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spirit and spontaneous activity of twenty millions of Christian souls.

The Englishman gives his money, his time, his name to a work of charity, or of public interest; he makes it his glory that? the work thus promoted shall be equal to all wants, and in accordance with all

progress; but to accomplish this, he never thinks of asking or of accepting the helping hand of the government for that which his fathers and himself have founded. He keeps the authority with the responsibility, the rights with the duties. He would faints at the sight of our system of legal charity, directed, superintended, educated, in fact, pinioned and gagged,4 in which, since 1852, all the members of all the Bureaux de Bienfaisance through France are placed and displaced by the Préfets, as are also all the administrators of hospitals, who formerly were elected,

Supported by voluntary contributions :" such is the proud and noble inscription that we read all over England on most of the hospitals and various asylums provided for human misery. Even when the English government has taken the initiative, the public always follows, to claim its share and right. Condidit Rex, Civium largitas perfecit," as it is written in the front of the immense hospital of Bedlam. It is well understood that these words,“ Supported by voluntary subscriptions,” imply also, "governed by the

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authority of the subscribers.” It is the same principle everywhere—effort, personal and permanent sacrifice, and then the rights and power arising from the sacrifice and the effort...

It is thus that England escapes the greatest difficulty and the greatest danger of modern society, the social uniformity and the absorbing power of the government. There the variety of rights and the infinite diversity of individual opinions strangle in its birth that fatal germ of uniformity which is not only the parent of weariness, but especially the offspring of bureaucracywhich is, moreover, the mark and condition of servitude ; and which, very far from being a guarantee of stability to nations or governments, has never saved these from the most sudden , and most shameful overthrows. Still less does England know that detestable abuse of force created by4 the omnipotence of our modern governments, whatever may be their origin or their name-Dictatorship or Assembly, Monarchy or Republic.

In the nations of this age a revolution or a conspiracy easily overthrows a government, but it is too often only to substitute for the fallen power a new one, which is found to be quite as impatient of restraint6 as its predecessor was, and which arrogates to itself the right and the power? of doing whatever it pleases, and which always succeeds for a time80 much have the most useful inventions of civilization, and the happy gentleness of modern manners, simplified the formerly laborious and hazardous task of despotism !

1 Strangle in its birth that fatal germ, brisent dans l'auf le germe fatal—2 parent of weariness, mère de l'ennui—3 the offspring, la fille4 created by, qui ressort de—_5 in, chez—6 a new one, etc...... restraint, un nouveau venu qui ne veut pas plus de frein— power, faculté.

MONTALEMBERT, “Avenir Politique de l'Angleterre.

THE FRENCH PROTESTANT REFUGEES (A.D. 1685).

When one sees how the scattered communities of the great religious emigration of France became dissolved, one cannot but regret that a leader did not at the first? present himself sufficiently illustrious by birth, and great in authority, to rally all these exiles under one banner. Realizing the idea of Coligny, he might have led them to America, and there have founded a vast colony. He would have found himself possessed at once of all the elements of a society, numerous, energetic, and full of hope:4 generals, soldiers, sailors, preachers, learned men, manufacturers, artizans, labourers, merchants, and even capitalists would have been there to facilitate their first establishment. What more was wanted5 to transplant a Protestant France into the New World, there to flourish, and perhaps to lay the foundation of a powerful empire ?

But Providence ordered it 6 otherwise. These fugitives, dispersed throughout the world, were to become, unknown to themselves, the instruments of that mysterious will. They were destined, in America especially, to check the puritanical fanaticism, and

1 When one sees how......became dissolved, en voyant se dissoudre...... _2 at the first, dès l'abord—3 he would, etc......of, il aurait trouvé sous sa main 4 full of hope, pleine d'avenir—5 what more was wanted, en fallait-il davantage—6 ordered it, en décida~? unknown to themselves, à leur insu—8 check, tempérer,

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to help in its fruitful efforts and final triumph that spirit of independence controlled by the law, the magnificent results of which are now witnessed in the United States. In Europe their mission was to develope for Prussia, and to increase for England and Holland, the elements of power and prosperity already to be found in those countries, whose present great

in some respects be traced to them. .. What the foreign nations thus gained, was so much lost for France. This kingdom, which Henry IV., Richelieu, and Mazarin had transmitted to Louis XIV., covered with glory, powerful in arms,—the first of nations abroad, tranquil and satisfied at home,--he” transferred to his successor, humiliated, weakened, discontented, ready to succumb to the reaction of the Regency and of the whole of the eighteenth century, and thus fatally carried away to the revolution of 1789. To the formidable encroachments of a prince who, during the latter part of his reign, was governed in his religion by a narrow and intolerant spirit, and in his policy by views more dynastic than national, Protestantism had opposed an irresistible barrier in England and Holland, united under one prince, who prevailed upon all Europe to enlist against 3 isolated France.

WEISS,

Histoire des Réfugiés Protestants de France."

1 May, etc......to them, est à quelques égards leur æuvre he, il le _3 who prevailed upon all Europe to enlist against, qui entraina toute l'Europe contre.

PEEL AND THE WORKING CLASSES. I more than once remarked the influence, mingled with sympathy and with fear, which was exercised over his mind by our great revolution of 1789, and by the ideas and social forces which it has called into play.' On this subject he shared neither the maxims nor the passions of the Tories of the old school; and in his inmost soul, in spite of all his moral, political, and national reservation, this great English Conservative was himself rather a child than an enemy of that new social order, which continues powerful and fruitful in spite of its faults, its reverses, its miscalculations, and its dark features. But what struck me most of all, in the conversation of Sir Robert Peel, was his constant and earnest solicitude with regard to the condition of the labouring classes in England

a solicitude arising as much from moral as from political considerations, and in which, beneath a cold and somewhat compassed language, might be discerned the emotion of the man, as well as the forethought of the statesman. “ There is," he always said, “ too much suffering and too much perplexity amongst the working classes; it is a disgrace as well as a danger to our civilization : it is absolutely necessary to render the condition of those people who work with their hands 7 less hard and less precarious. We cannot do everything, far from it; but we can do something, and it is our duty to do all that we can."

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1 Called into play, mises en jeu—in his inmost soul, au fond de son âme-3 dark features, ténèbres— was, ce fut—5 arising, etc. ......considerations, morale autant que politique—6 might be discerned, perçait—7 those people, etc......hands, ce peuple du travail manuel.

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