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'So much for the genuine half-castes, or immediate descendants of an European parent with a native one. In Calcutta, the whole descendants of Europeans of every nation, including the nearest and remotest degrees, do not exceed five thousand persons. For all British India, they would certainly be overrated at three times this number: the natives converted to Christianity are numerous in the southern parts of the peninsula, but are docile even beyond the Hindus themselves.
'However little danger, present or future, we have to apprehend from the Eurasians, it is our duty to treat them with fairness and justice. At present they are rigidly excluded from all offices of trust, civil or military. From civil offices, indeed, their exclusion is complete; and their highest promotion in the military service is the dignity of a scrjeant or drum-major. Their exclusion from trust, in the country of their birth, is unjust, ungenerous, and impolitic. They cannot, indeed, overthrow our dominion, however we may maltreat them; but the presence of a mass of discontented persons, as they must necessarily be, cannot but contribute more or less to its insecurity.
'The natives converted to Christianity are still more harshly treated than the immediate descendants of Europeans. Under a Christian Government, they are seldom or never employed in any part of India; and under the Madras Government, are expressly excluded " by law" from such humble employments as other natives are eligible to hold!'
Upon the progress which has been recently made in the amalgamation of the two races, and the improvements which have in consequence resulted to the least instructed, the following testimony, confirmed as it is in every part by that of Bishop Heber, appears to us of great value.
'The great majority of British sojourners in India are in the Bengal provinces, and a vast majority of these within the comparatively narrow limits of the town of Calcutta : the whole number of such sojourners does not exceed three thousand persons, of which we compute that about twothirds are the inhabitants of Calcutta; the remaining third, dispersed and powerless, is scattered over the nearly 600,000 square miles beyond its limits. It is, therefore, in the European towns alone, and especially in Calcutta, that there exists any thing like an opportunity for change and improvement; and, considering the smallness of the means, change and improvement have, since the era of the free trade, the short compass of thirteen years, been great and remarkable.
'A few striking examples may be given. The native inhabitants of Calcutta having been last year admitted to sit as petty jurymen in criminal cases, an official list of qualified persons was duly published: the qualification, in respect to education, was such a knowledge of the English language as should enable the party to follow the judge in his charge; and in point of property, an estate of the value of L.500 sterling, or payment of a house rent at L.5 per annum. Persons possessing estates of the value of L.20,000, were exempted from serving on common juries. The lists, admitted to be imperfect, showed eighty-four qualified Indians, of whom no less than fifty-seven were men possessing estates of L.20,000 or upwards.
'From this statement several most interesting and important deductions may be drawn. Not many years ago even a miserable smattering of the English language was confined to a few profligate persons, whose interests brought them into immediate connexion with Europeans for no good purposes. We have here persons representing property worth, at the lowest estimate, L.l,140,000, possessing not only a knowledge of the English language, but sufficient European education to enable them to comprehend the charge of a British judge to a jury. Of the whole number of persons competent to serve on juries, more than sixty-seven in a hundred are of this wealthy class; showing pretty clearly that it is the higher, and not the lower, or even middling orders, that are most disposed to receive European education. In the list of native jurors there is not to be found a single Mahomedan name, either of Hindustan, Persia, or Arabia; the whole is composed of the alleged unchangeable Hindus. Further, the great majority of these wealthy persons are brahmins, and all of them men of high caste.
'As to disinclination to European learning, this is wholly out of the question. On the contrary, both the interests and the practical good sense of the natives lead them to give it a decided preference, notwithstanding some foolish attempts made to restrain them, by diverting their principal attention to the barren field of their own language, literature, and philosophy! Even the Hindu religion seems to be giving way before the light of reason ; and it is well it should; for, independent of its spiritual consequences, the influence which this degrading superstition exercises over civil society, is pernicious and demoralizing, far beyond that of any other known form of worship.'
We shall close our extracts, and conclude this rambling article, with the following just and liberal observation.
'We repeat, that the only suitable and efficient means of improving our conquered subjects—the only means by which one people ever conferred lasting and solid improvement upon another—is a free and unshackled intercourse between the two parties. Will the stability of our dominion be impaired by the improvement of the Hindus? Poor and ignorant nations are always most liable to delusion, and most subject to insurrection ; wealthy and intelligent ones the least so. In proportion, therefore, as the Hindus become instructed, and are rescued from their present poverty, they will only be the more easy of management. This easy management of course supposes the introduction of laws and institutions suitable to, and keeping pace with, their advancement in civilisation. They cannot always be governed as mere helots; nor would a nation of helots be worth the governing. They must be gradually, and as they improve, admitted to a share in their own administration. If this principle be prudently and liberally acted upon, we may maintain our Indian dominions for many centuries.'
VOL. XLVIII. No. 96. 2 A
Art. III.—1. Gaii Institutionum Commentarii 4. e codice rescripto bibliothecas capitularis Veronensis, a Frid. Bluhmio iterum collato secundum edit. Jo. Frid. Jjud. GoescJien. accedit Fragmentum veteris Jurisconsulti de Jure Fisci, ex aliis ejusdem bibliothecae membranis transcriptum. 8vo. Berolini, 1824.
2. Institutes de Gaius recemment découvertes dans un Palimpseste de la Bibliothique du Chapitre de Verone ; et traduites pour la premiere fois en Francais. Par J. B. E. Boulet, avocat a la cottr Roy ale de Paris; avec des Notes. 8vo. Paris, 1827.
