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brated for excellent cattle, and numerous flocks Jersey, the grazing and fatting of cattle are inof sheep.

portant branches of agriculture; and the pro219. Massachusetts is considered the best cul- ducts of the dairy are very fine. In Virginia, tivated state in the Union, except Pennsylvania; and the western states, great numbers of swine and much advance bas been made by means of are raised in the woods for provisions. Large agricultural societies, and the premiums offered quantities of pork are exported from the Western by them. Connecticut has commenced a similar States; and droves of horses and cattle are sent course of improvement.

into the Atlantic states. The winters are so mild 220. The middle, or wheat region, comprises that they usually require no shelter, and little the southern and western parts of New York, fodder. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, the states north of 228. The warm or cotton region of the United the Ohio, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and States, commences in Tennessee and the southern hentucky. In New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- parts of Virginia, and extends to the gulf of vania, Delaware, and the neighbouring portions Mexico. In all the states lying south of Pennof Maryland and Virginia, tillage is generally sylvania and the river Ohio, the land is tilled conducted with skill.

almost entirely by slaves. In consequence of 222. Pennsylvania was the first state in the this, agriculture is much more imperfect than in l'nion in which agricultural societies were the porthern states, where the farmer himself is formed, and doubtless holds the first rank in usually employed in the labours of the field. agricultural improvements. These have been

229. Cotton is the chief article of culture in chiefly made in the south-western parts, extend- this region, and yields great profit to the planter, ing to the foot of the Blue Ridge. "Much of the It is raised throughout Virginia for home connorthern and western parts is still covered with sumption, and has been found to flourish still forests. In this state was first introduced the farther north. Rice and maize are the principal practice of manuring with clover, which has so grains of the cotton region. Maize is the prinnauch enriched the soil of that and all the neigh- cipal food of the slaves in these states, and in bouring states. It is raised by means of plaster Virginia. Rice is exported in considerable quanof Paris in luxuriant crops, and is then ploughed tities. Wheat and rye are little cultivated, except into the soil.

in the hilly country. Barley, oats, hemp, and 223. In Maryland and Virginia much less tobacco flourish here. Indigo has been cultiattention is paid to agriculture; and lands are vated to a great extent, especially in Georgia frequently worn out and deserted for want of and South Carolina ; but the profits arising from care. The valley of the Shenandoah, west of the the crops of cotton now lead to the neglect of Blue Ridge, is superior in tillage to the sur- all others. The potatoe cannot be cultivated to rounding country.

advantage in this region; and the sweet potatoe, 224. In the western states on the Ohio the a plant of a different species, generally subnative richness of the soil is not yet exhausted; stituted. and, without the aid of an improved system of 230. Peaches are abundant and fine. The agriculture, the crops are far superior to those of fig and pomegranate are also raised, and the the best cultivated states on the Atlantic. orange and lemon grow imperfectly in South

225. The wheat of the middle region is the Carolina. Apples, pears, and other fruits of the fiuest produced in the United States, and forms temperate regions degenerate, the third in importance among our exports.

231. The cotton is of two kinds. The blackMaize is raised in great quantities, and rye, oats, seed or sea-island by far the most valuable; and buck-wheat are abundant. Tobacco is ex- but it can be raised only in a few districts, and tensively cultivated in Maryland, Virginia, and chiefly on the low islands which line the coast Kentucky, and, next to cotton, is the most valu- of the southern states. The green-seed, or upable article of export from the United States. land cotton, requires so much labour to separate Hemp was formerly cultivated extensively in it from the seed, that it was not worth raising Kentucky, but of late it has been exchanged until the invention of the cotton-gin. Before for tobacco, as a more profitable crop.

