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tribute to her charms which she gaily accepts, dealing out witty retorts, and even jesting in light and lively terms at the



Menelaus. "A woman of quick sense,” remarks Nestor, as she withdraws with Diomedes to her father's tent, but Ulysses has seen through her at a glance and answers severely

Fie, fie


her !
There's a language in her eye, her cheek, her lip,
Nay, her foot speaks; her wanton spirits look out

At every joint and motive of her body," The combat between Hector and Ajax takes place, but is soon interrupted by Hector on account of the relationship that exists between Ajax and himself, through Hesione, mother to Ajax and aunt to Hector. A cessation of arms ensues, and the cousins tenderly embrace each other, after which Hector visits the Greek chiefs in their tents. The interview with Achilles is of a ferocious character, but the ferocity is on the side of the Greek, not of the Trojan.

Ach. Tell me, you heavens, in what part of his body
Shall I destroy him ? whether there, or there, or there?
That I may give the local wound a name;
And make distinct the very breach whereout

Hector's great spirit flew: answer me, heavens !” We now come to the fifth act. The baseness of Achilles now manifests itself in a fresh direction : just as he was about to bestir himself after his long inaction and at last take up arms again, he receives a letter from Hecuba, and a gift from her daughter

“Both taxing me, and gaging me to keep
An oath that I have sworn. I will not break it.
Fall, Greeks; fail fame; honour, or go, or stay;

My major vow lies here, this I'll obey."
But let us turn to watch what is going on in front of
Calchas's tent, in which Cressida is, and where some one
has arrived upon “important business, the tide whereof


is now.” This is none other than Diomedes, who is secretly followed in the darkness of the night by Ulysses and Troilus. They are unseen witnesses of his interview with Cressida and of all her alluring wiles, and finally see her give him the sleeve Troilus had given to her. It is unnecessary to say that at this juncture the poor deceived lover swears to kill Diomedes. As soon Cressida has retired into the tent, he bursts out into bitter complaints, in which the note of inextinguishable love still makes itself heard through all the storms of indignation and rage.

“ Was Cressid here? ...
This she? no, this is Diomed's Cressida ;
If beauty have a soul, this is not she....
Cressid is mine, tied with the bonds of heaven.
Hark, Greek : as much as I do Cressid love,
So much by weight hate I her Diomed:
That sleeve is mine that he'll bear in his helm;
Were it a casque composed by Vulcan's skill,
My sword should bite it. ...
O Cressid ! 0 false Cressid ! false, false, false !
Let all untruths stand by thy stained name,

And they'll seem glorious.” Meanwhile, in the palace at Troy, Hector is arming himself for battle, in spite of the prayers and entreaties of Andromache whose dreams have filled her with gloomy forebodings. In vain too, always in vain, does Cassandra join her prophetic warnings to the supplications of his wife; Hector listens to neither, but on Troilus entering, armed and ready to follow him, he counsels him to stay at home.

“Unarm thee, go; and doubt thou not, brave boy,

I'll stand to-day, for thee, and me, and Troy,”— language doubly generous on the part of the hero who in the Council Chamber had advocated peace in opposition to the harebrained youths who clamoured for war. But Hector's advice is of no avail : Troilus has too

raging a thirst for vengeance and for blood, and the two brothers depart for the field of battle.

The attack begins. Groups of fighting soldiers pass in succession across the stage, as is customary in the scenes of Shakespeare's historical dramas, and which must produce so peculiar an effect when acted. · Hector kills Patroclus, whose death rouses Achilles, and he swears to avenge his friend. But the utter baseness of his vengeance is the very point in this tragi-comic parody most calculated to scandalize the classical admirers of the “Iliad."

In an encounter earlier in the day with Achilles, Hector, seeing him overcome with fatigue, proposes, with all the courtesy of a Roland or an Oliver of mediæval times, that their combat should be postponed until he has rested and recovered his strength; and Achilles, though with a very bad grace, avails himself of the offer, Towards evening, Hector says:

“Now is my day's work done : I'll take good breath :

Rest, sword : thou hast thy fill of blood and death," at the same time, taking off his helmet and hanging his shield behind him. At this moment, Achilles arrives with his Myrmidons, and seeing Hector unarmed, rushes upon him, crying :

“Strike, fellows, strike; this is the man I seek," and Hector falls dead. “Come,” adds Achilles,

“ Tie his body to my horse's tail ;

Along the field I will the Trojan trail.” In the Trojan camp the news causes the deepest consternation and grief.

“ Tro. Hector is slain.
All. Hector ? The gods forbid !...

Tro. . . . Hector is gone!
Who shall tell Priam so, or Hecuba ?
Let him that will a screech-owl aye be called,
Go in to Troy, and say there-Hector's dead."

As Troilus is going out, Pandarus enters from the other side and tries to stop him, but Troilus will not listen :

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Troilus goes off, and with a cynical epilogue from Pandarus, the scene closes.




BESIDES the passage already quoted from the twentyfourth book of the “Iliad," in which mention is made of Troilus, only to say that he fought in a chariot and that he was dead, we may fairly expect to find other traditions concerning him in the literature of antiquity. Sophocles wrote a tragedy called “Troilus,” which is unfortunately lost, four lines of it only being preserved. Ancient commentators of Homer relate how the fate of Troy was bound up with that of Troilus, and how the town would be taken if the child died before attaining his twentieth year; they further tell us that Troilus was killed by Achilles in the temple of Apollo, and they discuss the question whether his death took place before or after the time at which the “Iliad” opens. Horace, Virgil, Ausonius, Seneca the tragedian, Apollodorus, Lycophron, Quintus of Smyrna, and other poets or grammarians of Greco-Latin antiquity, speak of Troilus,

* Works used in the composition of this chapter: “ Introduction de MM. L. Moland et C. d'Héricault aux Nouvelles françaises en prose du XIV. siècle." “Le Roman de Benoit de Sainte-More et le Roman de Troie, ou les Métamorphoses d'Homère et de l'épopée gréco-latine au Moyen âge,” par A. Joly. “ Die Sage von Trojanischen Kriege in dem Bearbeitungen des Mittel Alters und ihren antiken Quellen," von Dr. Hermann Dunger.

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