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Re-enter TITINIUS, with MESSALA.

Alarum. Re-enter MESSALA, with Brutus,

Young Cato, STRATO, VOLUMNIUS, and

Mes. It is but change,a Titinius ; for Octavius
Is overthrown by noble Brutus' power,
As Cassius' legions are by Antony.

Bru. Where, where, Messala, doth his body

lie? Tit. These tidings will well comfort Cassius. Mes. Where did you leave him ?

MEs. Lo, yonder; and Titinius mourning it. Tit.

All disconsolate,

Bru. Titinius' face is upward. With Pindarus his bondman, on this hill.


He is slain. MEs. Is not that he that lies upon the ground?

Bru. O, Julius Cæsar, thou art mighty yet! Tit. He lies not like the living.–0, my heart! Thy spirit walks abroad, and turns our swords Mes. Is not that he ?

In our own proper entrails. [Low alarums. Tit,

Brave Titinius! No, this was he, Messala,

Cato. But Cassius is no more.—0, setting sun !

Look, whêr he have not crown'd dead Cassius ! As in thy red rays thou dost sink to night,

Bru. Are yet two Romans living such as So in his red blood Cassius' day is set,

these ?The sum of Rome is set! Our day is gone ;

The last of all the Romans, fare thee well! Clouds, dews, and dangers come; our deeds are

It is impossible that ever Rome done!

Should breed thy fellow.–Friends, I owe more Mistrust of my success hath done this deed.

tears Mes. Mistrust of good success hath done this

To this dead man than you shall see me pay.deed.

I shall find time, Cassius, I shall find time.0, hateful Error, Melancholy's child !

Come, therefore, and to Thassost send his body: Why dost thou show to the apt thoughts of men

His funerals shall not be in our camp, The things that are not? O, Error, soon conceiv'd,

Lest it discomfort us.—Lucilius, come; Thou never com’st unto a happy birth,

And come, young Cato; let us to the field.But kill'st the mother that engender'd thee.

Labeo, and Flavius, set our battles on :Tit. What, Pindarus ! where art thou, Pin

'Tis three o'clock; and, Romans, yet ere night darus?

We shall try fortune in a second fight. [E.ceut. Mes. Seek him, Titinius : whilst I go to meet The noble Brutus, thrusting this report Into his ears: I may say, thrusting it ;

SCENE IV.- Another Part of the Field. For piercing steel, and darts envenomed, Shall be as welcome to the ears of Brutus

Alarum. Enter, fighting, Soldiers of both As tidings of this sight.

Armies ; then Brutus, YOUNG CATO, TIT. Hie you, Messala,

LUCILIUS, and others. And I will seek for Pindarus the while.

[Exit MESSALA. Bru. Yet, countrymen, O, yet hold up your Why didst thou send me forth, brave Cassius ?

heads! Did I not meet thy friends ? and did not they Cato. What bastard doth not? Who will go Put on my brows this wreath of victory,

with me? And bid me give it thee? Didst thou not hear I will proclaim my name about the field :their shouts ?

I am the son of Marcus Cato, ho !
Alas, thou hast misconstru'd everything!

A foe to tyrants, and my country's friend ;
But hold thee, take this garland on thy brow; I am the son of Marcus Cato, ho !
Thy Brutus bid me give it thee, and I

[Charges the enemy. Will do his bidding.–Brutus, come apace,

Bru. And I am Brutus, Marcus Brutus, 1! And see how I regarded Caius Cassius.- Brutus, my country's friend; know me for By your leave, gods :- this is a Roman's part:

Brutus ! Come, Cassius' sword, and find Titinius' heart.

[Exit, charging the enemy. YOUNG CATO [Dies.

is overpowered, and falls.

* It is but change,–] It is no more than an exchange or alternation of mishap

b Mistrust of my success—) By “success,” in Shakespeare's time, was commonly understood issue, consequence, result, &c.; it might, therefore, be good (as Messala in the next line says, " Mistrust of good success ") or ill, according to circumstances. The

(*) First folio, no, (t) Old text, Tharrus. meaning of Titinius is, Mistrust of my fortune, or what befell me, bas done this deed.

c The last of all the Romans, &c.) Rowe, who has been followed by many editors, reads, " Thou last," &c.

