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mountain ; another, his shadow protected us ;1 a third, he sheltered the water at its source; a fourth, he was a guide to the lost traveller. Thus each one explains his sorrow by a special grievance ;3 whilst the little children, without comprehending the extent of their loss, seek in vain on the barren sand for the sweet-tasted 4 dates which no longer fall there. Thus, while the political parties which divide France, in proclaiming the death of Charles X., deplore their vanished hopes, and calculate the results of this event, we, the children of elegance and harmony, whom quarrels fatigue, and politics put to sleep, we weep for ourselves and, without pretension, the King of old France, chivalrous France, brilliant and poetical France—the lady of quality-France, in fine, which is no more.

And, like the children who know not if the fallen palm was useful for its height and for its shade, we regret its fruit, and we seek in vain in citizen 6 France for that flower of courtesy, that perfume of royalty, that majestic benevolence which fell from the monarchical tree, and which we shall


see no more.

“Good actions,” say some, “have replaced fine manners, and that is better. The citizen king is more suitable to our manners than the gentleman king. The vessel of the state is no longer a superb ship, with sails unfurled, which the capricious winds toss at random to and fro:8 it is now a heavy steamship, laden with coal and potatoes, starting at a cer

| Protected us, venait jusqu'à nous—2 he was a guide, il servait de guide--3 special grievance, plainte motivée-4 sweet-tasted, savoureuses 25 for, par—6 citizen, bourgeoise— with sails unfurled, aux voiles dépendantes—8 toss at random to and fro, font voguer au hasard.



tain hour, and arriving at a certain day at the assignedharbour."

For ourselves who only love arts and pleasure, we regret the beautiful ship, and the old monarch of past times, because he carries with him our associations; because no one knew better how to speak 3 a gracious word, or when to make4 a noble present ; because he was eminently royal, which was of consequence in his position ; because, in fine, he had tradition on his side, as is said at the theatre, and that tradition is lost 6 with him.

Now that Charles X. is dead, there will be justice awarded to him ;7 it will be understood that his faults, so severely punished, were only noble qualities; but, unhappily, these qualities were not of our age, and that was his crime; for it is a sad truth, which must be confessed ; there is a fashion in virtues as in dresses, which would cause one to believe that our virtues are only ornaments. A virtue out of date may perchance injure a brave man: yesterday, firmness was a kingly virtue ; to-day it is called 10 an arbitrary tendency...... Good and evil are not divined" by instinct, as formerly; they now demand the study of a life-time, and even then one sees noble spirits deceived in their research.12 At the age of Charles X. it was very late to give up one's 13 ideas


| At a certain hour, à heure fixe—assigned ....... ...... qui lui est assigné-3 knew better how to speak, nul ne savait mieux dire— or when to make, et faire plus à propos—5 he had tradition on his side, il avait la tradition is lost, se perd—7 there will be justice awarded to him, on lui rendra justice—8 that was, ce fut là — a virtue, etc...... injure, il est telle vertu surannée qui peut nuire à – 10 it is called, cela s'appelle--11 are not divined, ne se devinent pas—12 and even, etc....... research, et encore voit-on de nobles âmes s'y tromper—13 to give up one's,

8, pour revenir sur ses.


and to work out new opinions for one's-self. We were not to him an enlightened people, who claimed their rights : we were revolted subjects, whose insolence must be repressed. What would


have required of him ? He had not lost the illusion of “ faithful subjects ;" he comprehended nothing of the legal insurrections of the Chambers; he still had the prejudice of the Crown-in a word, he wished to reign under pretext that he was a king. That was 3 why he died, as he lived, in exile. Oh! this is sad -always to see kings proscribed, guillotined, assassinated, from the misunderstanding of the people. Formerly, a man displeased the prince, who sent him to the Bastille : now it is the prince who displeases the people ; and the people, who are absolute, proscribe him. The land of exile is then the Bastille


for kings.

MADAME DE GIRARDIN, “ Lettres Parisiennes, 1836."


I declare that I recognise in” no one here the right to accuse or6 to judge me. Moreover, I look around for judges, and I find but accusers.

I do not expect an act of justice; it is to an act of vengeance that I resign myself. I profess respect for the established authorities; but I respect still more the law by which they have been constituted, and I no longer recog


1 And to work out,'s-self, et pour se refaire des croyances nouvelles —what would you have required of him ? que voulez-vous ? -3 that was, c'est—4 from the misunderstanding of the people, pour des malentendus de peuples.

5 In, à—6 or, ni—3 moreover, I look around for, d'ailleurs, je cherche ici des —8 by which they have been constituted, qui les a fondées.




nise in them any power, from the moment that,in contempt of that law, they usurp rights which it has not conferred on them.

In such a situations of things, I know not if submission be an act of prudence; but I know that, as soon as resistance is a right, it becomes a duty.

Having arrived in this Chamber by the will of those who had the right to send me, I must not leave it but by the violence of those who choose to arrogate to themselves the right of excluding me ;8 and should this resolution on my part bring down on my head even greater perils, I think within myself 10 that the field of liberty has been sometimes fertilized by generous blood.

MANUEL, A la Chambre des Députés, 1825.



These words were sung in notes 11 alternately deep and shrill, which seemed to burst from the breast with sullen mutterings 12 of national anger, and then with the joy of victory. There was in them something as solemn as death, but as serene as the undying confidence of patriotism. It seemed a recovered echo 13 of Thermopylæ. It was heroism in song. 14


I, etc......power, je ne leur reconnais plus de puissance from the moment that, dès l'instant que—3 in contempt of, au mépris de it has not conferred on them, elle ne leur a pas donnés—5 situation, état - as soon as, dès que having arrived, arrivé—8, de m'en......_9 should......bring down, si......doit appeler-10 I think within myself, je me dis.

11 In notes, sur des notes— 12 to burst from, etc...... mutterings, gronder dans la poitrine avec les frémissements sourds--13 it seemed a recovered echo, on eût dit un écho retrouvé-14 in song, chanté.

There was heard the regular footfall of thousands of men marching together to defend” the frontiers over the resounding soil of their country, the plaintive voice of women, the wailing of children, the neighing of horses, the hissing of flames as they devoured palaces and huts; then gloomy strokes of vengeance, striking again and again with the hatchet, and immolating the enemies of the people and the profaners of the soil. The notes of this air rustled 5 like a flag dipped in gore still reeking on a battle plain. They made one shudder, but the shudder which passed over the heart with its vibrations had naught of fear.? They gave an impulse, they redoubled strength, they veiled the horrors of death. It was the “fire-water"9 of the Revolution, which instilled 10 into the senses and the soul of the people the intoxication of battle.

There are times in the life of nations when they hear their soul thus gushing forth ll in accents which no man hath written, and which all the world utters. 12 All the senses desire to present their tribute to patriotism, and eventually to encourage each other.13 The foot advances—the gesture urges on--the voice intoxicates the ear-the ear stirs the heart. The whole man is wound


14 like an instrument of en


thusiasm. ....

Like those sacred banners suspended from the roofs


There was, etc......footfall, on y entendait le pas cadencé_2 to defend, à la défense de—3 as they devoured, dévorant—4 striking again and again, frappant et refrappant—5 rustled, ruisselaient—6 dipped in gore still reeking, trempé de sang encore chaud—7 had naught of fear, était intrépide —8 an impulse, l'élan— fire-water, l'eau de feu10 instilled, distillait-il thus gushing forth, jaillir ainsi — 12 utters, chante_13 and eventually ....... each other, et...... mutuellement—it is wound up, se monte.

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