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sometimes an affected simplicity, sometimes a presumptuous bluntness giveth it being ;-sometimes it ariseth only from a lucky hitting upon what is strange; often it consisteth in one knows not what, and ariseth? one knows not how: its ways are unaccountable and inexplicable, being answerable to the numberless rovings of fancy and windings of language.3 It is, in short, a manner of speaking out of the plain way,' which, by an uncouthness in conceit5 or expression, doth amuse the fancy, stirring in it some wonder, and breeding some delight. It raiseth admiration, as signifying? a nimble sagacity of apprehension, a special felicity of invention, à vivacity of spirit,10 and reach of wit more than vulgar.11 It seemeth to argue12 a rare quickness of parts 13 that can produce such applicable conceits, a notable skill that can dexterously accommodate them to the purpose before him,14 together with 15 a lively briskness of humour, not apt to damp 16 those sportful flashes of imagination. It procures delight, by gratifying curiosity with 17 its rarity, by diverting the mind from its road of 18 serious thoughts, by instilling gaiety and airiness of spirit,19 and by sea
1 It ariseth only from a lucky hitting upon what is strange, il provient simplement d'une heureuse et bizarre inspiration—ariseth, se produit
-3 being answerable, etc......of language, comme elles correspondent aux mille fantaisies de l'imagination et aux mille tours et détours de langage-4 out of the plain way, en dehors de la voie commune–5 by an uncouthness in conceit, par l'étrangeté de l'idée—6 stirring, etc...... delight, en y éveillant un certain degré d'étonnement et de charme
as signifying, en ce qu'il indique—8 apprehension, conceptiðn9 felicity of invention, facilité d'invention — 10 spirit, caractère11 vulgar, ordinaire-12 to argue, dénoter-13 quickness of parts, faculté de conception--14 to the purpose before him, au but proposé—15 together with, en même temps que—16 not apt to damp, qui n'est point de nature à refroidir—7 with, par–18 by diverting, etc......road of, en distrayant l'esprit de 19 by instilling, etc......spirit, en inspirant une humeur gaie et légère.
soning matters, otherwise distasteful and insipid, with an unusual and grateful twang.'
THE BATTLE OF PAVIA (A.D. 1524). Never did armies engage with greater ardour or with a higher opinion of the importance of the battle which they were going to fight;' never were troops * more strongly animated with emulation, national antipathy, mutual resentment, and all the passions which inspire obstinate bravery. On the one hand, a gallant young monarch,
6 seconded by a generous nobility, and followed by? subjects to whose natural impetuosity, indignation até the opposition which they had encountered, added new force, contended for victory and honour. On the other side, troops more completely disciplined, and conducted by generals of greater abilities, fought fromo necessity, with courage heightened by despair. The Imperialists, however, were unable to resist the first efforts of French valour, and their firmest battalions began to give way.10 But the fortune of the day was quickly changed ; the Swiss in the servicell of France, unmindful 12 of the reputation of their country for fidelity and martial glory, abandoned their post in a cowardly manner.13
ROBERTSON, “ History of Charles V.”
By seasoning, etc.......twang, en assaisonnant ce qui autrement n'aurait ni goût ni saveur, d'un parfum original et agréable.
2 Never did armies engoge, jamais armées n'en vinrent aux mains -3 which they were going to fight, dans laquelle elles allaient s'engager
- never were troops, jamais troupes ne furent“ with, par—on the one hand, d'un côté — by, de—8 indignation at, l'indignation soulevée par_9 from, par-10 to give way, à lâcher pied li in the service, an service-12 unmindful, oublieux 13
in a cowardly manner, lâchement......