Lucil. O, young and noble Cato, art thou Cli. What ill request did Brutus make to down?

thee? Why, now thou diest as bravely as Titinius;

Dar. To kill him, Clitus. Look, he meditates. And mayst be honour'd, being Cato's son.

Cli. Now is that noble vessel full of grief, 1 Sold. Yield, or thou diest !

That it runs over even at his eyes. LUCIL.

Only I yield to die: Bru. Come hither, good Volumnius; list a There is so much that thou wilt kill me straight;

word. [Offering money.

Vol. What says my

lord ? Kill Brutus, and be honour'd in his death.


Why, this, Volumnius : 1 SOLD. We must not.--A noble prisoner ! The ghost of Cæsar hath appear’d to me 2 SOLD. Room, ho! Tell Antony, Brutus is Two several times by night,—at Sardis once, ta'en.

And, this last night, here in Philippi fields. 1 Sold. I'll tell the news.--Here comes the I know


hour is come. general :


Not so, my lord.

Bru. Nay, I am sure it is, Volumnius.

Thou seest the world, Volumnius, how it goes ;
Our enemies have beat us to the pit :

Loud alarums.
Brutus is ta’en, Brutus is ta’en, my lord !
Ant. Where is he?

It is more worthy to leap in ourselves, LUCIL. Safe, Antony; Brutus is safe enough:

Than tarry till they push us. Good Volumnius, I dare assure thee that no enemy

Thou know'st that we two went to school toShall ever take alive the noble Brutus:

gether; The gods defend him from so great a shame!

Even for that our love of old, I pr’ythee, When you do find him, or alive or dead,

Hold thou my sword-hilts, whilst I run on it. He will be found like Brutus, like himself.

Vol. That's not an office for a friend, my

lord. Ant. This is not Brutus, friend; but, I assure

[Alarum stili.

Cli. Fly, fly, my lord! there is no tarrying you,

here. A prize no less in worth: keep this man safe, Give him all kindness : I had rather have

Bru. Farewell to you ;—and you ;—and you,

Such men my friends than enemies.(4) Go on,
And see whêr Brutus be alive or dead;

Strato, thou hast been all this while asleep;
And bring us word unto Octavius' tent

Farewell to thee too, Strato.-Countrymen, How everything is chanc'd.

[Exeunt. My heart doth joy that yet, in all my life,

I found no man but he was true to me.

shall have glory by this losing day,

More than Octavius and Mark Antony SCENE V.-Another Part of the Fielit. By this vile conquest shall attain unto.

So, fare you well at once; for Brutus' tongue Enter BRUTUS, DARDANIUS, CLITUS, STRATO, Hath almost ended his life's history : and VOLUMNIUS.

Night hangs upon mine eyes; my bones would

rest, Bru. Come, poor remains of friends, rest on That have but labour'd to attain this hour. this rock.

[Alarum. Cry within, Fly, fly, fly! Cli. Statilius show'd the torchlight; but, my Cli. Fly, my lord, fly! lord,


Hence; I will follow. He came not back; he is or ta'en, or slain.

Exeunt CLITUS, DARDANIUS, and Bru. Sit thee down, Clitus : slaying is the


I pr’ythee, Strato, stay thou by thy lord : It is a deed in fashion. Hark thee, Clitus.- Thou art a fellow of a good respect ;

[Whispering him.

Thy life hath had some smatch of honour in it: Cli. What, I, my lord ? No, not for all the Hold then my sword, and turn away thy face, world.

While I do run upon it.

Wilt thou, Strato? Bru. Peace, then, no words.

Stra. Give me your hand first : fare you

well, CLI.

