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“Let A B, in the annexed diagram, represent the surface of a district composed, like some of the eastern parts of England, of strata of sand, clay, and gravel, resting upon chalk, all the strata having a slight inclination to the eastward, or towards B: a farmer cultivating the sandy soil at a, knows, for he observes it in riding to market, that at a certain distance from his own farm he shall cross a tract of clay, b, and that, after leaving that, he shall meet with sand and gravel again at c, and that at d he shall quit the plain and reach hills of chalk. But, he does not know, and he would probably laugh at the person who communicated the information, that all the strata b, c, and d, are to be found under his own land at a, at a depth proportioned to the thickness and inclination of the strata, so that a bed which, in one part of an estate will be at a considerable depth, may rise in another very near the surface. But these are points to the determination of which the geologist applies himself, and having ascertained, from the nature of the embedded fossils, that the stratum, a, is the crag, and b the London clay,—he knows that by proceeding in a direction contrary to that in which the strata dip, he shall meet with the sands and gravels of the plastic clay, as well as with the chalk, rising successively to the surface."

Then leaped the Tiger, with a roar,
And felled him to arise no more.

While his poor life ebbed fast away,
The brutes came round him where he lay.
“This,” said the Jackall," is a treat!
But, gentlemen, before you eat,
I

pray you bathe, whilst I remain To guard the carcase of the slain.”

Forth to a stream the friends repair, And make their due ablutions there.

“Now," thought the Jackall,“ how shall I Cheat each companion with a lie ? If for myself I keep this feast, 'Twill last me for a week at least."

First, to the Tiger, as he sped,
Refreshed and pleased, the robber said,
“O Sir, I heard the Mouse declare,
This victory here was his affair !
For what could you have done forsooth,
But for his sharp and dainty tooth ?”

The Tiger turned about and frowned,
Then sought the wild woods with a bound,
Growling, “What Tiger ever deigned
To eat a meal a Mouse had gained !”

The hero gone, the work was short
With claimants of a meaner sort.
When the half-famished Wolf drew near,
The Jackall whispered in his ear,
“Sir Wolf, I tell you as a friend,
Yon Tiger wishes to contend
With all or any who dispute
His title to the slaughtered brute !"
Is't so, dear Jackall! then adieu,
But you'll avoid the tyrant too ?”
“ Yes, yes, anon, I only wait
To save our comrades from their fate."

The Mouse arrived, expecting cheer,
" Hist!" said the Jackall, “ fly for fear !
The Tiger's hungry; mind you that:
And what's a Tiger but a Cat ?"
The poor Mouse, stealing fast away,
Saw no more daylight all that day.

Th'Ichneumon now approached alone, To whom the thief, with altered tone :“If you, Sir, dare maintain a right In th' Antelope, prepare to fight !" “Not for the world !” th' Iclineumon cried; “One loss I patiently abide, The loss, when hungry, of a meal ; But wounds are difficult to heal ; Nor will I now expose my paw. To burns from violence or law."

Trust not a shrewd projector's plan,
Until you know and prove your man ;
E'en then proceed with thoughtful cure,
Lest, losing your invested share,
You mourn your labour, worse than lost,
Whilst knavery revels at your cost.

[Abridged from Zornlin's Recreations in Geology.]

THE JACKALL AND HIS FRIENDS,

OR, THE SELF-PURVEYOR; A FABLE,
Some men attain their selfish ends
By separating dearest friends.

The traveller, in his farthest range,
Ne'er met a company so strange,
As strolled along, one summer's day,
The forest green, in search of prey.
A Jackall led the motley crew,
As pioneer and steward too.
Next came a Tiger in his pride :
A gaunt Wolf followed with a stride.
A keen Ichneumon joined the throng,
With whom a small Mouse tripped along.

“Hush !” said the Jackall, “friends, prepare !
An Antelope stands grazing there :
On him we might most richly feed,
But then he beats us all at speed ;
What's to be done to gain the prize ?"

Nay,” said the Tiger, "you advise."

