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expanded with his resources, but were by no means masterly, and were sometimes unsuccessful. They were not struck out with boldness, nor executed with decision ; but were often changed in deference to the opinions of warlike men about him, and sometimes at the suggestion of inferior minds, who occasionally led him wrong 3 Had he,4 indeed, conceived from the outset the idea of binding up the scattered and conflicting5 tribes of Arabia into one nation by a brotherhood of faith, for the purpose of carrying out a scheme of external conquest, he would have been one of the first of military projectors; but the idea of extended conquest seems to have been an afterthought, produced by success. The moment he? proclaimed the religion of the sword, and gave the predatory Arabs a8 taste of foreign plunder, that momento he was 10 launched in a career of conquest, which carried him forward with its own irresistible impetus. The fanatic zeal with which he had inspired his followers 11 did more for 12 his success than his military science: their belief in his doctrine of

predestination produced victories which no military calculation could have anticipated. In his dubious outset, as a prophet, he had been encouraged by the crafty counsels of his scriptural oracle of Waraka ; in his career as a conqueror, he had Omar, Khaled, and other fiery spirits by his side 13 to urge him on,14



1 Struck out, conçus 2 about him, qui l'entouraient-3 led him wrong, l'égarèrent–4 had he, s'il avait -5 conflicting, rivales—6 an after-thought, produced by success, ultérieurement conçue, à la suite du succès—7 the moment he, du moment qu'il—8 a, le-9 that moment, dès ce moment—10 he was, il se trouva— 11 with, etc...... followers, qu'il avait inspiré à ses adeptes—12 did.......for, contribua......à—13 by his side, à ses côtés– 14 to urge him on, pour le pousser en avant.



and to aid him in managing the tremendous power which he had evoked into action. Even with all their aid, he had occasionally to avail himself of? his supernatural machinery as a prophet, and in so doing may have reconciled himself to the fraud 3 by considering the pious end to be obtained.

His military triumphs awakened no pride nor vain glory, as they would have done had they been effected for selfish purposes. In the time of his greatest power 6 he maintained the same simplicity of manners and appearance as in the days of his adversity. So far? from affecting regal state, he was displeased if, on entering a room, any unusual testimonial of respect were shown him. If he aimed at universal dominion, it was the dominion of the faith ; as to the temporal rule which grew up in his hands, as he used it without ostentation, so he took no step to perpetuate it in his family

The riches which poured in upon him from 10 tribute and the spoils of war were expended in 1promoting the victories of the faith, and in relieving the poor among its votaries, insomuch that his treasury was often drained of its last coin.12 Omar Ibn Al Hareth declares, that Mahomet, at his death, did not leave a golden dinar nor a silver dirhem, a slave nor a slave girl,13 nor anything but 14 his grey mule Daldal, his

1 In managing, à diriger—3. to avail himself of, à faire appel à 3 and in, etc. ..fraud, et il se peut qu'il se soit réconcilié à l'emploi de cet artifice_end to be obtained, objet en vue—5 for...... purposes, dans un but......—6 in the time of his greatest power, à l'apogée de son pouvoir — 80 far, loin— which grew up, que la force des choses plaça -- he took no step, il ne prit aucune mesure-10 the riches, etc..... from, les richesses considérables qu'il reçut des— 11 expended in, employées à

„12 insomuch, etc...... its last coin, à tel point qu'il ne resta souvent pas une seule pièce de monnaie dans ses coffres-13 a slave nor a slave girl, un esclave homme ou femme- 14 nor anything but, qu'il ne laissa absolument rien que.

arms, and the ground, which he bestowed upon his wives, his children, and the poor. “Allah," says an Arabian writer, “offered him the keys of all the treasures of the earth, but he refused to accept them.”

WASHINGTON IRVING, Life of Mahomet."