I'll rather kill myself. Bru. Hark thee, Dardanius.—[ Whispers him. Bru. Farewell, good Strato.—Cæsar, now be Dar. Shall I do such a deed ?

still : ClI. O, Dardanius!

I kill'd not thee with half so good a will. DAR. O, Clitus !

[Runs on his sword, and dies.(5)

my lord.


How died my master, Strato? Alarum. Retreat. Enter OCTAVIUS, ANTONY, Stra. I held the sword, and he did run on it. MESSALA, LUCILIUS, and Army.

MES. Octavius, then take him to follow thee,

That did the latest service to my master. Oct. What man is that?

Ant. This was the noblest Roman of them Mes. My master's man.—Strato, where is thy

all : (6) master ?

All the conspirators, save only he, Stra. Free from the bondage you are in, Mes- Did that they did in envy of great Cæsar ; sala :

He only, in a general honest thought, The conquerors can but make a fire of him ;

And common good to all, made one of them. For Brutus only overcame himself,

His life was gentle; and the elements And no man else hath honour by his death. So mix'd in him, that Nature might stand up, LUCIL. So Brutus should be found.—I thank And say to all the world, This was a man ! thee, Brutus,

Oct. According to his virtue let us use bim, That thou hast prov'd Lucilius' saying true. With all respect and rites of burial. Oct. All that serv'd Brutus, I will entertain Within my tent his bones to-night shall lie, them.

Most like a soldier, order'd honourably. Fellow, wilt thou bestow thy time with me? So, call the field to rest: and let's away,

Stna. Ay, if Messala will prefer me to you. To part the glories of this happy day. (Exeunt. Oct. Do so, good Messala.

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outcrie of ioy. Then Antonius offering it him againe, Stand you directly in Antonius' way,

there was a second shout of ioy, but yet of a few. But When he doth run his course.]

when Cæsar refused it againe the second time, then all the

whole people shouted. Cæsar having made this proofe, The passages from North's “ Plutarch,” which we have

found that the people did not like of it and thereupon chosen to illustrate the action of this tragedy, are ex- rose out of his chaire, and commanded the crowne to be tracted chiefly from the lives of Julius Cæsar and Brutus; caried unto Iupiter in the Capitoll. After that, there and while attesting the almost literal fidelity with which

were set up images of Cæsar in the city, with Diademes Shakespeare, in the present case, adhered to his authority,

upon their heads, like kings." will show the unerring skill and judgment by which he was guided in his selection of incidents for representation. (3) SCENE (II.

At that time the feast Lupercalia was celebrated, the which in old time, men say was the feast of shepheards or

His countenance, like richest alchemy, heardmen, & is much like unto the feast of the LYCÆIANS

Will change to virtue and to worthiness.] in ARCADIA. But howsoever it is, that day there are "Now when Cassius felt his friends, and did stirre them divers noble mens sons, yong men, (and some of them up against Cæsar: they all agreed, and promised to take Magistrates themselves that govern then) which run part with him, so Brutus were the chiefe of their connaked through the city, striking in sport them they meet spiracie. For they told him, that so high an enterprise in their way, with leather thongs, haire and all on, to and attempt as that, did not so much require men of make them give place. And many noble women and manhood and courage to draw their swords, as it stood gentlewomen also, go of purpose to stand in their way, them upon to have a man of such estimation as Brutus, to and do put forth their hands to be stricken, as scholers make every man boldly thinke, that by his onely presence hold them out to their schoolemaster, to be stricken with

the fact were holy and iust, If he tooke not this course, the ferula : perswading themselves that being with child, then that they should go to it with fainter hearts; and they shall have good delivery ; and so being barren, that when they had done it, they should be more fearefull, it wil make them to conceive with child."