“ Well, honoured Sir, the beast, I see, Has lain him down 'neath yonder tree, Our friend the Mouse here, I propose, Should softly creep, and gnaw his toes ; Then when he halts, with pain distressed, We'll trust to you to do the rest!

'Twas done. The Mouse, with coat of gray, Wound through the grass his noiseless way, And when the outstretched foot he found, Struck to the quick a secret wound. Swift on his feet the creature sprung, But lo! his speed was all unstrung!

ON MILITARY DRILLING. II. While standing in the position of attention, even the eyes of the soldier are under the command and guidance of the officer. On the word Eyes right," or Eyes to the right," the eyes must be turned in that direction, but without any movement of the head. The reverse must be observed at the word Eyes left," adn at "Eyes front" they must be brought back to the front. The principal use of this is in dressing, or forming into a perfectly straight rank, which is of course of great importance. This is done either by the right, or by the left, the word right dress," or "left dress," being given. Every soldier then turns his eyes to the right or left, and moves forward or backward, till he can just see the face of the second man from him and no further; he is then exactly in line. In dressing by the right, the right flank stands still, and in dressing by the left, the left flank stands still; for it is evident that the flank by which the rank is dressed must govern the motions of all the rest, so that if he were to move. all the rest must move also,

The In dressing, great care is taken that the recruits turn bat by turning to the left instead of to the right. their eyes only, and not their bodies, shoulders, or right foot is of course advanced as much as it was even heads, and bending forwards or backwards must before drawn back. on no account be allowed; for if a man who was 7. Right about three-quarters face" implies a turn behind the line were to bring himself apparently into equal to three-quarters of that effected by a right it, by bending forward, he would obviously be no about face. It effects at once what would otherwise

Perlonger dressed when he resumed his upright position. require a right face, and then a right half face. Neither is any sudden change of place allowed in haps the plainest way of illustrating all these facings dressing, but the body is brought to its place gra- is by reference to the eight principal points of the dually, by a succession of very short quick steps, compass. Supposing a soldier to stand facing the which do not derange the upright position of the body. north, a right or a left about face would carry him The recruits are practised in this peculiar motion, by round so as to face the south. A right face would ordering the whole of them to dress forward or back- bring him to the east, and a left face to the west. A ward at once, and to continue such motion till they right half face and a left half face would respectively are told to halt.

face the north-east and the north-west; and the right The next thing which the recruit is taught, is to go about three-quarters face would make him front to the through the facings, of which there are eight. Each south-east. To effect this last face the right foot facing consists of two motions, first, placing the feet must be drawn back more than for a right face, but in a peculiar position, and, secondly, turning round less than for a right about ; or so that the ball of this on the heels into the new direction, or face, which the foot may touch the left heel. After having turned body is to assume. The preparatory placing of the round the heels will not be found closed, but will feet differs according to the nature of the turn, or require to be properly placed by a third motion, as face, to be made, but in this first movement the left in the right or left about face. foot remains steady: it is the right foot only which is . .8. « Left about three-quarters face" is just the drawn back more or less in all facings towards the reverse of the last, and is effected by advancing the right, and advanced in the facings tawards the left. right foot so that its heel may touch the ball of the Between the two movements a short pause is always left foot, and then turning round in such wise that, if to be observed. « But, in the case of recruits at drill, the face were before presented northward, it shall now after the first movement has been made, the word | face the south-west. “two” is given by the drill-officers, whereupon the facing is completed, and not till then. This remark applies to the first four facings.

1. Right face" implies a turn of ninety degrees,
or a quarter of a circle, towards the right; so that
the body may be at right angles to its proper position.
To effect this, the right foot is drawn back four or
five inches, so that its hollow part may fit on the left
heel : the toes are then lifted up, and the body passes
smoothly and quickly round on the heels, which will Right

Right
Night

Right be found closed in their proper position, when the

about face. turn or facing is completed.