this time it was an article of small importance, 226. In the states on the Atlantic orchards but now it forms one-third of the exports of the are numerous, and great quantities of cider are United States, exceeding in value all the other made. The cider of New Jersey (especially of products of the field and the forest. Newark) is much celebrated, and often rivals the 232. The tropical region embraces Louisiana, Champagne wine of France in sprightliness and Florida, and the southern parts of Georgia, Alaflavour. West of the mountains, orchards are bama, and the Mississippi. Sugar is here an more rare, and large quantities of grain are important article of culture, and an object of inraised for the distillation of spirituous liquors. creasing attention. Coffee may probably be The peach is abundant in Virginia, Maryland, raised; but experiment has not yet been made Delaware, New Jersey, Ohio, the southern parts to any extent. of Pennsylvania, and the western parts of New 234. Maize produces luxuriant crops, almost York. Extensive orchards are cultivated in Vir- without cultivation. But the inhabitants of the giuia, for the manufacture of peach brandy. whole region lying on the Mississippi and Gulf Pears, cherries, plums, and other fruits flourish of Mexico, south of Kentucky, depend chiefly on in most parts of this region. At Vevay, on the the states on the Ohio river for supplies of grain, Ohio river, vineyards have been planted by a and are occupied more profitably in the culture colony of Swiss, and good wine is made.

Great numbers of cattle and 227. Io New York, Pennsylvania, and New Swine are raised and fattened in the woods with

of cotton or sugar.

very little care. The orange, lemon, and fig, are serious difficulties and dangers. Little has yet found in this region in perfection ; and it is not been done to improve roads; but in all these improbable, that this tract of country may sup- states, except Tennessee and Kentucky, a porply us hereafter with sugar and coffee, and most tion of the proceeds of public lands sold by the of the important productions of the tropical re- United States, is appropriated to them, besides gions.

the usual taxes; and we may expect a rapid 235. Roads.—Probably no people ever made improvement in this respect, when these states so many improvements in roads, bridges, and become thickly settled. In Louisiana, the levees canals, over such an extent of country in the on the banks of the streams form excellent same time, as the inhabitants of the United roads. States. Two centuries ago the whole tract 239. The most important post-road of the was a wilderness, covered with forests, and tra- United States, is that which traverses the states versed only by the foot-paths of the Indians. on the Atlantic, a distance of 1800 miles, passing Now, there are roads constructed in every direc- through all the principal towns, from Robbinstion to connect the villages, towns, and cities, town in Maine, to Florida. The principal roads which have sprung up in rapid succession. In from the Atlantic to the western states are—the 1790 the extent of post-roads was only 1875 great western turnpike of New York, from Almiles; in 1818 it was 51,600. The number of bany to Buffalo and Erie; the road from Philapost-offices exceeds 4000; and the mail is trans- delphia, through Lancaster, to Pittsburgh; and ported 20,000 miles daily. To describe all the the Cumberland road, from Washington city to roads would require an enumeration of all the Wheeling on the Ohio river. The latter was important settlements in the country. A large constructed at the expense of the general governnumber are public roads, constructed and re- ment, and is probably the best route over the paired by the towns through which they pas3; mountains. Other roads, of less importance, but the great roads are usually turnpikes, con- cross the Allegany ridge in Virginia and North structed by the state or incorporated bodies, and Carolina ; and the state of South Carolina has supported by tolls. Only their general charac- recently opened a road across the mountains to ter, and the most important routes, can be de- Tennessee. scribed.

240. A military road has been opened by 236. The northern primitive district of the General Jackson, at the expense of the United United States, including New England and the States, from Nashville in Tennessee to Madisonnorthern part of New York, falls within the cold ville on lake Ponchartrain, opposite New Orleans, region; and generally has permanent snows which may be travelled by wagons. A branch during the winter, as far south as latitude forty- leads from this road to Natches, through the wiltwo degrees, which render travelling easy, and derness inhabited by the Choctaw Indians. From protect the roads from injury. New England New Orleans the traveller may continue his and the greater part of the middle states are journey by a road which has been opened by the intersected in every direction by roads, which inhabitants of Louisiana, across the adjoining are usually well constructed, and in good repair. province of Texas and the desolate plains of New York and Pennsylvania have little advan- the Rio del Norte, to the capital of Mexico. tage from the snow; and the rich clayey soil, There are few obstacles to be overcome in which is most prevalent, renders the roads very making it a good commercial route: the ascent bad during the winter. The same is true to a of the table-land in this direction is easy ; and greater extent in Maryland. In Pennsylvania Humboldt observes, that public coaches will about eight millions of dollars are invested in doubtless one day roll from Philadelphia and roads and bridges.

