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143 “ The prosperity of a country depends not upon the abundance of its revenues, nor upon the strength of its fortifications, nor upon the beauty of its public buildings, but upon the number of its cultivated citizens, its men and women of education, enlightenment, and character. Here are found the true interest, the chief strength, and the real power of a nation.”

Luther. “ Education is a companion that no misfortune can depress, no clime destroy, no enemy alienate, no despotism enslave; at home a friend, abroad an introduction, in solitude a solace, and in society an ornament.” Phillips.

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The plurals of nouns are generally made by adding s to the singular.

Nouns ending in 8, X, 2, sh, or soft ch, and nouns that end in i, o, u, or y,.preceded each by a consonant, are made plural by adding es to the singular. (Y is changed to i when adding es.)

In our language, as written in England, the plural of story, or storey, meaning floor, is storeys. We write stories. When reading books printed in England, we notice these interesting differences.

A few nouns in o are exceptions to the above rule, and add s only. See opposite page.

Nouns ending in o or y, preceded by a vowel, add 8 to the singular to form the plural.

Nouns ending in silent e, preceded by the sound of 8, X, 2, j, sh, or soft ch, add s to the singular.

Some nouns ending in f and fe change f to v and add es, and others add only s to form the plural.

The plurals of letters, figures, and other characters are formed by adding the apostrophe () and s, that is ('s), to the singular.

EXCEPTION. — Wharf has both forms, wharfs and wharves. Staff becomes staves in the plural, but its compounds are regular; as, flagstaff, flagstaffs.

The plural of many nouns is irregular, as man,


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