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of your country; your representatives have ordered a festival dedicated to your victories, which are celebrated in all the communes of the republic. There your fathers, your mothers, your wives, your sisters, your sweethearts, are rejoicing in your achievements, and boasting with pride that they belong to you. Yes, soldiers ! you have done much; but is there nothing more left for you to do ?? Shall it be said of us that we knew how to conquer, but that we did not know how to follow up the victory? Shall posterity reproach you with having found a Capua in Lombardy?

But I see you already running to arms. Well ! let us set out! We have still forced marches to make, enemies to subdue, laurels to gather, injuries to revenge. Let those who have whetted the daggers of civil war in France, who have basely assassinated our ministers, who burned our ships at Toulon--let those tremble! The hour of vengeance has struck ;5 but let not the people be alarmed ;6 we are friends of the people everywhere, and more particularly of the descendants of the Brutuses, the Scipios, and the great men whom we have taken for our? models. To re-establish the Capitol, to set up there with honour the statues of the heroes who rendered it celebrated; to rouse the Roman people, stupified by several centuries of slavery—such will be the fruit of our victories. They will form an epoch with posterity. You will have the immortal glory of chang


In, de— is there nothing more left for you to do? ne vous reste-til plus rien à faire ?-3 we knew how to, nous avons sû—4 follow up, profiter de--5 struck, sonné_6 let, etc......alarmed, que les peaples soient sans inquiétude— for our, pour8 stupified, engourdi-, they will form an epoch with, elles feront époque dans.

ing the face of the finest portion of Europe. The French people, free, and respected by the whole world, will give to Europe a glorious peace, which will indemnify her for the sacrifices of all kinds that she has been making for the last six years. You will then return to your homes ;; and your fellow

3 citizens, pointing to you, will say, He belonged to the army of Italy."




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Man-materially so feeble, so diminutive, as compared with nature—feels and knows himself great by his intellect and by his liberty. “Man,” says Pascal, “is only a reed, but he is a thinking reed. Were the universe to crush him, man would still be nobler than that which killed him; for the advantage the universe has over him, the universe knows not.”? Let us add, that not only is the universe ignorant of its power, but it has not the disposal of it, and itself obeys irresistible laws as a slave; whilst what little I do, I do it because I choose ; and again, did I so choose, 9 I should cease to do it, having in myself the power to commence, to suspend, to continue, or wholly to extinguish 10 the movement I have resolved to accomplish.

Raised in his own estimation" by the sentiment of


For the, des_2 for the last, depuis__3 you will then return to your homes, vous rentrerez alors dans vos foyers.

4 As compared with, en face de-5 were the universe to crush him, quand l'univers l'écraserait—6 killed, tue— knows not, n'en sait rien --* what little, le peu que again did I so choose, si je le veux encore10 wholly to extinguish, de mettre à néant,11 in his own estimation, à ses propres yeux.

his liberty, man judges himself superior to the things by which he is surrounded; he deems them to have nol other value than that which he awards them, because they belong not to themselves. He recognises in himself the right to occupy them, to apply them to his use, to change their form, to alter their natural arrangement,-in a word, to do with them what he pleases, without any remorse ever entering? his soul.

The first moral fact, then, which conscience seizes hold of, is the dignity of man's person in relation to things, and this dignity more peculiarly lies4 in liberty.

Liberty, which raises man above things, imposes obligations upon himself.5 While assuming the right to do what he pleases with things, he does not feel that he has a right to pervert his own nature; on the contrary, he feels bound to sustain it, and of constantly labouring to perfect the liberty that is within him. Such is the first law, the most general duty, that reason imposes upon liberty. Thus capriciousness, violence, pride, envy, idleness, intemperance, are all passions which reason orders man to combat, because they all strike heavy blows ato liberty, and degrade the dignity of human nature.

VICTOR COUSIN, Justice et Charité."


1 He deems them to have no, il estime qu'elles n'ont d'—2 without any ......ever entering, sans qu'aucun...... pénètre dans—3 seizes hold of, recueille—4 lies, réside–5 imposes obligations upon himself, l'oblige par rapport à lui—6 while assuming, s'il s'attribue—7 he feels bound to, il se sent le devoir de—8 the first law, la loi première_9 they all strike heavy blows at, elles portent atteinte à.


QUEEN ELIZABETH AND LOUIS XIV. Elizabeth, like Louis XIV., brought to the throne the genius of order and the instinct of power, after long disorders which rendered the concentration of great strength in firm hands desirable to the people. She, like him, knew how to appreciate merit, and to make use of it; to select ministers, and to keep them; to gather around her great men, and yet continue to be great herself.

Both these royal natures were puffed up with the same pride ; there was in both the same intolerance, the same disregard for the rights of others, the same uncontrollable desire3 to concentrate everything in themselves, and to domineer over everything. But the weaknesses of the human heart are much more apparent in Elizabeth, in whom we find dissimulation carried to 4 hypocrisy, vanity to madness, severity in religious persecution without even the excuse of superstition or fanaticism, and a depths of littlenesses side by side with traits of the most supreme grandeur. There was in Louis XIV., considered in his double capacity, as a man and as a king, a better balance, and a greater evenness of character ;7 there is to be found in his disposition and conduct a better sustained harmony, and an unalloyed dignity. Yet he committed more faults than Elizabeth, to whom fortune remained faithful to the last. The reason is, that Elizabeth was on the throne in a very different position from that of continental kings. She felt


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1 To gather around her, s'entourer de— puffed up with, pétries de -3 uncontrollable desire, besoin—4 carried to, poussée jusqu'à -5 depth, abîme_6 capacity as a man, qualité d'homme- a better, etc...... character, plus d'équilibre et d'unité— there is to be found, on trouve.

herself, notwithstanding all her haughtiness, under the pressure of necessities from which it was impossible for her to escape. She had neither a standing 3 army to compel obedience, nor the means of maintaining one. She reigned over a people who, in the gloomiest days, endured all from their tyrants but one thing-viz., the imposition of permanent and arbitrary taxes without any limit but that of their good pleasure; and to vanquish resistance on that point she could not, in default of ano army, array one class of her subjects against another—the fusion between them was complete, and there was but one voice throughout England to declare that the right of every

British citizen was to be taxed with the consent of the Parliament only. Hence Elizabeth was compelled to be prudent—not to disregard5 her people-to win the affections of her subjects—to be sparing of their blood and wealth. Her authority had thus salutary bounds, which her reason acknowledged, and which were wanting to Charles V., Philip II., and Louis XIV.; and while the latter destroyed, in every constituted body, and in the institutions, everything which was an obstacle to him, or which appeared to maintain some force independent of his own, Elizabeth restrained all without disturbing anything, and compressed without destroying. She was not unmindful8 that Parliament had proclaimed her right to the throne-she humoured them while' bending them to her plans—and it was

| Pressure, joug—2 from which, etc...... to escape, auxquelles...... de se soustraire—3 standing, permanente—4 in default of an, à défaut d'une_5 not to disregard, de compter avec—6. Charles V., CharlesQuint_7 without disturbing anything, sans rien renverser— 8 was not unmindful, se souvint_9 she humoured them while, elle le ménagea en.

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