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soul are

2 oul is of itself ore both chefe faculties are only modally (or in

IV. Should we not then at last fee every difficulty Which is removed, and the whole of that controversy, among

the less to divines, about the subject of faith, settled, if, as dred, as we justly may, we hould refuse, that there is any the faculreal distinction of understanding and will,' as well ties of the from the soul, as from each other? For, what is the rational understanding, but the soul understanding and

not really knowing? What else the will, but the soul willing diftin&t. ảnd deliring! We must on no account conceive Lag as soul,

itself brutish ir

a rational

, which at length becomes intelligent and rational, when something else is given to it.

it. What fome affirm, that the understanding comes from the foul by a certain kind of emanation, is what we can scarcely conceive. For, if the foul, in its proper and formal concepcion, does not include the power of reasoning, it can never produce it; for we are in casa vain to expect from a cause, what it contains neiendowed with the faculty of reasoning, no necesity

1 like holds with respect to the will, which is not really distinct from the soul, any more than the understanding. But is the very soul ittelf, as God has given it a natural aptitude to desire good. Since manner of apprehension] distinct from the soul, lo they are also from each other. For if the will be so

los? diftinct from the understanding, as in itself to be srom pa blind, it is not possible to explain, how it can pera ceive, and fo rationally desire the object, discovered by the understanding, as good. And for what is ealon, prays thoug

should we make a real difference between these

1 hele wo? Is it, because the object is different? But the object of both is really the same; namely a true good, tho the manner of our con sidering it differs. For the understanding considers F 2



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the good as true and the will desires, this true thing
as it is good. And do not the objects of the spe-

culative and practical understanding differ far more

sit among themselves ? And yet philosophers generally ik wez: agree, that they are but one and the fame power of i.," the foul. Is it because their acts are different? But

every difference of acts does not infer a difference of 19:11 power. Indeed, simple apprehension differs from

judgement and discourse or reasoning; which yet

are all the acts of the same faculty. No new

* V. This': ought not to be look'd upon as a new assertion afiertion..: Scotus long ago maintained, that the in the

understanding and will, differed neither among schools.

themselves, nor from the soul, int 2. dift. 15. qu. to
Scaliger, in like manner, whose words we fhall not
fcruple to transcribe from his Exercitat. 307. So
15. Altho': the understanding and will, says he, are
one thing; yet they are distinguished by the manner in
lo hich we conceive them. For, they are proper and not
accidental affeétions of the foul, and one thing with
it. ! As ONE, GOOD, and TRUE are the affections of
entity, or being' ; nay one and the same thing with being
itself. But they are distinguished from it, and among
themselves by definition, in this manner : because being
itself is placed in the first nature or effence, which
nature does in some meafure display itself, and is the
cause : of that O'NE; TRUE, and GOOD. Which is a
formality different from the first formality. Because the
nation of being is one thing, as it is being, and another,
asit is one. For, the latter follows and arises from the
former; but not without it; for, it is one thing. Thus
foul, understanding and will are one thing. Yet the soul
denotes the essence : the understanding, that very assence,
as it apprehends: the will, the same with that in-
telligent eljence tending to enjoy the thing known, or
understood. Thus far Scaliger. Durandus : was of
opinion, that, indeed, the faculties differ really
from the soul, but not from each other. - An opi-
mion, which Voffius is above all pleased with, de


faith is not that di

Idololat. Lib. 3. c. 42., Which is sufficient for our present purpose : as we are not then to separate those faculties, no wonder, tho’ we place faith in both.

VI. Mean while, we observe, that, among those of the fe. acts, which we are about to describe there is one, veral acts principal act, in which we apprehend, the very here is effence, and formal nature of faith consists, as it one prinunites us with Christ and justifies us. This is to be cipal act, carefully taken notice of in the matter of justification, least any one hould look upon some acts of love, which, in different ways, are implied in the exercise of faith, as the causes of justification..... 23