Washington to Mexico and Acapulco.' The 237. In the sandy alluvial country of the At- chief difficulties now existing are the want of lantic coast, from New York to Florida, the roads water and habitations. are heavy, and not easily improved; but they 241. MINES AND MINERALS.--With the exrarely present the difficulties and dangers found ception of the mines of the precious metals in in the roads of a rich country, after a wet season. Mexico, almost all our mineralogical knowledge The scattered state of population has prevented of North America is confined to the United much attention to roads in the states south of States. Silver has never been discovered in the Maryland, and frequent impediments are pre- United States, except in very small quantities. sented by the want of bridges and causeways Sand containing gold has been found in Caover the streams and marshes.

barras county, in North Carolina ; in the beds 238. In the western states, the richness of the of Meadow creek, a branch of the Pedee, and soil, the want of stone and gravel, and the mois- other small streams. Between 1810 and 1820 ture of the winter, render the construction of gold was sent to the United States' mint from good and permanent roads almost impracticable. this place, which was valued at 19,000 dollars, During the wet season the ditticulty of travelling and the amount is said to be increasing: is very great; and many roads are scarcely pass- 242. There are numerous and inexhaustible able for wheel-carriages. The streams are so beds of iron ore in the United States, particuvariable at different seasons, that most of them larly along the Allegany or Apalachian mouncan be forded during the dry season, and bridges tains, from Franconia in New Hampshire, to are rarely built. The banks are high and steep, Georgia. Twelve mines are now open in Visand the difficulty of passage is often very ginia; Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio, also great. During high water many of the streams abound in iron. New York, New Jersey, and become impassable, and the traveller encounters Pennsylvania, produce ore in abundance, of a

In many

quality not exceeded in Sweden. New Jersey, 246. The United States are well supplied with besides the iron-stone in the north, has extensive coal. One of the most extensive coal mines beds of bog-ore on the coast, which are renewed now wrought, is near Richmond, Virginia, in a some years after they have been once exhausted. bed of bituminons coal, twenty miles in length. Similar beds occur in other parts of the alluvial Large quantities are exported to other states. coast, south of New Jersey; but they are not 247. In Pennsylvania the coal beds are said extensively wrought. In Connecticut, impor- to extend over one-third of the surface. Beds of tant mines are wrought at Salisbury, and at anthracite, or stone-coal, without bitumen, of other places in Litchfield county. Massachusetts excellent quality, are found along the Susquehas a number of mines ; and the green moun- hannah river at Reading, and across to the tains of Vermont contain numerous beds of ore. heads of the Schuylkill and Lehigh. Beds of

243. Copper is often found in pure metallic bituminous coal extend from the mouth of the masses, sometimes very large, on lake Superior. Juniata river, through all the country watered A single mass on the Onontagon river is esti- by the Susquehannah, to Pittsburgh. From mated to exceed a ton in weight. Copper ore this place they continue down the Ohio to Misis found in many parts of the United States; but souri; and along the valley of the Mississippi to po mines are now wrought. That of Belleville the heads of the river Tombigbee. There are near Newark, New Jersey, was formerly very also indications of coal beds in the secondary productive.

