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port, with all the mechanical structures thereon, comprising more than fifty double and single locks, besides the five double combined locks at Lockport; the aqueduct over the Genesee river at Rochester; the two aqueducts over the Mohawk river; one over the Schoharie creek, and many others over smaller streams, including culverts, bridges, &c. The estimated cost of all the work for the enlargement of the Erie canal, is 23,284,931 dollars, of which there was put under contract up to 1841, 11,021,932 dollars, on which there has been paid 10,011,146 dollars; leaving a further expenditure of 13,273,784 dollars to be provided for. (See Tables hereafter.) The Enlarged Erie canal, is to be seven feet deep, and seventy feet wide on the surface, with a slope of two feet to one foot in the banks, leaving a width at the bottom of forty-two feet; with double locks eighteen feet wide, and 110 feet long. The present width of the old Erie canal is forty feet on the surface, and twenty-eight feet at the bottom, and four feet deep; the locks are fifteen feet wide, and eighty feet long.

The state legislature has authorised the construction of the following canals, at the time opposite to each one respectively, in the following table. The length of each canal, together with the number of locks and the number of feet of rise and fall, are also appended :

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All the above state canals, except the Erie and Champlain, are known as the lateral canals, of which there were finished and navigable in 1842. . . 263 miles.

Unfinished and suspended . . . . . 113 »

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Total number of boats on all the state canals, 2140; estimated tonnage thereof, 117,453 tons. Delaware and Hudson Canal company have about 700 boats.

dlrs. cts. dlrs. cts. The Erie canal cost . . . . 7,143,789 86 7,143,789 86 It was estimated to cost . . . 4,881,738 00

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Total . . . . . 21,693,010 12 Total revenue of Erie and Champlain canals • 1,830,298 25 For the above estimates of the cost of the Erie and Champlain canals, see Canal Commissioners' Report for 1843, Canal Documents, vol. ii., p. 115.*

The Oswego canal, from Salina to Lake Ontario, connects the waters of that Lake with the Erie canal, partly by means of slack water navigation, the expense of which was 525,115 dollars.

Cayuga and Seneca canal from Geneva, on the Seneca lake, to Montezuma, on the Erie canal, was constructed at an expense of 214,000 dollars.

Chemung canal, from the head waters of the Seneca lake to Tioga point, the cost of which with its feeder was estimated, in 1833, at 335,849 dollars.

Crooked Lake canal, from a lake of that name to Seneca lake, cost 136,101 dollars. The Erie and Champlain canals have also navigable feeders.

The Champlain canal connects the Erie with Lake Champlain. The communication is through a grazing, rather than a grain country, fast parting with its forests contiguous to the navigable waters; and, as is before seen, sending to market a surplus annually.

* In 1792, nine years after the close of the Revolutionary war, the Western Company completed a water communication from Schenectady to the falls of the Oswego river, and boats of burden were passed to within twelve miles of Oswego. At Oswego falls there was a portage of a mile, and the navigation was resumed by a smaller class of boats at the foot of the falls to Lake Ontario.

The works of the Western Inland Lock Navigation Company, principally consisted of a series of locks and a canal, at the falls of the Mohawk at Little Falls, a canal, with locks, at Fort Stan-wix, from the Mohawk river to Wood Creek (a tributary of Oneida lake and the Oswego river), and a series of locks and dams on Wood Creek.

A boat leaving Schenectady followed the course of the Mohawk river to Fort Stanwix, and passing by the canal at that place into Wood creek and Oneida lake, entered the Oswego river eleven miles south of the falls, and twenty-three miles from Oswego. There was but one portage in the whole distance (at Oswego falls) between Schenectady and Lake Ontario. However imperfect the navigation, as compared with that of the Erie canal, which superseded it, its influence upon the prosperity, the early and rapid settlement of western New York, is incalculable.

STATEMENT of deferred Works to carry out the New York Canal System.

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Canal around Niagara Falls ....!

