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that he would soon persuade his father to sell that colony to the crown.

Perm had a father's weakness for this youth— was he not Guli's son? He thought the Quakers of the colony had dealt too harshly with him; that they had not considered his youth. He thought his friends should have seen the conduct of his son in its best aspect, not its worst. That which his son desired from choice, he was impelled towards by necessity. His steward, Philip Ford, had died in January 1702, leaving his affairs to the management of his widow and his son The widow ruled her son; who would have been as great a scoundrel as his parents had he possessed their gifts. The elder Ford had so contrived to jumble Penn's accounts, as to keep him ignorant how they stood. When asked to sign papers and accounts, Penn seldom troubled himself to read them over, but in simple faith set his name to them and passed them on. Ford knew how to take advantage of this want of prudence. In an evil hour, when Penn was seeking funds to carry him over to America the second time, Ford got from him —as a form—a deed of sale for the colony ; on which security, Ford advanced him 2800Z. This deed was considered by Penn, and professedly considered by Ford, as a mortgage. Ford received money on account of the province, and made such advances as the Governor needed. It was not till Penn returned to England that a first suspicion of his steward crossed his mind. He tried to think himself deceived . But when the Quaker died, his knavery -came to the light of day. From an uncertain remembrance of the sums advanced and paid, Penn thought his mortgage nearly cancelled; but the funeral rites of Ford were hardly over, when the widow sent him in a bill for 14,000Z., and threatened to seize and sell his province if it were not paid.

Penn was thunderstruck. He asked for accounts. Henry Goldney,a legal Friend, and Herbert Springett, a near relation of his first wife, assisted him. When the accounts were put in shape, it appeared, by his own showing, that Ford had received on behalf of Penn 17,859?.; that he had paid 16,200?. Yet he claimed 14,000Z! That the matter should be settled on just bases, and, both parties being Friends, that no scandal should be brought on the society, Penn proposed to refer it to arbitration; but the Fords rejected his proposal. They wanted law—not equity. The courts, they said, would give them the money, and they would have their rights. It was well for Penn that he was able to find a set of the accounts as they had been sent to him from time to time. These papers told him the iniquitous story page by page.

(1.) The Fords had charged him interest on advances; but allowed him none on their .receipts. (2.) They had charged him eight per cent interest, though six per cent was the fixed and legal rate. (3.) They had charged compound interest on the 2SQ01.; posting it every six months, and sometimes oftener, so that the overcharge of interest again bore interest, even while the balance of account was on Penn's side of the ledger. (4.) They had charged him fifty shillings as their commission instead of ten shillings for every 1001. received or paid by them to his account — even on the overcharges of interest paid to themselves, adding it to the principal every six months, so as to make him pay a commission of 2l. 10s. to the hundred six or seven times over on the same money. (5.) While he ivas in the colony Penn had sold a piece of land for 2000Z., of which sum he sent 615?. to Ford in liquidation of his debt; but Ford, instead of posting 615Z. to Penn's credit, charged his account with 1385Z., as if he had advanced the money, and from that day forward reckoned his commission and his compound interest on this sum. What wonder that the Fords refused to submit their claims to arbitration! The excess of charges on the second, third, and fourth items came to 9697Z., reducing the claim of 14,000?. to 4303Z. Penn offered to refund this sum; the widow shook her deed of sale in his face, and threatened him with a suit in chancery if the whole amount were not paid down. Friends interfered; some came from America for the purpose; but the younger Ford grew insolent, and the widow would not listen to their good advice.

Though well aware that the uncancelled deed of sale could not be disputed, Penn allowed the case to go before the Lord Chancellor. The court affirmed the special case of debt; and being armed with this legal verdict, Ford went down with a constable to Gracechurch Street, and tried to arrest his patron in the meeting, while surrounded by their common friends engaged in the act of worship. Herbert Springett and Henry Goldney gave their word that Penn would come. To get protection from these harpies, he was forced to go into the Fleet; that is to say, into the Liberties of the Fleet. His lodgings were in the Old Bailey, where he held meetings of his sect for worship, and was visited by friends from Whitehall and the Mall. Penn feared that he might have to sell his colony; his son was anxious to be rid of it; and many of his oldest friends urged him to make a bargain with the Queen. Necessity alone could reconcile him to the thought of giving up the guidance of his Holy Experiment,—nor would he ever have dreamt ot such a thing had the settlers treated him with justice. 'I went thither,' he says, in a letter to the Judge Mompesson, 'to lay the foundations of a free colony for all mankind. The charter I granted was intended to shelter them against a violent and arbitrary government imposed on us; but, that they should turn it against me, that intended it for their security, is very unworthy and provoking, especially

as I alone have been at all the expense But

as a father does not usually knock his children on the head when they do amiss, so I had much rather they were corrected and better instructed, than treated to the rigour of their deservings.'

Logan described the feeling of the colony: 'There are few,' he said to Penn, 'that think it any sin to haul what they can from thee.' Some, he added, were honest; but honest men let rogues have their own way, saying it was not their business. Logan traced their meanness to excess of freedom; and censured his friend for having given them a better charter than they deserved. Against this inference Penn protested; and when he came to treat with the crown for the surrender of his province, he made so many conditions in favour of the colonists, that the Queen's government was obliged to tell him the remainder was not worth accepting, even as a gift.

Young Ford went over to Pennsylvania, where he found out Quarry, Loyd, and other persons much opposed to Penn. Governor Evans, who had now retrieved his character, defended Penn with dignity; and from that moment Evans was an object of attack. When Ford had gained some persons — such as David Loyd—he sailed for London, where he held out threats of raising a disturbance in the colony if his wishes were not met. As Penn declined to see him, he declared that Pennsylvania was his own; that his father had bought it years ago; that he had let it to Penn on a rental; that the rents not being paid, he was resolved to take the country into his own hands; he therefore cautioned the owners of land not to pay any monies to the agents of Penn, at their peril. Widow Ford petitioned the Queen to issue a new charter, making the colony over to her, and to her son. But Lord Chancellor Cowper, having heard the case argued, not only gave judgment against them, but spoke so severely on the merits of the case and the animus of their proceedings, as to cow their spirits.

Fearing lest he should lose the whole, young Ford began to talk of terms. Another instance of the elder Ford's swindling was discovered. In his

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