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ter began to exhibit those peculiarities which it has ever since retained, and that our fathers became emphatically? islanders, - islanders not merely in geographical position, but in their politics, their feelings, and their manners. Then first appeared with distinctness that constitution which has ever since, through all changes, preserved its identity; that constitution of which all the other free constitutions in the world are copies, and which, in spite of some defects, deserves to be regarded as the best under whichany great society has ever yet+ existed, during many ages. Then it was that the House of Commons, the archetype of all the representative assemblies which now meet, either in the old or in the new world, held its first sittings. Then it was that the common law rose to the dignity of a science, and rapidly became a not unworthy rival of the imperial jurisprudence.

Then it was that the courage of those sailors who manned the rude barks of the Cinque Ports first made the flag of England terrible on the seas.

Then it was that the most ancient colleges which still exist at both the great national seats? of learning were founded. Then was formed that language, less musical indeed than the languages of the South, but in force, in richness, in aptitude for all the highest purposes of the poet, the philosopher, and the orator, inferior to the tongue of Greece alone. Then, too, appeared the first dawn of that noble literature, the most



Emphatically, dans toute la force du terme_2 under which, sous le régime de laquelle—3 any, une - 4 yet, jusqu'à présent—o the common law rose to the dignity, le droit commun s'éleva à la hautour & made, rendit--scats, foyers — indeed, il est vrai.

splendid, and the most durable of the many glories of England.

MACAULAY, History of England."



It is worthy of noted that, in our little British Isle, the two grand antagonisms of Europe should have stood embodied, under their very highest concentration, in two men produced? simultaneously among ourselves.

Samuel Johnson and David Hume, as was observed, were children of the same year: through life4 they were spectators of the same life-movement; often inhabitants of the same city. Greater contrast, in all things, between two great men could not be. Hume well born, competently provided for, whole in? body and mind, of his own determination forces a way into literature : Johnson, poor, moon-struck, diseased, forlorn, is forced into ito " with the bayonet of necessity at his back.” 10 And what a part did they severallyll play there! As Johnson became the father of all succeeding Tories, 80 was Hume the father of all succeeding Whigs, for his own Jacobitism was but an accident, as worthy to be named Prejudice as any of Johnson's. Again,12 if Johnson's culture was exclusively English,

| Note, remarque produced, qui se sont produits—3 as was observed, comme on en a fait la remarque-4 through life, dans tout le cours de leur existence—5 well born, de bonne famille_6 competently provided for, dans une position de fortune aisée7 whole in, entier des forces a way, se fraie un chemin—9 is forced into it, s'y trouve poussé — 10 at his back, dans les reins--11 seuerally, chacun de son côté—12 again, d'autre part.

* David Hume was born at Edinburgh, in 1711, and died in 1776.


Hume's, in Scotland, became European,-for which reason, too, we find his influence spread deeply over all quarters of Europe, traceable deeply in all speculation, French or German, as well as domestic; while Johnson's name, out of England, is hardly anywhere to be met with. In spiritual stature, they are almost equal ;2 both great, amongst the greatest; yet how unlike in likenesses ! Hume has the widest methodising, comprehensive eye; Johnson the keenest for perspicacity and minute detail : so had, perhaps chiefly, their education ordered it. Neither of the two rose into poetry; yet both to some approximation thereof: Hume to something of an Epic clearness and method, as in his delineation of the Commonwealth Wars; Johnson to many a deep Lyric tone of plaintiveness, and impetuous graceful power,3 scattered over his fugitive compositions. Both, rather to the general surprise, had a certain rugged humour shining through their earnestness: the indication, indeed, that they were earnest men, and had subdued their wild world into a kind of temporary home, and safe dwelling. Both were, by principle and habit, Stoics : yet Johnson with the greater merit, for he alone had very much to triumph over : farther, he alone ennobled his Stoicism into Devotion. Johnson, Life was a Prison, to be endured with heroic faith: to Hume it was little more6 than a foolish Bartholomew Fair show-booth, with the


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· For which reason, too, we find, aussi trouvons-nous_2 in spiritual stature, they are almost equal, intellectuellement, ils sont presque égaux de taille-3 many a, etc......power, maintes notes lyriques profondément plaintives et grâcieusement impétueuses—4 of temporary home and safe dwelling, d'habitation temporaire et d'intérieur paisible -5 to, pour - it was little more, ce n'était guère plus.


foolish crowdings and elbowings of which it was not worth while to quarrel ;' the whole would break up and be at liberty so soon.

Both realized the highest task of manhood, that of living like men ; each died not unfitly in his way. Hume as one,3 with factitious, half-false gaiety, taking leave of what was itself wholly but a lie: Johnson as one, with awe-struck yet resolute and piously expectant heart, taking leave of a Reality to enter a Reality still higher. Johnson had the harder problem of it 4 from first to last : whether, with some hesitation, we can admit that he was intrinsically the better gifted, may remain undecided.

THOMAS CARLYLE, Essay on Boswell's Johnson."


If ever any one possessed of power had grounds for thinking himself the best and most enlightened among his cotemporaries, it was the Emperor Marcus Aurelius.6 Absolute monarch of the whole civilized world, he preserved through life not only the most unblemished justice, but what was less to be expected from his stoical breeding, the tenderest heart. This man, a better Christian in all but the dogmatic sense of the word, than almost any of the ostensibly Christian sovereigns who have since reigned, persecuted Christianity. Placed at the summit of all the


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With, etc......quarrel, dont la presse et le tumulte folâtres ne valaient pas la peine qu'on s'en formalisât not unfitly in his way, d'une manière conséquente—3 as one, en homme—4 the harder problem of it, le plus difficile problème à résoudre.

5 Grounds, de bonnes raisons—6 Marcus Aurelius, Marc-Aurèle7 breoding, éducation.

previous attainments of humanity, with an open, unfettered intellect, and a character which led him of himself to embody in his moral writings the Christian ideal, yet he failed to see that Christianity was to be a good and not an evil to the world, with his duties to which he was so deeply penetrated. Existing society he knew to be in a deplorable state. But such as it was, he saw, or thought he saw,3 that it was held together, and prevented from being worse, by belief and reverence of the received divinities. As a ruler of mankind, he deemed it his duty 4 not to suffer society to fall in pieces; and saw not how, if its existing ties were removed, any others could be formed which could again knit it together. The new religion openly aimed at dissolving these ties : unless, therefore, it was his duty to adopt that religion, it seemed to be his duty to put it down. ... The gentlest and most amiable of philosophers and rulers, under a solemn sense of duty, authorized the persecution of Christianity. To my mind? this is one of the most tragical facts in all history. No Christian more firmly believes that Atheism is false, and tends to the dissolution of society, than Marcus Aurelius believed the same things of Christianity; he who, ef all men then living, might have been thought the most capable of appreciating it. Unless any one who approves of punishment for the promulgation of opinions, flatters himself that he is a wiser



"He failed to see, il ne vit pas with his, etc......penetrated, envers lequel il sentait si profondément ses devoirs—thought he saw, crut voir—4 he deemed it his duty, il crut de son devoir—5 any others, etc.

.... together, il pourrait s'en former d'autres qui fussent capables de la reconstituer 6 under a solemn sense, sous l'empire d'un profond sentiment_7 to my mind, à mon avis.

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