Extension of Black river canal ..

dlrs. cts. dlrs. cts. 10 Congress'ı 214 1836 Porter's storehouse to Lewiston . 3,610,596 21

Gill creek route................ 4,616,423 47
Through artificial harbour ...... 4,744,982 88

Lockport and Tonawanda route . 5,041,725 48 5,041,725 48
31|| Assembly .. 1840 To Sackett's harbour..... 1,444,614 28
2741
To Dexter.....

..1,394,036 02 3401

.. To French creek ...

French creek ............... 1,327,874 67
791

Ogdensburg, Oxbow, and Oswe-
gatebie .......................

... 1,681,150 41 4,453,639 36 Ogdensburg, tiá Gouverneur ... 2,515,199 87

Little Oxbow landing ..........

1,954,374 48

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Copewango canal, Buffalo to

Pennsylvania line ............ 82; Assembly 160 1840 With stone locks ............... 3,156,525 04
Conewango extension to Warren

209,213 60 3,365,738 64

Woodlocks .....................2,462,310 05 Oneida River improvement ....

59 1839 Locks, towing-path and dams... 100,050 00 100,050 00 Extension of Chemung canal feeder ....................

244 1838 ............................

49,500 00 49,500 00 Extension of Chemung canal, south ......

32 1840 To Pennsylvania line ...... 391,056 67 391,056 67 Extension of Chenango canal ...]

116 1839 To Tioga point...

430,460 65 436,460 65 Overflowed lands on Topawanda and Ellicott creeks ...........

124 1838'...........................

289,517 08 289,517 08 Genesee valley canal feeder.....

30 1838..

84,442 26 84,442 26 Hudson River improvement.... 84 Senate 61 1840 Above Glen's falls ............ 1,348,820 55 1,348,820 55

RAILROADS.
Ogdensburg and Champlain ....133.1 Assembly 43 1841 Au Sable route ............ 2,714,003 89

Potsdam route......

1,923,108 09 Norfolk route .......

1,778,459 24 Cars and engines ..

214,000 00 2,137,108 09 Erie railroad ......

446

In addition to former law ...... 3,000,000 00 3,000,000 00 New York and Albany ....... 160

A loan asked for, of........... 750,000 00 750,000 00 Saratoga and Whitehall .......

Ditto.....................

300,000 00 300,000 00

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21,748,057 78 Add enlargement recommended by Canal Board, Assembly document, April 8, 1839, adopting the estimates on the Erie enlargement, for Oswego canal, about..........

...... 2,500,000 00 Cayuga and Seneca canal about ........................................................... 1,300,000 00 For giving an enlargement to the Champlain canal, corresponding to that recommended by

the Canal Board for the above two canals......, On the principle of contributing ratably to railroads. For the railroad from Albany to Goshen, say.....

500,000 00

6,800,000 00

Total..................dlrs. 28,548,057 78

THE Cost of the Canals, and the Revenue received from them, during the Year ending

September 30, 1843, are shown in the following Table.

CANALS.

Cost.

Revenue, for 1843.

Estimated Expendi- Estimated Revenue, tures, for 1844.

for 1844.

dollars. cts. 1,985,726 38

30,300 00 17,000 00 9,000 00

1,300 00 13,000 00

dollars. cts.
dollars. cts.

dollars, cts. Erie canal......

7,143,789 86 Brie enlargement....

13,291,616

74
1,730,614
00)

1,236,305 29 Champlain canal..

1,257,604 26

99,683 51

47,065 20 Oswego canal........

565,437 35
29,147 35

24,250 00 Cayuga and Seneca cana).

236,804 74
16,557 15

52,431 60 Crooked Lake capal.........

156,776 90

460 82

10,400 00 Chemung canal.......

641,600 58

8,140 26

141,155 66 Chenango canal..........

2,417,00000

13,323 54

83,500 83 Black River capal......

1,511,967 00 Genesee Valley canal.....

3,555,000

12,292 44

212,219 96 Oneida Lake canal..........

50,000 00

225 04

5,250 00 Oneida River improvement.. • 59,432 57

257 01

3,270 89 Total.....