region extending from New Haven to Middle244. The United States also contain several ton, Connecticut, and thence to Northampton. extensive beds of lead ore. The mine at South- Rhode Island has a mine of anthracite ; and ampton, Massachusetts, is the principal now another has recently been discovered in Worwrought east of the Mississippi. Lead is found, cester county, Massachusetts. however, on the Schuylkill river; on the Great 248. The interior is also well supplied with Kenhawa; at Middleton, Connecticut; and in that mineral of the first necessity-salt. The most of the states comprised in the primary and Great Desert of North America is encrusted secondary regions. The lead mines of Missouri, with salt in many places; and its waters are gelying near the Mississippi river, are among the nerally brackish in the dry season. richest in the world. The ore is found ahun- parts of the western United States there are spots dantly, within two feet of the surface, in detach- of ground so impregnated with it, that wild ed masses weighing from 1 to 1800 pounds. animals resort to them, and lick the surface: The annual produce is estimated at three mil- this has given them the name of salt-licks. lions of pounds. Dubuqu’s lead mines, on the There are numerous brine springs, also, found Mississippi, have been wrought, until recently, rising from beds of salt, so strongly impregby the Indians, who sold the ore to the whites; nated, that it is obtained for use by evaporating and have produced 30,000 or 40,000 pounds their waters. They abound throughout the seannually.

condary region of the United States, particularly 245. Mercury has heen discovered in small on the Ohio river and its branches, in Ohio, quantities in the form of black and red sand. Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia; It occurs on the southern shores of lakes Mi- and near the small lakes of New York. The most chigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Erie, as far east as extensive salt works are at Salina in New York, the mouth of Vermilion river. No considerable and on the Great Kenhawa river in Virginia. deposit has been discovered. A single mine of 249. Gypsum, which is so valuable for agriculcobalt has also been discovered, and is now tural purposes, was formerly obtained exclusively wrought on the Connecticut river, near Mid- from France and Nova Scotia. But within a few dleton. Slate and free-stone, and other fine years extensive quarries have been discovered building stones, are abundant and excellent in and wrought in the interior of the state of New the United States. Marble is also found exten- York. It is known to exist in considerable sively, and often of great beauty. The quarries quantities in other parts of the United States ; are chiefly wrought in a range of limestone, and it is probable that the home supply will which extends along the edge of the secondary soon be adequate to the consumption. region, through the western parts of Vermont, 250. MANUFACTURES.-With so ample a supMassachusetts, and Connecticut. Some produce ply of raw material of easy production, it must fine white marble. In other quarries it is beau- for a long time after the settlement of a country tifully clouded. Pursuing the same directions like the United States, be most profitable to emalong the Blue ridge, we find other beds of ploy other nations in manufacturing. In a marble—at Kingsbridge, in New York; and country so thinly settled as it still is, and affordin Montgomery and Lancaster counties, in ing such ready means of independent support to Pennsylvania, most of which are primitive. all classes, it will not be easy to procure labour At Milford, near New Haven, Connecticut, at such a rate as to compete with the overflowing, there are quarries of yellow, and also of green and sometimes half-starved, population of older Fariegated marble of uncommon beauty ; the countries. The United States have always malast resembling the celebrated verd-antique. On nufactured those coarse articles, whose bulk is a the Potomac river, in Maryland, there are more important consideration than the labour extensive beds of a secondary breccia marble, they require. In the years 1802, 1803, and 1804, which is finely diversified with pebbles and it was found that four-fifths of the manufactures fragments of various sizes and colours. The consumed were produced in the United States; columns of the capitol at Washington are com- and the subsequent restrictions on posed of this marble.

greatly increased the amount.


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Dollars. 251. In the year 1810 it was found that the following manufactures were carried on to an Louisiana Territory

35,000 extent that was adequate to a supply of the de- Indiana Territory

197,000 mand.

Illinois Territory

72,000 Wooden articles of every kind.

Michigan Territory

37,000 Leather and articles of leather.

Columbia District

719,000 Soap and tallow candles. Spermaceti oil and candles.

