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Some rabbits and hares in the far north don a white coat in the winter season.

218. Skeleton. As in other vertebrates, the external form of mammals is dependent in large measure upon the internal skeleton. This consists of relatively compact bones, the cavities of which are filled with marrow. Those forming the skull are firmly united, and, as in other vertebrates, afford lodgment for several organs of special sense and for the brain, which, like that of the birds, completely fills the cavity in which it rests. The vertebral column to which the skull is attached differs considerably in length, but it invariably gives attachment to the ribs, and to the basal girdles supporting one or two pairs of limbs. Generally speaking, the number of bones in the head and trunk of all mammals is the same, so the variations we note in the species about us, for example, are simply due to differences of shape and proportion. As we are aware, there is a great dissimilarity between the length of the neck of man and that of the giraffe, yet the number of bones in each is precisely the same. On the other hand, the variations occurring in the limbs are often due to the actual disappearance of parts of the skeleton. Five digits in hand and foot is the rule, and yet, as we well know, the horse walks on the tip of its middle finger and toe, the others being represented by small, very rudimentary, splint bones attached far up the leg. The even-hoofed animals walk on two digits, two smaller hoofed toes being often plainly visible a short distance up the leg, as in the pig. In the whales the hind limbs have completely disappeared, and in the seals, where the fore limbs are modified, as in the whales, into flippers, the hind limbs show many signs of degeneration.

219. Digestive system.—Some mammals, such as man, monkeys, and pigs, are omnivorous; others, like the cudchewers and gnawers, are vegetarians; and still others, like the foxes, weasels, and bears, are carnivorous. In

every case the food substances are acted on by a digestive system constructed on the same general plan as that in man, yet modified according to the specific work it is required to perform. The teeth especially afford a valuable indication of the animal's feeding habits, and, as we may notice later, are also of much value in classification. They consist of incisors used in biting, canines for tearing, and premolars and molars for crushing and grinding.

The remaining portions of the digestive tract, esophagus, stomach, and intestine, with their appended glands, are usually not unlike those possessed by the squirrel. The chief differences are in the size of the various regions. The stomach, for example, may be long and slender or of great dimensions, and its surface may further be increased by several lobes, which are especially well developed in the ruminants or cud-chewers. The intestine, relatively longer in the mammals than in any other class of vertebrates, also exhibits great differences in length and size. In the flesheating species its length is about three or four times the length of the body, while in the ruminants it is ten or twelve times the length of the animal.

220. Nervous system and sense-organs.—As before noted, the nervous system of mammals is characterized by the large size and great complexity of the brain. Even in the simpler species the cerebral hemispheres (large front lobes of the brain) are well developed, and in the higher forms of the ascending series they form by far the larger part of the brain. The sense-organs also are highly developed, and are constructed and located much as they are in man. The greatest variations occur in the eyes. In some of the burrowing animals they are usually small, and in some of the moles and mice may even be buried beneath the skin and very rudimentary. On the other hand, they are large and highly organized in nocturnal animals; more so, usually, than in those which hunt their prey by day. The ears also have different grades of perfection, which

ral be of the haracte

appear to be correlated with the habits of the animal. Among the species of subterranean habits the sense of hearing is largely deficient; but, on the other hand, it is exceedingly keen in the ruminants, and enables them to detect their enemies at surprisingly great distances. In these creatures the outer ears are of large size and great mobility, and, placed as they are on the top of the head, serve to concentrate the sound-waves on the delicate apparatus within. In the mammals the sense of smell reaches its highest development, especially among the carnivores which scent their prey. On the other hand, it is said to be absent in the whales and very deficient in the seals. The sense of taste, closely related to that of smell, is located in taste buds on the tongue, and is also more acute than in any other class of animals. The sense of touch, located over the surface of the body, is especially delicate on the tips of the fingers, the tongue, and lips, which often bear long tactile hairs, called whiskers or vibrissæ.

221. Mental qualities.—Correlated with the high degree of perfection of the brain and sense-organs the mammals show a higher degree of development of the intellectual faculties than any other class of animals. In many cases their acts are instinctive, and not the result of previous training and experience. Just as the duck hatched in an incubator instinctively takes to the water and pecks at its food, or as the bee builds its symmetrical comb, many of the mammals perform their duties day by day. On the other hand many other mammals are also undoubtedly intelligent. They possess the faculty of memory; they form ideas and draw conclusions; they exhibit anger, hatred, and self-sacrificing devotion for their companions and offspring that is different from that in man only in degree and not in kind. In fact, intelligence differs from instinct primarily in its power of choice among lines of action.

222. Classification.—Of the eleven orders into which the mammals have been divided eight are represented in this


Fig. 130.-Three-toed sloth (Bradypus). About one-tenth natural size.

country. Of the other three the first (Monotremes) and simplest of the eleven is represented by the duck-mole


FIG. 131.-Australian duck-mole (Ornithorhynchus paradoxus). One-fifth natural


(Ornithorhynchus) living in the Australian rivers. Its general appearance and mode of life are illustrated in

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