30,885,029 26 I 1,910,701 86 1,815,852 43
The annual interest upon 30,885,029 dollars 26 cents, at five and a half per cent the average

interest upon the present state debt, is .........
Tbe pet revenue from all the state canals, for the year ending 30th of September, 1843, aster
deducting the cost of the collection of tolls, and the maintenance of the canals, is......

ce of the canals, is..............
Deficit of the canals to pay five and a half per cent upon the cost........

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241,915 91

POPULATION of the Canal Counties at Three Periods, and of those Counties through which

the Erie Railroad is to run.

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Extract from the Report of the Canal Company:

“ The Erie canal, as before stated, originally cost the sum of 7,143,789 dollars 86 cents. When the project of enlarging the Erie canal was first advanced to the public mind, what was understood by the idea of enlarging? When an individual speaks of enlarging his house, he means adding a wing to it, or erecting an additional story, or some similar increase of his accommodations. The idea of incurring an expense greater than the cost of a new house of the same size, would scarcely enter his mind-much less an expense several times greater than the original cost. Had it been at first proposed to build a new canal adjacent to the old one, of the same size, the people would have promptly objected to it, on the ground of the expense, and on the ground that if an additional communication were needed with the far west, a route for it, or for a railroad, would have been sought through some portion of the state, not accommodated with a communication to market. Much more would they have objected, had it been proposed to construct three or more new Erie canals, adjacent and parallel to each other. Experience in the enlargement shows that four or five new Erie canals could have been built, at an expense no greater than the enlargement will require. Thus the Erie canal enlargement, like the construction of the three last-named lateral canals, may be said to have stolen a march upon the public mind, and obtained a high vantage ground by insidious steps. The amount expended thus far on the enlargement, is 13,291,616 dollars (see Comptroller's Report of 1844, p. 6), and no one believes it is more than half accomplished, on the plan undertaken." . - CLASSIFICATION of the Canal Debts according to the different Rates of Interest.

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More than 9,500,000 dollars of this debt is payable within five and a half years, viz. :

Six per cent of 1837 ....
llo January, 1834, temporary loan.
On the 1st of July, 1845............
After 1845, say January, 1816........
On the Ist of July, 1846 ...........
On the 1st of July, 1848 ...............
On the 1st of July, 1849 ......
On the 1st of July, 1850....

dollars. cts.

12,771 27

18,967 00 (1,700,897 68 2,362,535

571,304 00 1,584,736 00 2,149,400 00 1,256,000 00

LO

.

..

....

.....

.

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Balance to be provided for in 54 years.....

7,669,072

72

One half of the mill tax, hereafter to be applied to the payment of the
canal debts, will add to the revenues applicable to canal purposes, 275,000
dollars per annum, which for six years, makes a total of 1,650,000 dollars.
The surplus revenues of the canals may yield 3,000,000 dollars for the same
period, making a total of 4,650,000 dollars; deducted from 7,669,072 dollars,
it leaves a balance of debt unprovided for at the close of the fiscal year, in
1850, of 3,019,072 dollars. If the canal fund realises the amount due from in-
solvent banks, 575,184 dollars, there would still remain 2,443,887 dollars unpro-
vided for. In the three years succeeding 1850, the amount of canal debt falling
due is only 70,000 dollars.
A List of the Places on the Junction and Erie Canals, and their Distance from each other.

DISTANCE FROM-

DISTANCE FROM-

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mls. mls.mls. mls.mls.

mals.mls. mls. mls.mls.

Albany ...........

0 110 269) 364|Geddes ..

1731 63 191

Port Schuyler .....

5 105 264 359 Belisle ......

4 177

187

Washington (Gibbonsville)

263 358 Nine-mile creek.

1781

| 186

West Troy .........

262 357 Camillus .....

179

185

Junction ...................

260 355 Canton

Cahoes ......................

0 259 354 Peru ..........................

3 178

Lower aqueduct........

71 2561 351 Jordan ......................