It was known, however, that many of the reFlaxseed oil.

turns were incomplete ; and it was presumed Refined sugar.

that the manufactures of all descriptions might Coarse earthen-ware.

be estimated at upwards of 170,000,000. Snuff, chocolate, and mustard.

254. The war with Great Britain, in 1812, led The following branches were firmly established, ments, both from the difficulty of procuring foreign

to a great increase of manufacturing establishsupplying the greater part of the demand.

goods, and from the amount of capital unemIron and articles of iron.

ployed. The return of peace, and the excessive Hats and straw bonnets.

importations which immediately took place, Cotton, wool, flax, and hemp.

proved destructive to many of them; but the Paper, prirting types, printed books, and number remaining was far greater than at any playing cards.

former period, and necessity and experience had Spirituous and malt liquors.

produced great improvements in the articles Wax candles :

made, and the machinery employed. A census Considerable progress had been made in the was ordered to be taken of the amount of manufollowing branches :

factures in 1820; but owing to the reluctance Paints and colours.

of manufacturers to disclose the state of their Chemical preparations and medicinal drugs. affairs, merely for the information of the public, Salt.

the results were too imperfect to enable us to Copper and brass.

form any just estimate of their present state. Japanned and plated ware.

The whole number of persons employed in Queen's and other earthen-ware.

mechanical and manufacturing labour Glass ware, &c. &c.

349,506, or about one-twentieth of the whole po

pulation; supposing that they bear the same 252. The total annual value of the manufac- proportion to the population as in 1810. Melish tures of this period, excluding all doubtful estimates the present value of manufactures at articles, was estimated at 127,694,000 dollars, 225,000,000 dollars; adding the following obserof which the following are the most prominent vations and calculations:particulars :

* We find that the value of all the manufactured

goods imported into the United States in 1821 Goods manufactured by the loom 39,500,000 was only 32,000,000 dollars, of which 5,000,000 Machinery of various kinds

6,100,000 dollars was re-exported, leaving 27,000,000 for Hats

4,100,000 the consumption of the country, of which about Iron manufactures

14,360,000 22,000,000 only was for clothing. We may estiLeather

17,900,000 mate, that the total consumption of this country Distilled and fermented liquors - 16,530,000 of manufactured articles is equal to 26 dollars for Wooden manufactures.

5,540,000 each individual; the result will be . 250,500,000
From which deduct inports

253. The value as distributed among the states
was as follows:

The result will give as the value of 7
the manufactures of the country

223,500,000 Maine


255. Again if we estimate the value of manuNew Hampshire

8,135,000 factures at three dollars per day for each person Vermont

1,325,000 employed, including the raw materials; and supMassachusetts

17,516,000 pose the manufacturers to work on an average Rhode Island

3,080,000 300 days in the year, the result for 349,506 perConnecticut

5,901,000 sons will be nearly 315,000,000 dollars; from New York

14,569,000 which deduct 90,000,000 dollars for buildings, New Jersey

4,703,000 exclusive of those for manufactures, implements Pennsylvania

32,089,009 of husbandry, &c and the residue will show Delaware

the manufactures to be in value 225,000,000 dolMaryland

6,554,000 lars. The domestic manufactures exported in Virginia

11, 117,000 1821 amounted to 2,755,000, and it is presumed Ohio

1,937,000 that such exports will rapidly increase. Kentucky


256. With regard to the quality of the finer North Carolina

5,323,000 articles, the manufacturers of the United States Tennessee

3,700,000 must of course generally fall below those of the South Carolina

2,174,000 nations of Europe. Still they are constantly Georgia


procuring artizans from abroad, and their native Mississippi Territory

314,000 ingenuity has produced many inventions of Orleans Territory

35,000 great value for perfecting and facilitating labpu!,



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in 1816

and is probably adequate to every purpose, ex- skins and furs of wild animals. The oficial
cept where the nice tact of long experience is ne- value of the exports of these various articles was
cessary. In manufactures of glass they appear as follows:-
to have succeeded perfectly. Their plain cot-
tons are often excellent and beautiful fabrics ; Lumber, 1803 to 1807, annually 2,500,000
and it is stated, that they have recently brought Naval stores

