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Give the singular form of each of the following nouns and the rule, if any, for forming the plural:cargoes dresses
galleys griefs bamboos wedges fancies latches folios calicoes buggies gulfs pebbles squashes thieves classes shelves
hoofs haunches pulleys lassos proofs pianos chimneys violets pansies tomatoes knives buffaloes studios
gifts sheaves heroes colleges scarfs boxes
roses ratios libraries negroes images loaves breeches berries hearses calves sponges races mustaches valleys flies
octavos vetoes damages lilies tassels radishes beeves potatoes gnues axes chiefs glasses ledges phrases daisies altos strifes porticoes markets matches purses
guesses dominoes mottoes volcanoes halves thrushes lives turkeys poppies reefs mosquitoes chaises elves
twos monkeys wolves cuckoos cuffs trios taxes kangaroos duties dwarfs safes waifs leaves flashes horses torpedoes coaches
wretches lasses echoes selves cages
spices bushes foxes breezes pennies
-'s stories women
children oxen weaknesses 3's ?'s staffs
Make lists of verbs singular and plural.
GENERAL RULES FOR SPELLING
1. Words of one syllable ending in f, l, or 8, preceded by a single vowel, have the final consonant doubled; as, mill, pass.
EXCEPTIONS.— Clef, if, of, sol, as, gas, has, was, yes, is, his, this, us, thus, pus.
2. Words ending in any other consonant than f, l, or s, do not double the final letter except in the following: abb, add, ebb, odd, egg, inn, err, burr, purr, butt, buzz, fuzz, and some proper nouns.
3. Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, double the final consonant when preceded by a single vowel, or by a vowel after qu, before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
EXCEPTIONS.-X, k, and v are never doubled.
EXCEPTIONS.—Land : are sometimes doubled when the last syllable is not accented.
4. Words ending in any double letter retain it doubled before a suffix not beginning with the same letter.
EXCEPTIONS. — Fled, sold, told, dwelt, spelt, split, shalt, wilt, blest, and past.
5. Primitive words ending in silent e
(a) Generally drop the e when adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.
(6) Retain the e when preceded by c or g before the suffixes able and ous, to preserve the soft sounds of c and
Retain the e in the derivatives of certain words to preserve the identity of the primitive word; as, hoeing, dyeing.
(d) Generally retain the e when adding a suffix beginning with a consonant.
(e) Preceded by dg drop the e in their derivatives, the d preserving the soft sound of g.
(f) Preceded by a vowel, in certain words, drop e before a suffix beginning with a consonant; as, true, truly.
6. Primitive words ending in y, preceded by a consonant, change y into i when adding a suffix beginning with any other letter than i.
EXCEPTIONS. — Pity, piteous; beauty, beauteous; plenty, plenteous; duty, duteous; gassy, gaseous.
EXCEPTIONS. — Most words derived from dry, shy, sly, spry, and wry, retain y. Exception, drier, driest.
EXCEPTIONS. — Before ing, the y is retained to prevent doubling i. Words ending in ie, drop e and change i to y before suffixes beginning with i.
7. Primitive words ending in y, preceded by a vowel, retain y in their derivatives.
EXCEPTIONS. — Pay, paid ; say, said, saith; gay, gaily; day, daily; lay, laid; slay, slain; stay, staid.
8. Compounds generally retain the spelling of the simple words composing them; as, horseman.
EXCEPTIONS. - In most permanent compounds, the words full and all drop one l; as, handful; while in others they retain both; as, all-wise.
9. Words compounded but not permanent are connected by a hyphen; as, golden-haired.
Of each of the following derivatives, give the primitive word and the rule for the derivative :
chased hereof robber kissed eyelet shoeing woeful skating slyly lovely duly seeing tuneful studied awful careful erasing wearing wholly willful quitting accurate honesty
praying prettier sealing delaying nodded lying therefore pitiful beginner judgment blessing wherein dropping rebelled lodgment denying biased changing tingeing stabbing useless righteous wonderful
fleeing boiling joyless noiseless noticeable skillful traveled traceable agreeable courageous argument chargeable excellent outrageous firstborn changeable headdress referring merriment skullcap completing amiable flightiness