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and better man than Marcus Aurelius-more deeply versed in the wisdom of his time, more elevated in! his intellect above it, more earnest in his search for3 truth, or more single-minded in his devotion to it when found 4_let him abstain from that assumption of the joint infallibility of himself and5 the multitude, which the great Antoninus made6 with so unfortunate a result.
JOHN STUART MILL, “ On Liberty.”
THE POWER OF MACHINERY IN ENGLAND. The English workman, besides his energy and steadfastness in working, is extremely dexterous in the use of tools. Mechanism is the genius of England, and the source of an enormous portion of her wealth and power as a nation. What has been achieved by means of improvements in tools and in machines—which are but organized tools-has been accomplished almost entirely by the ingenuity of our skilled workmen. By the contrivances which they have from time to time produced, labour has been relieved from its most irksome forms of drudgery, and the heaviest burdens of toil have been laid upon wind and water, upon iron and steam, and various other agencies of the inanimate world. These are now the only real slaves in England, the veritable hewers of wood and drawers of water. There is, indeed, scarcely a department of productive industry
1 In, par— it, ses contemporains—3 for, de— his devotion to it when found, l'attachement qu'il lui vouera après l'avoir trouvée5 assumption, etc......himself and, prétention à l'infaillibilité pour luimême et pour—6 made, émit.
7 Contrivances, inventions—e laid upon, imposés à— these are, ce sont là.
especially where the articles produced are in great demand, and are indispensable to the subsistence or comfort of the masses--into which machinery does not largely enter. It fashions wood and iron into the most exact proportions; weaves all manner of textile fabrics with extraordinary accuracy and speed ; prints books and newspapers; and carries on the greater part of the locomotion of the civilized world. Even in agriculture, hoeing, sowing, reaping, thrashing, and grinding? are done3 to a vast extent by machinery, which every day extends its supremacy more and more over the materials for food, for clothing, for housing, for locomotion, for defence, and for instruction.
When I recall to mind, at last, after so many dark ages wherein the huge overshadowing train of error had almost swept all the stars out 6 of the firmament of the Church ; how the bright and blissful Reformation, by Divine power, struck through the black and settled night of ignorance and anti-Christian tyranny, methinks a sovereign and reviving joy must needs rush into the bosom of him that reads or hears, and the sweet odour of the returning Gospel bathe his
| All manner, toute espèce—2 hoeing, sowing, reaping, thrashing, and grinding, le labour à la boue, les semailles, la récolte, le battage, et la mouture-3 are done, se font.
4 I recall to mind, je réfléchis—5 dark ages, siècles de ténèbres -6 swept......out, chassé_7 struck through, pénétra.
soul with the fragance of heaven. Then was the sacred Bible sought out of the dusty corners, where profane falsehood and neglect had thrown it, the schools opened, Divine and human learning raked out of the embers of forgotten tongues, the princes and cities trooping apace to the new-erected banner* of salvation, the martyrs, with the unresistible might of weakness, shaking the powers of darkness, and scorning the fiery rage of the old red dragon.
THE LOVE OF OUR COUNTRY.
Whence does this love of our country, this universal passion, proceed ? Why does the eye ever dwell with fondness upon the scenes of infant life ?5 Why do we breathe with greater joy the breath of our youth? Why are not other soils as grateful, and other heavens as gay? Why does the soul of man ever cling to that earth where it first knew pleasure and pain, and, under the rough discipline of the passions, was roused to the dignity of moral life? Is it only that our country contains our kindred and our friends ? And is it nothing but a name for our social affections? It cannot be this; the most friendless of human beings has a country which he admires and extols, and which he would, in the same circumstances, prefer to all others under heaven. Tempt him with the fairest face of nature, place him by living waters under shadowy trees of Lebanon, open to his view all the gorgeous allurements of the climates of the sun,-he will love the rocks and deserts of his childhood better than all these, and thou canst not bribe his soul to forget the land of his nativity; he will sit down and weep by the waters of Babylon when he remembers thee, O Sion!
1 Sought out, retirée-2 had thrown it, l'avaient consignée—3 raked out of, fut dégagé de dessous—4 trooping apace to the new-erected banner, accoururent en foule sous la bannière nouvellement arborée.
o Of infant life, de notre enfance—6 is it only that, cela provient-il uniquement de ce que.
TO KING GEORGE III.
You ascended the throne with a declared, and, I doubt not, a sincere resolution of giving universal satisfaction to your subjects. You found them pleased with the novelty of a young prince whose countenance promised even more than his words, and loyal to you not only from principle, but passion. It was not a cold profession of allegiance to the first magistrate, but a partial, animated attachment to a favourite prince, the native of their country. They did not wait to examine your conduct, not to be determined by experience, but gave4 you a generous credit for the future blessings of your reign, and paid you in advance the dearest tribute of their affections. Such, Sire, was once the disposition of a people who now surround your throne with reproaches and complaints. Do justice to yourself. Banish from your mind those unworthy opinions with which some interested persons have laboured to possess you.5 Distrust the men who tell you that the English are naturally light and inconstant-that they complain without a cause. Withdraw your confidence equally from all parties from ministers, favourites, and relations; and let there be one moment in your
1 With, etc......resolution, en déclarant, sincèrement je n'en doute pas, votre détermination— from, par–3 to examine, jusqu'à ce qu'ils eussent examiné—4 gave, accordèrent_5 with which some......have laboured to possess you, que certaines......se sont évertuées à y faire entrer.
life in which
have consulted your own understanding. . The people of England are loyal to the House of Hanover, not from a vain preference of one family to another, but from a conviction that the establishment of that family was necessary to the support of their civil and religious liberties. This, Sire, is a principle of allegiance equally solid and rational ; fit for Englishmen to adopt,3 and well worthy of your Majesty's encouragement. We cannot long be deluded by nominal distinctions. The name of Stuart, of 4 itself, is only contemptible ; armed with the sovereign authority, their principles are formidable. The prince who imitates their conduct should be warned by example; and, while he plumes himself upon the security of his title to the crown, should remember that, as it was acquired by one revolution, it may be lost by another.
PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION.
The various objects that compose the world were by nature formed to delight our senses; and as it is this alone that makes them desirable to an uncorrupted taste, a man may be said naturally to possess them, when he possesseth those enjoyments which
| Have, aurez—from a conviction, parce qu'il est convaincu-3 fit for ...... to adopt, propre à être adopté par......—4 of, en.