the stamping of calicoes nearly to as great per- Ditto,

fection as in England. Some of their manufac- Pot and pearl-ashes in 1816

tories produce cloths equal to the finest seen on Oak and other bark and wood for

this side of the Atlantic; but they do not usually tanning and dyeing, 1803
succeed well in their dyes. For cutlery and fine Ginseng, chiefly to China, 1806 139,000
metallic articles; porcelain, and the finer earthen- Skins and furs, 1804 to 1807, annually 900,000
Fare ; muslins, silks, and many other articles, 259. The products of agriculture form the
chiefly of luxury, and for which the demand in- most important and valuable portion of the ex-
creases with the progress of refinement—they are ports of the United States. Cotton is the first

, and long must be, indebted to Great Britain of these in importance; it constitutes one-fourth
and other countries of Europe. They are pro- of the whole exports, and forms the staple of all
bably in a great measure independent as to the the states south of 37° latitude. Next in value
articles of necessity; and very heavy duties have are wheat, maize, and rye, raised chiefly in the
recently been imposed on foreign manufactures, northern and middle states, and forming, in
with the view of encouraging this branch of na- some years, nearly as large a part of the value
tional industry still farther

. Whether the results of exports as cotton. Tobacco is the great staple
will be favourable admits of question.

of Virginia and Maryland, and has an importance
257. COMMERCE.—The exports of the United among the articles of export which we should
States are distinguished in the official statements by no means anticipate, amounting often to
into, 1. produce of the forest; 2. produce of the 10,000,000 dollars in a year. Rice, which is
field ; 3. produce of the sea ; 4. of manufactured found in the same parts of the country as cotton,
articles ; and 5. of foreign articles re-exported. is next to tobacco, but is now less attended to than

258. From the abundance of forests it is ob- formerly, in consequence of the superior value of
vious that there can be no limit to the amount cotton." Indigo, which was formerly an export
of the first, except the demand. They consist of of some value, has been abandoned for the same
lumber of all kinds--naval stores, or the tar,
pitch, turpentine, and resin, obtained from the 260. The following table shows the relative
pine-forests; pot and pearl-ashes, procured by proportion of the different articles which were
the burning of the timber in clearing the land; exported at several periods :
oak bark, and other dyes; ginseng, and the


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261. The products of the sea are derived chiefly other manufactures of wood, are the most im-
from the cod and whale fisheries. Both are car- portant articles of this class.
ried on almost exclusively from the eastern states 262. A very important branch of the commerce
and New York; and a large proportion of the of the United States consists in the importation
tonnage employed belongs to the states of of foreign manufactures and produce, and their
Massachusetts and New Hampshire. The amount re-exportation to the West Indies and South
of this branch of exports is much less than either America, usually called the carrying trade. It,
of the preceding, as the home market requires a has in some years exceeded in value the trade in
large supply of such articles; but the produce of domestic articles, producing great increase of
this branch of national industry, compared with public revenue, as well as of private wealth and
the capital invested, is very considerable. The commercial tonnage. Sugar and coffee are the
whole amount of exports of the produce of the principal articles in amount. The duties in this
sea has not generally equalled the single article case are paid by the foreign consumers, forming
of rice, varying from one to three millions of a clear gain to the country, which, in some
dollars. The manufactured articles of export years, amounts to one-ninth of the whole revenue
are made both from foreign and domestic ma- from the customs. In the years 1806 and 1807
terials, and are equivalent in value to the pro- the freight of the sugars imported and re-ex-
ducts of the sea on the average. Soap and tallow, ported amounted to three or four millions of
distilled spirits, and furniture, coaches, and dollars, and must of course have been paid in

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