3. Jurisconsulti Ante-Justinianei reliquia inedita, ex codice rescripto bibliothecm Pontificioc Vaticana, curante Angelo Maio, Biblioth. ejusd. Prof. 8vo. Romae, 1823.
fTlnE excellence, in every kind of composition, of the Greek '*. and Roman writers during their best ages, and especially of the Greek, is so universally admitted, that it would be quite intolerable to enlarge on it: But the accidents by which our knowledge of them has been restrained or extended, may be allowed to form a subject less trite and familiar. Of some of these renowned authors, the principal works have been handed down to us in an imperfect state; of some, large and valuable portions have escaped destruction, whilst portions equally large and valuable have been lost; of others, a few precious fragments alone remain; minute specimens of the splendid materials and noble workmanship—insignificant scraps and fallen crumbs, that serve, however, to attest the magnificence of the banquet, from which unhappily we are debarred. Of others, and of some of the most distinguished, the entire works have wholly and utterly perished! and we are able to estimate our loss only by the praises which have been lavished on them by critics, who enjoyed the happiness which fortune has withheld from us. It is idle to mourn over the fatal shipwreck which has buried so many treasures. But it may yet be worth while to consider what hopes may be cherished of their recovery; and to ascertain whether any part of the vessel, or of her precious cargo, may be still in existence, although sunk in the depths of the sea, or buried beneath the overwhelming sands; and whether it be possible, by industry or artifice, by the accustomed methods or by new contrivances, to extricate from apparent destruction, and to restore to light, the hidden treasure, whereof the situation and position may have been thus discovered.
The sources from which the lost works of the classical authors
may possibly be recovered, are Four in number; and it will be most satisfactory and convenient to examine each in its order. The First, and most obvious source, is unpublished manuscripts of the ordinary kind. It is easy to imagine, at least, that many works which we now lament as lost, may yet be found by men of good fortune and great diligence, who shall examine the contents of the various well-stored libraries in existence with more care than their predecessors, or who shall explore obscure collections which have not hitherto been deemed worthy of the attention of the learned; that an editio princeps, presenting a faithful transcript of the manuscript, will thus be bestowed on the public, and that be followed in due course by other editions, adorned with the ordinary apparatus of notes, prefaces, emendations, and illustrations, tending to bring the text into the light, or to throw it into deep shadow, according as the editors shall prefer the style of Claude or of Rembrandt.
To fancy that fortune will be thus prodigal of her favours, is no doubt sufficiently easy; but what reason have we to believe that the bright vision will ever be realized? It is true, on the one hand, that the remains of antiquity that still exist, were printed from manuscripts thus sought for and discovered; some of them, and of the most important, from one manuscript only, and this not seldom discovered in an extraordinary manner, or preserved from destruction almost by a miracle. On the other hand, it cannot be denied, and we are bound to acknowledge it with gratitude, that the zeal of those meritorious persons, who exerted themselves at the revival of letters, to obtain copies of the Classics, was so groat; they ransacked libraries with such unwearied industry ; employed so many active assistants; offered such liberal rewards, and paid such large prices, many of them being men of great wealth and influence, that it is difficult to conceive that many manuscripts of importance would escape their eager pursuit. The opinion that their investigations reached to the most remote regions, and that they searched wherever there was a chance of success, is greatly confirmed by the fact, that more recent attempts in places which seemed very likely to have escaped their scrutiny, have commonly ended in disappointment, and in the conviction, that the agents of those great benefactors of their species had formerly been busy there. It is but too evident, therefore, that we must not hope for great accessions from this obvious source. There are, however, some circumstances that induce us to believe, that several works of small magnitude may have been overlooked, and may still be unpublished; these are, chiefly, the mode in which manuscripts were frequently written, and in which they were bound. The most heterogeneous works have often been copied into the same volume, either because the space that remained corresponded with the length of the piece that was to be added, or because an opportunity offered of taking a copy, when no other materials for writing were at hand. That such motives frequently operated is most certain ; for there are many instances of strange bed-fellows being thus brought together; nor is it unusual for the latter work to be written in another and more modern hand. The library of the lawyer might come into the possession of a physician, who would inscribe on some of the blank pages, that had been designed for additions to the institutions of Civil Law, a choice treatise of Galen; and in tbe next century the mixed volume might become the property of a general reader, who valued it principally, because it had afforded him a place to insert some favourite little poem. Manuscripts on distinct subjects have usually been bound together with even less discrimination than has been shown in copying them. Through the indolence of librarians, and the ignorance of binders, authors treating of matters in their natures various, or repugnant, have been brought into close contact, because they were of the same size, and were enough to make a volume of the thickness required; in the same manner nearly as auctioneers form lots of very incongruous articles, or as pamphlets are sometimes bound up in order to preserve them, political, medical, and theological, the name of the thickest being alone inserted in the catalogue, and impressed on the back of tbe volume.
It is highly probable, therefore, that short works may have escaped the vigilance of very sedulous inquirers. An editor, who collates manuscripts, that he may have as pure a text, or as many various readings, as possible, for the most part attends only to tbe work upon which he is engaged; and is as little likely to be diverted from it, by prying into the other contents of the volume, as a surgeon, who starts a case of aneurism in such a miscellany, would be to diverge to either of the learned and angry sermons between which it might happen to be placed. The visitor who enters a library, for the express purpose of ascertaining exactly what it contains, will alone, by turning over each manuscript, page by page, detect the hollow professions of catalogues. Manuscripts have sometimes also been brought to public libraries, and afterwards forgotten, because the zeal through which they had been procured, had unfortunately cooled; we are aware, moreover, that several works of inferior importance, which are known to be in existence, have never been printed. Even of the first masters, it is at least possible, that a few works of small magnitude, a drama, an oration, a short treatise, have been shut