174

Willow Spring ..............
250 344 Cold Spring .................

781 173
Upper aqueduct.........
243 338| Weedsport ....

731 168
Schenectady.............
239 334 Centreport ....

72 167
Rotterdam ......
230) 325 Port Byron.....

1991 70 165

Phillip's locks .....

225 320 Montezuina (Lakeport)

205

64 159

Amsterdam ..........
222 317 Lock pit .........

211 101 58 153
Schoharie creek

312 Clyde ..

216 1061 53 148
Smithtown (Auriesville) .....
215 310 Lock Berlin .....................

221 111 143
Caughpawaga (Fultonville)....
212 307 Lyons ............................

225) 115 139
Big Nose.............
205) 300 Lockville .....................

231 121 133

Spraker's basin.................

44 2031 298 Newark ......................

232 122 | 132

Canajoharie ..................
200 295 Port Gibson ..................

2351 125 129
Fort Plain.....
38 197 292 Palmyra......................

240 1301 29 124
Diefendorf's landing .....
1941 289 Macedonville ..................

244 134 25 120
Minden dam (St. Johnsville).....
| 1921 287) Wayneport (Barrager's basin)..

247 137 22 117
East Canada creek ....

283 Perrinton (Lindel's bridge) ...

249| 139 201 115
Indian Castle (Nowandaga cr.).

281 Perrinton Centre (Col. Peters').

251 1411 181 113

Pink's ferry..........

183 278 Fairport......

252 142 17) 112

Little Falls .................

181 276) Fullham's basin ...............

253 1431 161 111

Rankin's lock (No. 7)...

1781 273 Bushpel's basin.

256 146 13] 108

Herkimer lower bridge...

51 1741 269 Pittsford ..................

259 149 105

Herkimer upper bridge......

173) 268 Billinghast's basin ............

263 153

101

Fulmer's creek ...............

172 207 Lock No. 3. ..........

265 155

99

Morgan's landing ..........

| 171 266 Rochester ..........

269 159

Steele's creek .......

170 265 Brockway's ............

279 169)

Frankfort......

168 263 Spencer's basin ....

281 171 12 83

Ferguson's..

162 257 Adams' basin ..

284 174! 15

Utica ....

159 254 Cooley's basin ..........

287 1771 18

York mills (Wetmore's)...

156 251 Brock port .............

289 179 20

Whitesboro .....

41 155250 Holley........................

294 1841

Oriskany......................

152 247 Scio ......................

298 1881

Rome ........................

239 Albion ...........

304 191

Wood cr. aqueduct (Fort Bull)....
142 237 Gaines' basin ................

306 1961
Hawley's basin......
140 235 Eagle harbour....

3071 1971
Stony creek.........
20 139 234 Long bridge ............

309 199

New London ......

132 22 137 232 Knowlesville ..

311

Higgins'........

4 136 26 133 228 Road culvert ..........

312 202

Loomis' ......

2 138 28 131 226 Medina ...............

315 205

Oneida creek (Durbamville).... 3 141 31/ 128 222 Shelby basin ........

18 208

Capastota.............

5 1 116! 36 123 218 Middleport ...................

321 211

New Boston (Canasaraga)...... 4 1 150 40 119 214 Reynold's basin .......

214

Chiteningo......

43 116 211 Gosport ........

326 216

Pool's brook....

156 46! 113 208 Lock port ....

333 223 64

Little lake.......

481 11 206 Pendleton .......

310 230

Kirk ville....

2 169 50 109 204 Welch's .....

342 232

Manlius (Reels)..............

2 162 52 107 202 H. Brockway's.......

3461

236

Limestone feeder ....

1 163 53 106 201 Tonnawanta............

352 2421

Orville feeder ............... 2 165 55 104 199 Lower Black Rock........

360 250

Lodi .......................

5 170 60 99 194 Black Rock ..................

361 251 92

Syracuse .....

| 171 61 98 193! Buffalo.......................

361 251 95!

28.90 chains over, to Lake Erie-Big Buffalo creek harbour.

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