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FAILURE IN HEALTH. 421

course of a summer excursion to Dufftown in 1897, by which time there was a distinct improvement in his physical condition. The improvement was gradual but constant, and his power of sleeping returned. His last effort in philosophical work was to prepare for publication a volume of Dissertations on Leading Philosophical Topics, which appeared in the spring of 1903. It included the series of contributions to Mind, elsewhere referred to, which possessed a distinct unity of purpose from their relation to the positions maintained in The Emotions and the Will. When the fourth edition of that volume was published in 1899, Dr. Bain's strength did not permit of his revising it in the same thorough way as he had done The Senses and the Intellect, and he was obliged to be content with merely reprinting the third edition, and referring the reader to a list of articles in Mind containing a statement of his later views upon several topics. These articles were now collected and printed, along with the paper on "Anthropology and its Relation to the Science of Mind," read at the Aberdeen meeting of the British Association in 1885, a paper on "The Pressure of Examinations," written for Mr. Auberon Herbert's Criticisms of a Protest Against Examinations, and the address delivered to the Psychological Congress in 1892. The explanatory note prefixed to the Dissertations was Dr. Bain's last printed utterance in his lifetime.

During these closing years, as already recounted, Dr. Bain saw only a few friends. His two old pupils, who are now his executors (Professor William L. Davidson and Mr. Alexander Mackie), called regularly at his house (Ferryhill Lodge), and were warmly received by him; while he was much pleased when he saw occasionally other old pupils or former friends living in dif. ferent parts of the kingdom—notably, Professor Murison, Dr. David Duncan (Spencer's biographer), the Reverend Alexander Harper, Wishaw (who had been an early assistant), Dr. Leslie McKenzie, Edinburgh ; and once a call from Professor Masson, with whom he had, so long, been on the closest terms of friendship, was a very special pleasure to him. He also much appreciated calls from Sir John Clark of Tillypronie, with whom he was in intimate and sympathetic relations. Latterly, he wrote few letters; but a letter or communication from any old friend whom he had not seen for some years was invariably a source of gratification to him. Professor Van der Wyck, of Utrecht, never failed to send him a new year's greeting; and Herbert Spencer's letters were particularly welcome. In the spring of 1903, he heard with much concern that Mr. Spencer had been confined

CLOSING YEAES. 423

for months to bed. He sent him a letter in June, expressive of his deep sympathy, and Mr. Spencer's reply (dated 13th June), although necessarily brief, on account of his state of health, showed an unusual warmth of gratitude.

In the early part of the chapter, reference was made to his revived interest in public affairs. When, for the first time for many years, a commemoration of the Founders of the University of Aberdeen was held in April, 1901, he sent a letter of good wishes, which was read at the Commemoration dinner. On various occasions, letters from him were made public at the meetings of the Aberdeen Liberal Association; and, less than three months before his death, when Mr. Bryce, M.P., idelivered a political address to his constituents, he much regretted that he had been prevented from writing to emphasize his adherence to Free Trade principles. His last communication on a public affair was a letter approving of the recently formed Sociological Association.

From 1896 to the time of his death, he was never able to undergo any unusual strain; yet, during the last three years of his life, he was remarkably well, and was never unfit to leave Aberdeen for a month or more in summer. From 1898, his summer residence was almost invariably on Deeside—Ballater, Banchory, and lastly Torphins.

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It was while at Torphins, in July, 1903, that he began to feel pains which were at first regarded as muscular rheumatism, but which turned out to be the intense suffering caused by stoppage of circulation. The painful sensations, in the earlier stages only occasional, became, towards the end of August, much more frequent and very severe. But, so long as consciousness lasted, he bore his sufferings with great fortitude, and was solicitous for the comfort and the feelings of others, especially of Mrs. Bain. He died on the morning of the 18th September, and, three days later, was buried in Allenvale Cemetery, in ground overlooking the river Dee, and separated by two graves from the resting-place of his immediate successor, Minto. His directions were that his funeral should be private, and conducted with the utmost simplicity, and that there should be no religious service. He also expressed disapproval of a suggestion of an eloge pronounced at his grave. Had there been a crematorium in Aberdeen, his instructions would have been to have his body cremated; but his great wish was to give as little trouble as possible. He requested that no stone should be placed upon his grave: his books, he said, would be his only monument.

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APPENDIX.

For convenience of reference, there is appended the following list of Professor Bain's writings, prepared by Mr. P. J. Anderson, LL.B., Librarian to the University of Aberdeen.

1836. On civil and religious liberty. Speech on 22nd December at dinner to Mr. James Adam, editor of the Aberdeen Herald. (Printed in Herald; and in Alma Mater for 25th November, 1903.)

1838. A comparison of the styles of the principal writers of the

ages of Queen Elizabeth and Queen Anne. (Unsuccessful essay for Blackwell Prize: MS. in University Library.) 1838-41. 13th, 14th, 15th and 16th Reports of the Mechanics' Institution, Aberdeen.

1839. Catalogue of library of Mechanics' Institution, Aberdeen.

Abd.
The sin of cruelty to animals. (Unsuccessful essay for
Gibson prize: MS. in University Library.)

1840. Electrotype and daguerreotype. In Westminster Review

for September.

1841. Constitution of matter. In Westminster Review for July.

1842. On toys. In Westminster Review for January. Admission to public places. In Banner of 23rd July.

1843. A system of logic by John Stuart Mill. In Westminster

Review for May. An attempt to generalise and trace to one sole cause— viz., the liberation of latent heat—all cases of terrestrial heat. Aberdeen Philos. Soc., 6th January. On a new classification of the sciences. Aberdeen Philos. Soc., 1st December.

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