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during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house, during his continuance in office.


Revenue bills.

the President in relation to bills.

bills returned the President.

1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur

with amendments as on other bills. Power and duty of 2. Every bill which shall have passed the house of Rep

resentatives and the Senate, shall before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that

house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections, at large, on their journal, and proProceedings on ceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two

thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by twothirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the vote of both houses shall be determined by yeas and pays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If

any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case, it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concur

rence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be nejournment, to re

same cessary, (except on a question of adjournment) shall be pre

sented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Joint resolutions, except for ad

ceive the sanction as bills.



The Congress shall have powerPowers of Congress

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises ; relative to taxes.

to pay the debts, and to provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States :

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States :

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes :

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uni. form laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the Uni

ted States : Money.

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures :








6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the se. Counterfeiting. curities and current coin of the United States :

7. To establish post offices and post roads :

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by Science. securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries :

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court. Tribunals. To define and punish piracy and felony committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations :

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, War. and make rules concerning captures on land and water :

11. To raise and support armies ; but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years :

12. To provide and maintain a navy:

13. To make rules for the government and regulation of Land and Naval the land and naval forces :

14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions :

15. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress.

16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatso- Legislation over a ever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as

District, &c. may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like aụthority over all places purchased, by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings and 17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and

proper for carrying into execution the forgoing powers, and all other of their powers. powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Laws necessary for the execution


Writ of Habeas

1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of

Of the importa

tion of certain perthe States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not sons, &c. be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be

Corpus. suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law, shall be passed. Attainder, &c.

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in Direct taxes. proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

Of commerce from the States, &c.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another, nor shall vessels bound to or from one state be oblig.

ed to enter clear, or pay duties in another. Of expenditures. 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in con

sequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all pub

lic money shall be published from time to time.. No nobility creat- 7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States, accepted by u. s. and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, officers, &c. shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept any present,

emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

ed and no presents



Powers which the
States can exercise

Powers prohibited

1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confedto the individual eration; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money;

remit bills of credit; make anything but gold or silver coin a tender in payment of debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

2. No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay only under the any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may sanction of Con- be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and

the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.



Executive power.

Electors of Presi. dent and

Vice President.

1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress ; but no Senator or Representative, or person holding office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not

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be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And Their proceedings. they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; wbich list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the president of the Senate. The president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number is a majority of the whole number of electors appointed : and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the house of Representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list, the said house shall, in like manner, choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; a quoram for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors, shall be the Vice president. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, [*Annulled, soe

amendments, art. the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the Vice Presi

12.] dent, *

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Time of choosing electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of Qualifications for the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitu- President. tion, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of When his duties his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and Vice President, &c. duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the Presi. dent and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his ser- Compensation. vices a compensation, which shall neither be increased or diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive during that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:

9. “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully exe- Oath of the Presicute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."



inferior officers.


SECTION 2. Powers of the Pre

1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the army and

navy of the United States, and of the milita of the several States when called into the actual service of the United States. He may require the opinion in writing of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and conHis powers with the advice and con- sent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of sent of the Senate. the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by

and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose

appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which Of appointment of shall be established by law. But the Congress may, by law,

vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the

heads of departments. President may fill 3. The President shall have power to fill up

all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next session.

SECTION 3. 1. He shall from time to time, give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. He shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

SECTION 4. 1. The President, Vice President, and all Civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.


SECTION 1. 1. The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested

one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Con. gress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior; and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Duties of Presi. dent.

Judicial power.

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