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evergreen Oaks if once established, evergreen Berberries, double and single-flowered Furze, Phillyrea latifolia, Araucaria imbricata, common and Irish Yew, and Arbutus and Laurustinus if very slightly sheltered, will, with Privet, which is almost evergreen, be useful in rendering a marine villa garden green and lively during winter, Of these, the Tamarisk, the Elder, and the common Furze will flourish on the very margin of the sea, and in the poorest sand-banks.
For hills that are more inland, where there is a scanty soil and great exposure, with steep or precipitous faces exhibiting little beyond the bare rock in parts, Birches, Pines, Larches, the common Ash, the common Oak, mountain Ash and Services, with Heath, Broom, Gorse, Rhododendrons if there be a little shade, common Hollies, Thorns, Ivy and Clematis for enriching some of the jutting masses of rock, Vacciniums, mountain Snowberry, Savin, &c., will make an excellent clothing of either a dense or a partial kind. Plants should be put in when quite small in such elevated tracts.
Of plants that will thrive in marshy places, or by the sides of water courses, Willows and Alders will be the most significant, and the latter are decidedly ornamental. The deciduous Cypress, in sheltered spots, is quite as suitable, and even more elegant. Where there is a small raised bank, however, by the margin of a stream, Oaks, Beeches, Sycamores, weeping Birches, and Thorns will form good accompaniments, though almost any other tree will grow in such a position.
Within the smoky precincts of large towns, the accumulation of soot on the leaves of plants keeps them sickly, and actually, in conjunction with other influences, destroys many of them. Without doubting the potency of town gases or more substantial deposits, I am inclined to attribute some of the bad health common in town plants to the miserable earth in which they are often grown, and believe that were the soil renewed and freshened occasionally by additional deposits, the ground being duly drained and prepared in the first instance, many of our Square gardens in towns would present a different aspect.
Some plants, however, unquestionably manage to endure the air of large towns better than others. Elms, Planes, purple Beech, Birches, balsam Poplar, mountain Ash and hybrid Service, Laburnums, Thorns, purple Lilacs, Hollies, Auçuba japonica, Portugal laurel, Arbor-vitæ, Yuccas, Ivy, Privet, Cydonia japonica, the Almond, the Mulberry, and the weeping Cherry, are a few of these. Planes may be particularly mentioned as enduring the very worst of town atmospheres in the heart of London, and growing as healthily there as if they were in the open country. And the beauty of the Chrysanthemums, as cultivated in the Temple gardens, London, must have impressed every one who has seen them, in the month of October, with a strong opinion of their value as town plants. To enumerate more would demand an amount of space which the design of the book will not justify me in affording. Any one accustomed to walk through extensive towns might soon, by a little observation, dilate and perfect the list, and with an eye also to their own locality. The principal aim in this and all other matters has chiefly been to put amateurs on the right track, and not to exhaust the subject, which is too ample to be fully discussed in so short an essay.
15. It may be well just to indicate, cursorily, the order in which the different operations involved in laying out a garden should be performed, as some inconvenience and extra work might be occasioned by having any of them done much out of the proper
routine. The first thing to be set about—whether the place be large or small—is to make a definite plan of what is to be done, on a sufficiently enlarged scale. This should never be omitted ; since the proportions of the various parts can be judged of better on a plain surface, such as that of paper, and greater consistency and harmony can be attained. It will be advisable, , also, to set out the walks, plantations, beds, &c., from this plan, by actual measurement, and not simply by the eye, to secure precisely the same easiness of lines, and adjustment of parts, as in the plan ; only modifying any of these afterwards in such ways as an examination of the whole, from the
different points of view, may render necessary.
When the plan is made, and the position for the house fixed upon, the soil on the spot which the house will cover, and for at least six or eight yards in width all around it, should be stripped off, and partly taken away for the plantations or kitchen-garden, partly thrown up in a ridge round the stripped area; to be used, after the house is completed, in covering such portion of the ground as may ultimately be converted into garden. Space for the builders to work and trample upon will thus be left, and there will also be room for depositing the clay or rubbish from the foundations. Beyond what will finally be wanted round the house itself, the material from the foundations should, however, be at once taken where it will be required, which will save the trouble of moving it twice.
To prevent the workmen employed in building the house, and those engaged in carting materials to it, from making footpaths or roads over all parts of the ground, it will be prudent, as soon as the foundations for the house are excavated, to cut out the principal approach, drive, or walk, and fill it with rough stone or gravel, fit for carting and walking upon, so as to confine every one as much as possible to the use of this.
Fences of all kinds will next engage attention. It will naturally be concluded that one of the first things to do is to make the boundary fences perfect, due regard being had to the chosen points of entrance. The inner fences, such as that round the pleasure-grounds, may afterwards be fixed. And where kitchengarden or other walls have to be erected, they should be begun in good time, that the builder's workmen may be got out of the way before it be necessary to commence on the ground-work. In short, no trenching or levelling should be attempted in any part until the masons, bricklayers, or other artisans have fairly completed their duties in that direction,
Draining, trenching, and general ground-work, such as forming pieces of water, raising mounds, preparing rockeries, or any similar rough operations, to throw the surface of the place into
its leading shapes and outlines, may then be proceeded with ; always leaving space enough around the house untouched, that the builders may not interfere with what is done.
While the ground is still unpolished, but the general shape of everything correctly marked out, the planting should be effected. It always disturbs and soils the grass more or less to plant after it has been laid down. And as the house will, no doubt, be almost finished by this time, the edgings of the walks can then be formed, which may be done by inverting sods, cut about nine inches thick, and a foot in length and breadth, along the margins ; laying them so as to allow about from one to three inches to pare off at the top, and a similar piece on the sides next the walk. These sods will be found to make excellent edgings, in point of firmness; and after they are laid, the ground can be levelled to them, and to the beds and plantations, ready for putting on the turf, or for sowing with grass seeds, either or both of which processes may follow, if it happen to be the right season. Of course, however, it is assumed that the planting, and all the other things here spoken of, will be done only at the periods of the year already recommended as most suitable.
As soon as the grass is duly laid and settled, and the workmen have left the house, the edgings of the walks can then be accurately cut, observing to pare them down quite square, and take out the soil to the very bottom of the foundation of the walk; otherwise grass and weeds will be continually rising afterwards, and destroying the regularity and evenness of the lines. The edgings towards the borders or beds can be cut at the same time, or earlier if desired. The gravel may then be spread on the walks, and the whole will be completed.
But it is quite possible that workmen may be detained at the house, plastering or painting the exterior, for some time after the principal parts of the garden have been finished. In that case, it will be proper to defer levelling and sodding as much of the space adjoining the house as they are likely to trample over, and make all this good after they have been entirely removed;
or much of the sod will most likely be trodden out of place or destroyed. Especially is it requisite to refrain from planting near a house until all its outer portions have received the last touches; for it is almost certain that many of the plants would otherwise be injured and broken.
BRADBURY AND EVANS, PRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS.