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public which abused Tillotson, or Tillotson who had misunderstood him. He would only say, for he could not join in a cry to ruin those he differed from, that he abhorred two principles in religion, and pitied those who held them—obedience on mere authority without conviction, and persecution of man on pretence of serving God. When truth was clear, he thought union was best; where not, he thought charity best. He agreed with Hooker, that a few words spoken with meekness, humility, and love, are worth whole volumes of controversy— which commonly destroys charity, the best part of religion.

Tillotson replied without reserve. He had, he admitted, been troubled with doubts, and had sometimes spoken of them. He was sorry for it. He admired his old friend's wit and zeal; and so soon as he distinctly stated that he was not a Papist, he would do all in his power to correct the rumours that were about. Penn answered at once that he had no correspondence with the Jesuits, nor with any other body at Rome—that he wrote no letters to any priest of the Popish faith—that he was not even acquainted with any priest belonging to that communion. Yet, he added, though not a Romanist, he was a Catholic; he could not deny to others what he claimed for himself—thinking faith, piety, and providence, a better security than force; and that if truth could not succeed with her own weapons, all others would fail her. On the receipt of this letter Tillotson called on Penn; their intimacy was renewed. Tillotson did what he could to put an end to false report; but they whose purposes it served were unwilling to be set right, and the rumour not only spread more and more, but Tillotson's name was still coupled with it. Tillotson thereupon placed in his friend's hands a written disavowal, to be shown to such as should repeat the slander. It was years, however, before Penn heard the last of his Jesuitism.

Penn would gladly have returned to his colony, but the King pressed him to remain until an Act of Parliament had legally and firmly established freedom for thought. Penn's heart was yearning for the other world. The repose of the Delaware, the rising greatness of Philadelphia, haunted his dreams, and mingled with the scenes of his daily life. The favour of the King had powerful drawbacks, and he longed to escape from the atmosphere of a court into the forests of Pennsylvania. But a sense of duty kept him in England. By speech and writing, by his influence with the great, and by his power with Dissenters, he was working day and night at his great task. The chief obstacle was the mutual ignorance and bigotry of court and parliament,—and he strove to enlighten them on the policy of toleration. His 'Persuasive to Moderation' is an able and learned history of opinion and experiment on the subject. He called history to witness—he quoted the wisdom of the wise, and the experiences of time, in support of his argument. The paper was addressed to the King and Council; and contributed to procure that general pardon which emptied the jails of many thousands of prisoners,— including twelve or thirteen hundred Quakers. Still this act of grace was due to the King; the penal laws remained in force ; the sufferers were liable to be seized again. The bigots murmured at every fresh pardon, and the maintenance of the Test Act became the avowed policy of all parties in opposition. The hopes of Churchmen were already turning to the Hague; and the Prince of Orange, while professing liberal sentiments, took care to confirm them in their opposition to the King. Penn went over to the Hague—not in the formal character of an envoy, but so accredited as to satisfy the Prince that he spoke by authority—to ascertain his opinions. William had taken a fancy to the Tests, and though he allowed Penn two audiences, he adhered to his own plans. Penn was instructed to make the most liberal proposals, if William would aid the King to obtain a repeal of the Tests. James promised to consult him in everything, and to put his friends in the highest places. The Prince remained inflexible. He would consent to an Act of Toleration, but he would not consent to a repeal of the Tests—those bulwarks of the Church! While at the court of Holland, Penn mixed with the exiles who thronged the streets — the old comrades of Sydney and Argyle; he studied their views, and made acquaintance with their miseries. With Burnet he had long and frequent discussions; but the Protestant zeal of the doctor was only inflamed by his firm adherence to his old opinions. They met with suspicion—Burnet accusing Penn of leaning to Popery—Penn accusing Burnet of bigotry and intolerance; and they parted with coldness, and on the Churchman's side with hate.

Penn's hopes turned more and more towards Pennsylvania. There he had secured a home for the oppressed. Time, he knew, would make it a nation. He would help on the good work as fast as he might be able. So, having finished his business at the Hague, he went to Amsterdam, where he engaged Wilhelm Sewell—an old friend and correspondent—to translate his accounts of Pennsylvania into Flemish, and circulate them among the able and industrious farmers of the Low Countries. He travelled through Holland and into the Rhineland, bearing everywhere the tidings that a land of freedom was springing up in the New World, where every man enjoyed his full share of political power, and every class of opinions was respected. To the citizens of the Upper Rhine he could report the success of the German colony. At a short distance from Philadelphia their countrymen had built a town, which, in affectionate remembrance of the fatherland, they called Germanopolis. It rose in a beautiful and fertile district; on the spot were a number of fresh springs; in the vicinity were oak, walnut, and chestnut-trees in abundance; and the surrounding country was in many places favourable to the vine.




MEDIATION (1686-89).

On Penn's return to London he appealed to the King and Council in behalf of the English exiles. There were two classes of English in Holland. The most numerous was that of political offenders. At first Penn tried to obtain a general pardon; but the King would not give way so far. To individual cases he was open, and several pardons were obtained from him in his more gracious moods. But there were many who had merely fled from religious fear; and Penn reminded James that it would be in strict accordance with the gracious intentions he had formed, to offer these men indemnity and recall. Thus pressed, the King issued an order to that effect, and a great number of persons, who had not been engaged in treasonable acts against the government, returned to their homes. The indemnity was traced entirely to the influence of Penn; and the posterity of some of the men whom it restored to their country cherished for many years a grateful memory of his aid.

The failure of Penn's mission to the Prince of

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