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9. There is too great a divorce between invention and memory 97 Fifth defect. There is a want of mutual intelligence between different universities
99 Sixth defect. There is a want of proper rewards for enquiries in new and unlaboured parts of learning
98 The opinion of plenty is amongst the causes of want, and the great quantity of books maketh a shew rather of superfluity than lack : which surcharge, nevertheless, is not to be remedied by making no more books but by making more good books, which, as the serpent of Moses, might devour the serpents of the enchanters.
I will now attempt to make a general and faithful perambulation of learning, with an inquiry what parts thereof lie fresh and waste
DIVISION OF LEARNING, HUMAN AND DIVINE 1. History relating to the memory. 2. Poetry relating to the imagination. 3. Philosophy relating to the reason.
101 1. It is the bistory of learning from age to age. 2. It is in general deficient, but there are some slight memorials
of particular sects and sciences. 3. The uses of literary history. Natural History
1. Of creatures.
• The arrangement of this part is altered in the Treatise De
History of Creatures. 1. It is the history of nature in course. 2. It is extant and in perfection.
History of Marrails. 1. It is the history of nature wandering. 2. It is deficient.
3. Its uses.
1. To correct the partiality of axioms.
It is, as it were, hounding Nature in her wanderings to
be able to lead her afterwards to the same place again. 4. Different marvails.
History of Arts(0) 1. It is in general deficient. 2. It is considered not elevating to enquire into matters mechanical
105 The truth is, they be not the highest instances that give the securest information ; as may be well expressed in the tale so common of the philosopher, that while he gazed upwards to the stars fell into the water; for if he had looked down he might have seen the stars in the water, but looking aloft he could not see the water in the stars. So it cometh often to pass, that mean and small things discover great, better than great cun discover the small.
Aristotle noteth well, “ that the nature of every thing is best seen in its smallest portions." And for that cause he inquireth the nature of a commonwealth, first in a family, and the simple conjugations of man and wife, purent and child, master and servant, which are in every cottage.
The turning of iron touched with the loadstone towards the north, was found out in needles of iron, not in bars of
iron. 3. The use of mechanical history is great
106 As a man's disposition is never well known till he be
(0) See note (O) at the end.
crossed, nor Proteus ever changed shapes till he was straitened and held fast; so the passages and variations of nature cannot appear so fully in the liberty of nature, as in the trials and vexations of art.
Of pictures or images, we see, some are unfinished, some are perfect, and some are defuced.
Memorials. 1. Memorials are preparations for history, 2. Different sorts; commentaries, registers. 3. They are naturally imperfect.
Antiquities. 1. They are the remnant of history.
They are as planks saved from the deluge of time. 2. Epitomes should be abolished.
They are as the moths af history that have fretted and corroded the sound bodies of many exellent histories.
Perfect History Division and their relative merits
Biography, 1. It is the most useful of all history. 2. It is to be lamented that biography is not more frequent 112
One of the poets feigned that at the end of the thread or web of every man's life there was a little medal containing the person's name, and that Time waited upon the shears ; and as soon as the thread was cut, caught the medals, and Ecclesiastical History
carried them to the river of Lethe ; and about the bank there were many birds flying up and down, that would get the medals and carry them in their beak a little while, and then let them fall into the river; only there were a few swans, which if they got a name, would carry it to a temple where
it wus consecrated, 3. Impropriety of disregarding posthumous fame
Chronicles. 1. Chronicles excel for celebrity. 2. The heathen antiquities are deficient 3. Bacon recommends a history of England from the
union of the roses to the union of the kingdoms
Relations. 1. They excel in verity and sincerity
108 2. It is to be lamented that there is not more diligence in relations
113 The collection of such relations might be as a nursery garden, whereby to plant a fair and stately garden, when
time should serve. 3. Annals and journals.
Mixed History 1. A mixture of selected pieces of history. 2. Cosmography
116 1. It has a common division analogous to the division of common
3. Relations of synods. 2. Proper division
· 117 1. History of the church. 2. History of prophecy. 3. History of providence.
History of the Church. 1. It describes the state of the church in persecution, in remove,
and in peace.
The ark in the deluge : the ark in the wilderness : and
the ark in the temple. 9. It is more wanting in sincerity than in quantity.
History of Prophecy. 1. It is the history of the prophecy and of the accomplishment. 2. Every prophecy should be sorted with the event. 3. It is deficient.
History of Providence. 1. It is the history of the correspondence between God's revealed
will and his secret will.
2. It is not deficient.
Appendices to History. 1. Different sorts.
1. Orations. 2. Epistlès.
3. Apothegms. 2. Relative advantages of orations, epistles, and apothegms. 3. They are not deficient.
• 119 1. Division.
1. As it refers to words.
2. As it refers to matter. 2. Poetry as it refers to words is but a character of style, and
is not pertinent to this place. 3. Poetry as it refers to the matter.
1. It is fiction, and relates to the imagination.
The imagination not being tied to the laws of matter, may at pleasure join that which nature hath severed, and sever that which nature hath joined; and so make unlawful matches and divorces of things.