because every man would thinke that Brutus would not

have refused to have made one with them, if the cause (2) SCENE II.-The rabblement shouted, and clapped their had been good and honest. Therefore Cassius considering chapped hands, and threw up their sweaty nightcaps, and this matter with himselfe, did first of all speake to Brutus, uttered such a deal of stinking breath because Cæsar refused since they grew strange together for the suite they had the crown, that it had almost choked Cæsar.] “ Cæsar sate the Prætorship. So when he was reconciled to him to behold that sport upon the pulpit for Orations, in a againe, and that they had embraced one another, Cassius chaire of gold, apparelled in triumphant manner. An- asked him if he were determined to be in the Senate tonius who was Consull at that time, was one of them that house the first day of the moneth of March, because he ranne this holy course. So when he came into the market heard say that Cæsars friendes should move the councell place, the people made a lane for him to runne at liberty, that day, that Cæsar should be called king by the Senate. and he came to Cæsar, and presented him a Diademe Brutus answered him, he wold not be there. But if we wreathed about with laurell, Whereupon there rose a be sent for (said Cassius) how then? For my selfe then certaine crie of reioycing, not very great, done onely by (said Brutus,) I meane not to hold my peace, but to witha few, appointed for the purpose. But when Cæsar re- stand it, and rather die then lose my liberty." fused the Diademe, then all the people together made an


(1) SCENE I.-

If the redress will follow, thou receivest

Thy full petition at the hand of Brutus /] “But for Brutus, his friends and countrimen, both by divers procurements, and sundrie rumours of the citie, and by many bils also, did openly call and procure him to do that he did. For under the image of his ancestor Iunius Brutus, (that drave the kings out of ROME) they wrote : 0, that it pleased the gods thou wert now alive, Brutus / and againe, That thou wert here among us now!

His tribunall or chaire, where he gave audience during
the time he was Prætor, was full of such bils : Brutus
thou art asleepe, and art not Brutus indeed."
(2) SCENE I. -

can I bear that with patience,
And not my husband's secrets ?]
“His wife Portia was the daughter of Cato, whom Bru-
tus maried being bis cousin, not a maiden, but a young
widow after the death of her first husband Bibulus, by

whom she had also a young sonne called Bibulus, who (4) SCENE II.afterwards wrote a booke of the acts and gestes of Brutus,

these things are beyond all use, extant at this present day. This young ladie being excel

And I do fear them.] lently well seene in Philosophy, loving her husband well, and being of a noble courage, as she was also wise : because “Then going to bed the same night, as his manner was, she would not aske her husband what he ayled before she and lying with his wife Calpurnia, all the windows and had made some proofe by her selfe: she tooke a little doores of his chamber flying open, the noise awoke him, razour, such as Barbers occupie to pare mens nailes, and

and made him afraid when he saw such light; but more, causing her maydes and women to go out of her chamber when he heard his wife Calpurnia, being fast asleepe, weepe gave her selfe a great gash withall in her thigh, that she and sigh, and put forth many grumbling lamentable was straight all of a goare bloud : and incontinently after, speeches, for she dreamed that Cæsar was slaine, and that a vehement feaver tooke her, by reason of the paine of her

she had him in her armes. Others also do denie that she wound. Then perceiving her husband was marvellously had any such dreame, as, amongst other, Titus Llius out of quiet, and that he could take no rest, even in her writeth that it was in this sort:- The Senate having set greatest paine of all, she spake in this sort unto him: I upon the top of Cæsars house, for an ornament and setting being, o Brutus, (said she) the daughter of Cato, was mar- forth of the same, a certaine pinnacle, Calpurnia dreamed ried unto thee; not to be thy bed-fellow and companion in that she saw it broken downe, and that she thought she bedde and at boord onely, like a harlot, but to be partaker lamented and wept for it; insomuch that, Cæsar rising in also with thee of thy good and evill fortune. Now for thy the morning, she prayed him, if it were possible, not to go selfe, I can find no cause of fault in thee touching our out of the doores that day, but to adjorne the session of match: but for my part, how may I shew my duty towards the Senate until another day; And if that he made no thee, and how much I would do for thy sake, if I cannot reckoning of her dreame, yet that he would search further constantly beare a secret mischance or griefe with thee, of the Soothsaiers by their sacrifices to know what should which requireth secrecie and fidelitie? I confesse, that a happen him that day. Thereby it seemed that Cæsar likewomans wit commonly is too weake to keepe a secret wise did feare or suspect somewhat, because his wife Calsafely : but yet (Brutus) good education, and the company purnia until that time was never given to any fear and of vertuous men, have some power to reforme the defect superstition; and that when he saw her so troubled in of nature. And for my selfe, I have this benefite moreover,