What sol important in the actual condition of the world as this extraordinary mineral, coal ?—the staff and support? of present civilization, the great instrument and means of future progress! The very familiarity and multiplicity of its uses disguise from 3 observation the important part it bears4 in the life of man, and the economy of nations.
of nations. We have often thought, with something of fearful interest, what would be the condition of the world, and of England in particular, were this subterranean treasure exhausted, or even much abridged in quantity. Yet such is the term to which, if the globe itself should last, our posterity must eventually come; and as respects our own country, the period, at the present rate of consumption, can be defined with some exactness. 10 The immense coal basins ll of the Ohio
11 and Mississippi will yet be yielding their richness to the then innumerable people of the western world, when our stores are worked out and gone. Yet here also time will fix its limit. Geology gives no indication whatever of natural processes going on by which 13 what is once consumed may be recreated or repaired. The original materials of the formation
1 What so, quoi de si —2 the staff and support, le levier et le soutiendisguise from, dérobent à 4 the......part it bears, le rôle......qu'il joue~5 we have, etc......interest, nous nous sommes souvent demandé, avec un intérêt mêlé d'un certain effroi—6 were, etc......quantity, si ce trésor souterrain venait à s'épuiser, ou même à diminuer d'une manière sensible—7 eventually, un jour ou l'autre—8 as respects, en ce qui regarde_9 at the present rate of consumption, à raison de la consomption actuelle—10 defined with some exactness, déterminée avec une certaine précision-11 coal basins, bassins houillers—12 are worked out and gone, seront épuisées—13 of natural processes going on by which, de l'existence de lois naturelles en vertu desquelles.
may be said to be no longer present;' the agencies and conditions necessary to the work are either wanting, or partial and deficient in force. Whether 4 human science, grasping at this time what seem almost as5 new elements of power committed to man, may hereafter discover a substitute for this great mineral, isi a problem which it belongs to future
? generations to solve.
INFLUENCE OF FRANCE IN THE 17TH CENTURY.
Even the Latin was giving way to a younger rival. France united at that time almost every species of ascendency. Her military glory was at the height.10 She had vanquished mighty coalitions. She had dictated treaties. She had subjugated great cities and provinces. She had forced the Castilian pride to yield her the precedence. She had summoned 12 Italian princes to prostrate themselves at her footstool.13 Her authority was supreme in all matters of good breeding, 14 from a duel to a minuet. She 15 determined how a gentleman's coat must be cut,16 how long his peruke must be, 17 whether his
,, heels must 18 be high or low, and whether the lace on
May be said to be no longer present, peuvent être considérés comme n'existant plus wanting, absents—3 deficient in force, d'une force insuffisante whether, quant à la question de savoir sim what seem almost as, ce qui semble presque constituer—6 may hereafter discover, découvrira un jour_7 is, c'est là.
8 In the, au— was giving way to, faisait place à (or : s'effaçait devant)-10 at the height, à son apogée-l the precedence, le pas12 summoned, forcé_13 at her footstoot, à ses pieds--14 in all matters of good breeding, dans tout ce qui avait rapport aux bonnes manières15 she, c'était elle qui—16 how, etc.......cut, quelle coupe devait avoir l'habit d'un gentilhomme-7 how long ......must be, de quelle longeur devait être......-18 must, devaient.
his hat must be broad or narrow. In literature she gave lawl to the world. The fame of her great writers filled Europe. No other country could produce? a tragic poet equal to Racine, a comic poet equal to Molière, a trifler3 so agreeable as La Fontaine, a rhetorician4 so skilful as Bossuet.* The literary glory of Italy and of Spain had set ;' that of Germany had not yet dawned.6
The genius, therefore, of the eminent men who adorned Paris shone forth with a splendour which was set off to full advantage by contrast.? France, indeed, had at that time an empire over mankind, such as even the Roman Republic never attained.' For when Rome was politically dominant, she was in arts and letters the humble pupil of Greece. France had, over the surrounding countries, at once 10 the ascendency which Rome had over Greece, and the ascendency which Greece had over Rome. French was fast becoming the universal language, the language of fashionable society," the language of diplomacy. At several courts princes and nobles spoke it more accurately and politely 12 than their mother tongue.13
LORD MACAULAY, “ History of England."
She gave law, elle faisait la loi— produce, montrer—3 a trifler, un conteur-4 rhetorician, orateur_5 had set, était passée_6 had not yet dawned, n'avait pas encore surgi—7 which, etc...... by contrast, que le contraste faisait ressortir avec avantage — France, indeed, le fait est que la France -- 9 such as even the ......never attained, auquel la ......elle-même n'atteignit jamais—10 at once, à la fois—11 fashionable society, la bonne société 12 more accurately and politely, d'une manière plus correcte et plus élégante—13 mother tongue, langue maternelle (or: propre langue).
* See the Biographical notices in the Appendix.