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was easily paid, and which was accompanied by an offer, equally valuable to the English, of his old mockasins and mantle.

Newport, after an ineffectual attempt to ob. tain from Powhatan a guide for the purpose of exploring the country of the Manakins, pro. ceeded thither without such help, accompanied by about one hundred men. The hope of realizing those golden dreams which had so often proved illusory, was no doubt a principal cause of this expedition, which like those undertaken with the same views, was attended with the same success. After a fatiguing journey they returned to Jamestown, without having added much to their treasures.

During this year was celebrated betwixt Anne Burras and John Laydon the first mar. riage that is recorded in Virginia.

The scarcity of provisions that prevailed in the colony induced captain Smith to undertake another expedition among the Indian tribes, during which he discovered the Appamattox nation. He seldom failed of procuring for the colony corn or some other article of provision,



of which they were often in want, and he was not very scrupulous about the manner in which he procured it. After his return from this ex. pedition he received and accepted an invitation from Powhatan to visit him at Werowocomoco.

During his stay at the imperial court, various plans were laid by the monarch to entrap the English, and by Smith to procure a supply of corn for the colony. The vigilance of the latter, aided by the unwavering friendship of Pocahontas, preserved them from the wiles and stratagems of the savage chief. This amiable princess, whose sylvan virtues were untarnished by the manners of courts and the false delicacy of civilized life, gave frequent instances of her attachment to the English. While her father was meditating an attack under cover of the night, she found her way to their camp and informed them of their danger.

Captain Smith afterwards made a visit to Pamunkey. During his stay at this place he was attacked by several hundred Indians, under the command of Opechancanough. During the en

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gàgement he seized the chief and led him prisoner in the midst of his own warriors, who instantly laid down their arms. He obtained a supply of corn, as a ransom for his royal captive, whom he consequently delivered up to his people. A few days after this, captain Smith was attacked, as he travelled through the woods alone, by the king of Paspahey, a man of gigantic stature. After a long contest the chief was overcome by the prowess of Smith, who led him prisoner to Jamestown.

By a new charter, dated May 1609, the powers of the president and council were transferred to a company in London, to whom was intrusted the appointment of officers, civil and military, for the colony. The company, soon after their incorporation, appointed lord De la War captain general of Virginia, sir Thomas Gates lieutenant general, sir George Somers admiral, and captain Newport vice admiral.

Towards the latter end of May, Gates, Som. ers, and Newport sailed for Virginia, with nine ships plentifully supplied with provisions, and containing a number of passengers. The ad.

miral's ship was unfortunately wrecked in sight of Bermudas, but the rest of the fleet, with the exception of a bark that foundered at sea, got: safe to Virginia. Gates and Somers arrived in two barks which they had constructed with much trouble and difficulty in Bermudas. They found the colony in the most deplorable situa. tion. Captain Smith, tired of the quarrels and jealousies of his countrymen, and anxious to visit his native land, sailed for England, no more to visit the shores of Virginia. After his departure the Indians, no longer restrained by the terror of his name, broke out into open hostilities. Martin and West, who had been stationed, the former at Nansemond and the latter at the falls of James river, with upwards of a hundred men each, were driven frorn their posts, and compelled to take refuge in the settlement, after losing their boats and a number of their men. Ratcliffe, with a party of about thirty men, were surprised and cut off by Powhatan. Famine, the frequent attendant on war, increased the catalogue of colonial miseries, and rendered the existence of the colony pre

carious. From five hundred, the inhabitants were in a short time reduced to sixty, when the arrival of Gates and Somers shed a beam of joy over the gloomy prospects of Virginia.

These however, had not the means of affording substantial relief, and being discouraged by the dismal aspect of affairs, they resolved, with the miserable residue of the colony, to abandon their settlements and return to England. They accordingly embarked, and had proceeded down the river some distance, when they were met by lord De la War, and brought back to Jamestown.

It was in June 1610 that lord De la War arrived in Virginia. After landing his men, he read to the colony his commission appointing him their captain general for life. He did not however remain long in a country that offered rewards only to patient industry, and in a climate that seemed destructive to the constitu. tion of Europeans. After building two forts, and making some successful incursions against the Indians, he returned in a debilitated state of body to England. On his departure the

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