mind with this dreame she had, but much more afterthat I am the daughter of Cato, and wife of Brutus, This wards when the soothsaiers having sacrificed many beasts notwithstanding, I did not trust to any of these things one after another, told him that none did like them : then before, until that now I have found by experience, that no he determined to send Antonius to adjorne the session of paine or griefe whatsoever can overcome me. With those the Senate. But in the meane time came Decius Brutus, words shee shewed him her wound on her thigh, and told surnamed Albinus, in whom Cæsar put such confidence him what she had done to prove her selfe. Brutus was

that in his last will and testament he had appointed him amazed to heare what she sayd unto him, and lifting up to be his next heire, and yet was of the conspiracie with his hands to heaven, he besought the goddes to give him Cassius and Brutus : he, fearing that, if Cæsar did adjorn the grace he might bring his enterprise to so good passe, the session that day, the conspiracie would be betrayed, that he might be found a husband, worthy of so noble a laughed at the Soothsayers, and reproved Cæsar, saying wife as Porcia : so he then did comfort her the best he that he gave the Senate occasion to mislike with him, and could."

that they might think he mocked them, considering that

by his commandement they were assembled, and that they (3) SCENE J.

were ready willingly to grant him all things, and to pro0, what a time have you chose out, brave Caius,

claim him king of all the provinces of the Empire of Rome To wear a kerchief lj

out of Italy, and that he should wear his diademe in all

other places, both by sea and land. And, furthermore, “Now amongest Pompeys frends there was one called that if any man should tel them from him they should Caius Ligarius, who had bene accused unto Cæsar for depart for that present time, and return again when Caltaking parte with Pompey, and Cæsar discharged him. But

purnia should have better dreames, what would his enemies Ligarius thanked not Cæsar so muche for his discharge, as and illwillers say, and how could they like of his friends he was offended with him for that he was brought in danger words? And who could persuade them otherwise, but that by his tyrannicall power; and therefore in bis heart he was they would think his dominion a slavery unto them, and always his mortal enemy, and was besides very familiar

tyrannical in himself? And yet, if it be so, said he, that with Brutus, who went to see him, being sicke in his bed, you utterly mislike of this day, it is better that you go and said unto him, O Ligarius, in what a time art thou sicke! yourself in person, and, saluting the Senate, to dismiss Ligarius, rising up in his bed, and taking him by the right them til another time. Therewithal he took Cæsar by hande, said unto him, Brutus (said he), if thou hast any the hand, and brought him out of his house." great enterprise in hande worthy of thyself, I am whole.


(1) SCENE I.

Know, Casar doth not arong; nor without cause

Will he be satisfied.] In his “ Discoveries,” speaking of Shakespeare, Ben Jon: son remarks, “Many times he fell into those things, could not escape laughter: as when he said in the person of Cæsar, one speaking to him, ' Cæsar, thou dost me wrong, he replied, ' Cæsar did never wrong but with just cause. In The Induction to “The Staple of News," he has ridiculed the expression—"Cry you mercy, you never did wrong but with just cause." "It is uncharitable to believe

with Steevens that Jonson wilfully misquoted the passage : the very fact, indeed, of his giving it in this form after its appearance in a different one in the printed copy of the poet's plays, strengthens the probability that he quotes it as in the fervour of composition it originally slipped from Shakespeare's pen, and that he was not aware of any subsequent modification of the words.

(2) SCENE I.-Et tu, Brute ?] The original authority for this exclamation was probably Suetonius, I. 82, who says that some have written, that when Marcus Brutus ran upon Cæsar, the latter cried out Kai ov, tékvov i And thou too, my

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