The sudden resurrection of France, when Napoleon assumed the helm, is one of the most extraordinary passages of European history, and singularly descriptive of the irresistible reaction in favour of a firm government, which inevitably arises from a long course of revolutionary convulsions. Let not future ages be deluded by the idea that a period of democratic anarchy is one4 of national strength; it is, on the contrary, in the end, the certain forerunner of public calamity. The glories of the Revolutionary wars were achieved under the despotic rule of the Convention, wielding ten times the power which had ever been enjoyed by6 Louis XIV.; the effects of democratic anarchy appeared from its dissolution in the disasters of the Directory. After the fall of the Committee of Public Salvation, the triumphs of France centred? in Napoleon alone; wherever he did not command in person, the greatest reverses were experienced8 In 1795 the republicans were defeated by Clairfait on the Rhine; in 1796, by the

1 Assumed the helm, s'empara de l'autorité— singularly descriptive of, montre d'une manière frappante 3 which inevitably arises from, qui est la conséquence inévitable de— 4 one, une période—5 achieved, conquises—6 wielding, etc......enjoyed by, qui exerça dix fois autant d'autorité qu'en posséda jamais centred, furent concentrés- experienced, essuyés.

Archduke Charles in Germany. In 1799, their reverses were unexampled, both in Italy and Germany ;

from the 9th Thermidor to the 18th Brumaire -a period of about five years—the fortunes of the Republic were singly sustained by the sword of Napoleon and the lustre of his Italian campaigns. When he seized the helm in November, 1799, he found the armies defeated and ruined; the frontier invaded, both on the sides of Italy and Germany, the arsenals empty, the soldiers in despair deserting their colours, the royalists revolting against the government, general anarchy in the interior, the treasury empty, the energies of the Republic apparently exhausted. Instantly, as if by: enchantment, everything was4 changed ; order reappeared out of chaos, talent emerged out of obscurity, vigour arose out of weakness.5 The arsenals were filled, the veterans crowded to their eagles, the conscripts joyfully repaired to the frontier, Vendée was pacified, the exchequer began to overflow. In little more than six months after Napoleon's accession, the Austrians were forced to seek refuge under the cannon of Ulm, Italy was regained, unanimity and enthusiasm prevailed? among the people, and the revived energy of the nation was finally launched into the career of conquest. Changes so extraordinary cannot be explained by the influence of any one man. Great as the abilities of Napoleon undoubtedly were, they could not be equal to? the Herculean task of reanimating a whole nation. It was the transition from anarchy to order, from the tyranny of demagogues to the ascendant of talent, from the weakness of popular to the vigour of military government, which was the real cause of the 3 change. The virtuous, the able, the brave, felt that they no longer required to remain in obscurity; that democratic jealousy would not now be permitted to extinguish rising ability; financial imbecility to crush patriotic exertion; private cupidity to exhaust public resources; civil weakness to paralyze military valour. The universal conviction that the reign of the multitude was at an end, produced the astonishing burst of talent which led to the glories of Marengo and Hohenlinden.

1 Both on the sides of ......and, du côté de......comme du côté de2 the energies, les forces_3 as if by, comme par—4 was, se trouva5 vigour, etc......weakness, la faiblesse fit place à la vigueur—6 crowded to, accoururent en foule sous—7 prevailed, régnaient—8 cannot be explained, ne peuvent s'expliquer~ of any one man, d'un seul homme, quel qu'il soit.




Revenge is a kind of wild justice, which the more man's nature runs to, the more ought law to weed it out: for as for the first wrong, it doth but offend the law, but the revenge of that wrong putteth the law out of office. Certainly, in taking revenge, a man is but even with his enemy; but in passing it over,

10 he is superior; for it is a prince's part to pardon; and Solomon, I am sure, saith, “It is the

1 Great as...... were, tout grands qu’étaient......—2 equal to, à la hauteur de—3 the, ce4 that, etc......permitted, qu'on ne permettrait plus à la jalousie démocratique—5 rising, naissant—6 led to the glories, amena les glorieuses journées.

? Which the more man's nature runs to, telle que, plus le naturel de l'homme l'y pousse—8 as for the first wrong, pour ce qui est de la première injustice— is but even with, se met simplement au niveau de

10 in passing it over, en la dédaignant.

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