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teacher are worthy of remark. In the first place, definite boundaries have been established. In 1875 any person might become a teacher who could secure the good will of the licensing officer. Now, licenses to teach can be obtained only by examination on fixed dates upon questions prepared by a central authority, which also marks all the papers of the candidates. The requirements are constantly rising, and really considerable preparation is becoming necessary on the part of would-be teachers.

In the second place, the authority of the teacher as a teacher, independent of that which is delegated to him by the trustees, has been established upon a definite basis. The decision on page 140 is of great importance as fixing the relation between trustees and teachers.

On the other hand, the authority of the teacher over the child has been noticeably narrowed. Such decisions as those on page 152 would probably be now impossible anywhere, and there is more and more recognition of the principle that the school is for the child, not the child for the school.

Finally the general adoption of compulsory laws puts suspension and expulsion for misconduct upon a new footing, as shown on pages 207–210.

Hoping the new volume may prove worthy of the generous adoption that has been accorded to its predecessors, the author submits it to the public.

Syracuse N. Y., April 10, 1896

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

The lawyer in the school-room ; comprising the laws of all the States on important educational subjects. Carefully compiled, arranged, cited, and explained, M. McN. WALSH. 12:161. N. Y., 1867.*

A treatise on the law of public schools, FINLEY BURKE. 12:154. N. Y., 1880. $1.00.

The power and the authority of school officers and teachers in the man. agement and government of public schools, and over the pupils out of school, as determined by the courts of the several States. By a member of the Massachusetts Bar. 16:181. N. Y., 1885.*

The powers and duties of officers and teachers, ALBERT P. MARBLE. 16:27. Syr., 1887. 15 cts.

Legal provisions respecting the examination and licensing of teachers. 8:46. Wash., 1883.

Recent school law decisions, LYNDEN A. SMITH. 8:82. Wash., 1883.

Public school law of the United States as administered by the courts. With appendix, containing synopsis of principal statutes of each State, IRWIN TAYLOR. 8:411. Topeka, 1892. $3.50.

Manual of school laws for the use of school teachers and officers in the State of Vermont, W. H. TAYLOR. 16:197. St. Johnsville, 1889. 75 cts.

School law, and a history and description of the educational system of Michigan, HARVEY TAPPAN. 16:168. Port Huron, 1889. $1.00.

Michigan school law for teachers and students, MYRON T. DODGE. 12:136. Saginaw, 1893. 50 cts.

Legal rights of children, S. M. Wilcox. 8:96. Wash., 1880.

The laws of N. Y. and of the U. S. relating to children, with notes and references, LEWIS L. DELAFIELD. 8:317. N. Y., 1876. $3.00.

The legal relations of infants, parent and child, and guardian and ward [etc.], G. W. FIELD. 8:396. Roch., 1888. $3.50.

The law relating to schoolmasters, HENRY W. DISNEY. 12:135. London, 1893. $1.25.

Manual of the education acts for Scotland, A. C. SELLAR. 8th ed., revised by J. E. GRAHAM. 8:335. Lon., 1888.

Protokolle über die im Juni 1872 im königlich preussischen UnterrichtsMinisterium gepflogenen, das Volksschulwesen betreffenden Verhandlungen. 8:71. Berlin, 1872.

Der Schuldienst. Auszug aus den Gesetzen, Verordnungen, und Ausschreiben in Schulsachen, für den Bezirk der königlichen Regierungen zu Hannover, Hildesheim und Lünenburg, H. SEEVERS. 8:71. Ilfeld, 1886.

Handbuch der Organisation und Verwaltung der städtischen Schuldeputation, H. STEFFENHAGEN. 16:267. Berlin, 1888.

Züchtigungsrecht und Züchtigundspflicht der Lehrer, W VELTEN. 16:76. Düseldorf.

* Out of print.

PART I

THE SCHOOL OFFICER

NEW YORK SCHOOL CALENDAR

JAN.

1. Legal holiday, P. 10.

Commissioners-elect take office, 1897, 1900, etc. P. 14.
2d Thursday and Friday. Uniform examinations, 2d and 3d

grades.
20. Apportionment by State superintendent. P. 10,

3d Thursday. Examination of training-classes. P. 82.

Last week. Regents' examination. FEB. 12. Legal holiday. P. 10.

22. Legal holiday. P. 10. Мсн. . 1st Tuesday. Supervisor reports to county treasurer.

(Before this, report of collector to supervisor must have been

made. P. 29.)
1st Thursday and Friday. Uniform examinations, all grades.
3d Tuesday. Commissioners apportion school moneys. Pp. 11, 15.

Last week. Regents' examination.
APRIL 1. School moneys payable to county treasurers. P. 11.

7. State superintendent takes office, 1895, 1898, etc. P. 9.
4th Friday and Saturday. Uniform examinations, 2d and 3d

grades.
MAY 1. Applications for training classes must be in. P. 78.

Friday following May 1. Arbor day. P. 66.

30. Legal holiday. P. 10. JUNE 1st Thursday and Friday, Uniform examinations, 2d and 3d

grades.
1st Saturday. Examination for Cornell scholarships. P. 73.
2d Wednesday. Examination of training-classes. P. 82.

3d week. Regents' examination.
JULY 4. Legal holiday. P. 10.
Aug. 1. School year begins. P. 19. All limited licenses begin.

Trustees report to commissioner. Pp. 50, 69.
Commissioners report to superintendent. P. 18.
1st Tuesday. School meeting. Pp. 19, 54.
(Next day, election in districts of 300 children. P. 19.)
2d Thursday and Friday. Uniform examinations, all grades.

Last week. Examination for State certificates. P. 92.
SEPT. 1st Monday. Legal holiday. P. 10.

4th Friday and Saturday. Uniform examinations, 2d and 3d

grades.

Last week. Regents' professional and technical examinations. Nov. 1. Trustees must have reported bonded indebtedness. P. 50. DEC. 25. Legal holiday. P. 10.

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