VII. Moreover, we are likewise to maintain, that in the thole, things, which we, shall, for the greater accu- practice of racy, explain distinctly in particular, Itand various ways mutually connected in the very exercise of faithe HinatorWhile the whole soul is engaged in this work of God, der, which very many actions may all at once tend towards God is exhibit

ed in and Christ, without observing any certain method;

theory, and which the believer engaged in this work itself, has neither leisure, nor inclination to range in their proper arder; nay, sometimes it is impoffible to do it. Yet it is expedient, that we attend to the natural process of faith, whereby its entire nature and man, ner may be the more thoroughly perceived. VIII. The first thing, which faith either compre. To faith

belongs hends, or presupposes, is the knowledge of the thing to be believed. This appears in opposition to Por

ledge. pish trịfers. , 1. From express passages of Scripture, which fo speak concerning faith, as manifestly to intimate, that knowledge is included in its very not tion and exercise, Il. 53. II. John 17. 3. compared with Heb. 2.,4. John 6. 69.: 2 Tim. 1.c3. II. From the nature of faith itself, which, as it, doubtless, means an affent given to a truth revealed by God, neceffarily presupposes the knowledge of these two things. (1). That God has revealed something. (2). What that is to which affent is given,

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as a thing divinely revealed. For it is abfurd to say, that a person affents to any truth, which he is entire. ly ignorant of, and concerning which he knows of no teftimony extant, worthy of credit. III. From the manner, in which faith is produced in the elect; which is done externally by preaching and hearing of the Gospel, Rom. 10.-17 revealing that which ought to be believed, with the demonstration of the truth to every man's confeience, 2 Cor. 4. 2; and internally by the teaching of God the Father, Jobn 6. 45., If therefore faith be generated in the heart by a teach ing both external and internal, it must of necesity consist in knowledge: -for, knowledge is the proper and immediate effect of such instruction IV, Erom the consequence annexed, which is confeffion and Pattrodomés or giving an answer, Rom, 10.9, 10, 1 Pet. 3. 15. But it is impoffible, that this should be without

knowledge. Hilary, faith well, For, none can speak, ta? what be knows not, nor believe wbat he cannot speakı Which

IX. Buçindeed, it must be confeffed, that in the pres yet in ma. fent dark state of our minds even the moft illuminated ny is very implicite.

are ignorant of a great many things is, and that many things are believed with an implicite faith, especially by young beginners and babes in Chrid so far as they admic, in general, the whole Scriptures to be the infallible standard of what is to be believed in which are contained many things, which they do not un derstand, and in as far as they embrace the leading doctrines of Christianity, in which many other truths concenter, which are thenee deduced by evidene confequence, and which they believe in their foqndation or principali casifohr writes concerning I believers, that 'they knew all things toon 2 295, because they had learned by the teaching of the spuit, that found ation of foundations, to which all faving truths are reduced, and from which they are inferred, But, I

go step farcher :cit is possible, that one, to whom God, who diftributes his blessings as he pleases, has meafured out a small degree of knowledge, may yet be most firmly rooted in the faith, eveni to maytyra


dom. But then it no ways follows, that faith is bets ter described by ignorance than by knowledge of that they do well, who cherish ignorance among the people as the mother of faith and devotion, contrary to Col. 3. 16: for we can by no means believe, what we are quite ignorant of, Rom. 10. 14. And all should ftrive to have their faith as little implicit, and as much distinct as possible ; as becometh chose, who are filled with all knowledge, Rom. 15. '14. For the more distinctly a person fees by the light of the Spie rit, a truth revealed by God, and the rays of divis nity fhining therein, the more firm will be his bem lief of that truth. Thofe very martyrs, who, in other respects, were rude and ignorant, moft clearly And diftinąly saw those truths, for which chey made no fcruple to lay down their lives, to be most cere cain and divine, tho perhaps they were not able to dispute much for them.

X. Moreover, those things, which are necessary to Summary be known by the person who would believe, are in

of the

things Heral, the divinity of the Scriptures, into which falth must be ultimately resolved; more efpecially, known. those things, which regard the obtaining of falvation in Chrift; which may fummarily be reduced to these three heads.stift, To know, that by fin thou art cfranged from the life of God, and art come sort of the glory of God, Rom. 3. 23. That it is not possible, that either thou thyself, or an angel from heaven, for any creapure in the world, nay, or all the crea. tures in the universe, can extricate thee from the abyss of mifery, and restore thee to a ftate of happi. nefs. Izdly that thou shouldt know Christ this Lord to be full of grace and trub, John 1. 142 who is that only name given under heaven, whereby we can be laved, SAES 4. 12, and in the knowledge of Iwhom confift erernal life, Fobu 17. 3. ugdly, That sthou foulaft know, that, in order to thy obraining Falvation in Christ, it is necessary that thou be united to Chrift, by the spirit and by faith, and give up thy.

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to be


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