors already chosen, (excluding the Medical School and that of Modern Languages,) one is a member of Trinity College, Dublin; two of the University of Edinburgh ; five of the University of Cambridge ; and two of no university.*
* No one who reads the list of the Council, can for a moment suppose that the promoters of the London University have any prejudice
But some estimate may be formed, both of their capacity to teach, and of the kind of instruction which they design to give, by the outlines which the Council have published of each course of Lectures. Thus it will give an idea of the great fulness and precision with which Natural Philosophy is to be taught, if we extract, from the outline of that class, the head of Geodasy, and show how a subject, often almost passed over, as lying on the borders of Mathematical and Physical science, is to be here thoroughly exhausted. It forms one of the five divisions of Dr Lardner's senior course.
• Part III. GEODÆSY. • OBJECTS OF GEODÆSY ;-Surveying in general - determination of
the magnitude and figure of a large tract of country-Triangulation to determine the magnitude of a spherical triangle-of the
spherical excess-General Roy's rule. OF LEGENDRE'S METHOD ;-Rule for reducing spherical triangles to
equivalent plane ones-application of this rule not confined to small
spherical triangles. OF DELAMBRE'S METHOD;-Reduction of the spherical angle to the
angle under the chords Application of this method. • OF SIGNALS ;-Day signalsTowers, spires, flagstaffs, &c. Flat disc
pierced—Night signals — White lights-Argand lamps with para
bolic reflecters--Method of Gauss-Method of Lieut. Drummond. • OF GEODETICAL INSTRUMENTS;—The repeating circle—The theo
dolite-Repeating theodolite, &c.—Corrections necessary in the angular measurements. OF BASES ;-Methods of measuring them—Bases of verification. • OF CORRECTIONS DEPENDING ON THE SPHEROIDAL FIGURE OF THE
EARTH ;-Reduction of the apparent to the geocentric latitudeDetermination of the reduced latitude-Determination of the angle under the normal and direction of the centre-Determination of the earth's semidiameter at the station-Determination of the radius of curvature-Determination of the equatorial diameter and
the eccentricity. • ACCOUNT OF THE GREAT SURVEYS.'
There is no appearance, however, of greater minuteness and fulness in the Lectures on Natural Philosophy, than in those on all the other branches of literature and science. Indeed the great length of time devoted to the duties of their departments by the professors, will make the thorough discussion of their whole subjects a matter of necessity. The academical year lasts,
against Oxford and Cambridge. Five of these Councillors were regu. larly educated at Oxford, four at Cambridge, and several others are known to have sent their sons to these seats of learning.
generally speaking, eight or nine months, and some of the professors teach every day, three or four hours; others five times a-week, and two hours a-day. But we shall better show the length of the courses of lectures, by comparing some of them with similar courses at seminaries famous for the eminence of the professors, and the diligence and success of their teaching. This will also enable us to appreciate the relative expense of the system of instruction. Let us for this purpose take Guy's Hospital, second to none in the island for every thing that can recommend it, either to patients or pupils. The two courses of Anatomy occupy there each 100 hours of instruction, and cost the pupil nine guineas; the two courses of the London University occupy 120 hours each, and cost L.7. Chemistry at Guy's is taught in two courses of 50 hours each, and for six guineas; in the London University, it is taught in two courses of twice the extent, or 100 hours each, and the fees amount to L.7. A first course of Materia Medica at Guy's occupies 34 hours, and costs three guineas; at the London University it occupies 80 hours, and costs L.3. This comparison is made by those who are intimately acquainted with the subject; but indeed their statements are plainly such as we should be led to by comparing the printed statements of the Guy's lectures, and the account given by the Council of the University. The same comparison shows that the fees of classes required by the rules of the College of Surgeons and Apothecary's Company, to be attended by candidates for diplomas, are at Guy's 45 guineas, at the University L.41 to a student nominated by a proprietor, and L.46, 10s. to one not so nominated—but for these sums he will have had at Guy's 766 hours of teaching, and at the University 1030, supposing the course of Surgery, which is not announced yet, to be only as long there as at Guy's. We need hardly add, that these comparisons are by no means introduced with the design of disparaging the education at Guy's. The great attractions of that famous hospital will always secure the attendance of a large body of pupils; but it is only rendering justice to the Council to show, that they have been most careful in redeeming the pledge originally given, that the means of instruction provided for the inhabitants of the metropolis, should be both ample and economical. No comparisons can be instituted respecting the courses of lectures on general subjects; we are therefore obliged to examine the instructions afforded in the medical schools, and we have purposely chosen the one of greatest celebrity as the standard.
There are other circumstances almost equally deserving of attention in the plan laid down by the Council and the Professors.