2. “ Lefl face" is a similar turn, but to the left instead of to the right. The right foot is therefore advanced as much as it was before drawn back, so that the heel may be placed in the hollow of the left foot. The turn is then made as before, but in the opposite direction.

3. “ Right half face" is a turn equal to half that effected by a "right face." The angle moved through is therefore forty-five degrees, or one-eighth of a cir. cle, and the body, then faces off in a diagonal direction.

about fucc. As this is but a very small turn, the right foot need This figure shows the preparatory positions of the only be slightly drawn back : about an inch is gene- feet, necessary for each of the eight facings, in which rally sufficient, and care must be taken that it be not it will be seen that the left foot never moves from its drawn back too much, or the heels will not correspond original position. after the turn is completed.

Among the facings may also be included the word 4. “ Left half face" is just the reverse of the fore

front,” at which the soldier, in whatever direction going, and to effect it, the right foot must be advanced i he may be turned, makes such a face as may bring about an inch.

him round to his proper front, by the shortest way. 5. Right about face." This is a complete turn of Thus, unless he be facing directly to his rear, there half a circle, and it effects at once what would other- can be no doubt which way is the shortest; for a perwise require two right faces. To prepare the feet for son cannot easily turn more than half a circle. But such a large turn, the right foot must be drawn back when the soldier is faced directly to his rear, the two so much, that its toe may touch the left heel. At the ways of fronting (either by a right about or by a left word “two " the body must turn completely round about face) are both of the same length. In such a to its rear, smoothly and without swinging, so as to case it is a rule that on the word front being given, preserve its balance. When this facing is completed, he must come to the right about. the heels will not be found closed in their proper position. This must therefore be done at the word "three,” which constitutes a third motion, and between each

LONDON: of the three motions a sufficient pause is observed.

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST ŠTRAND. 6. Left about face.This facing is seldom used, as

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRIOR ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTELT PARTS, it effects just the same change of position as the last, Sold by all Booksellers and Newvenders in the Kingdom,

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PRICE SIXPENCE,

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THESE two cities, the largest and wealthiest in the it on the east, and separates it from Long Island. A. United States, are, from their commercial character, present the city extends from the south point of this and proximity to each other, most decided rivals. strip of land (where there is a strong battery) about Although Philadelphia once led, and for a considerable three miles northward, but the ground plot is laid out period afterwards kept pace with New York, the to a much greater extent, and here and there may be increasing trade of the country naturally concentrating seen isolated buildings, many of them marking the in the most advantageous situation, has given to the corners and angles of future streets and squares, latter a preponderance in commercial affairs, which destined hereafter to be comprised within the bustle nothing short of some unforeseen and dire calamity, of this rapidly increasing city. or some unnatural revolution in matters of state, will There are two approaches to New York from the ever bring back to the former city.

sea; but that by Long Island Sound and the East In the early colonizing of North America, a por- River is little used, except for small craft and steamtion of what at present constitutes the State of New vessels plying to different ports in the Eastern States. York was settled by the Dutch; but before the city The other, and principal entrance, is at Sandy Hook, —which is now second to few in the Old World for a channel lying between Long Island and the coast the extent of its commerce—had become a place of of New Jersey. It is somewhat exposed to the winds much importance, the Dutch possessions in North from the east rd, and on account of a bar or sandAmerica were ceded to the crown of Great Britain. bank, the entrance is attended with some danger and The situation of New York is rather low, being built difficulty. Within the Hook is Raritan Bay, and here upon the southern end of what is called Manhattan of a breadth of several miles, which breadth, however, Island, (the name originally given to it by the Dutch,) decreases, until, at “the Narrows,” the distance a strip of land about fifteen miles in length, but between the Long Island shore and this island is only kardly two in breadth at its widest part. Though nine hundred yards. After passing through the called an island, it is more properly a peninsula, since Narrows, the danger of the voyage may be considered it is separated from the main land towards the north over, and New York and its environs present themby a channel that is little more than a mere ditch. selves to view. The whole distance from the sea to Manhattan is separated from the State of New Jersey the city is sixteen miles. Notwithstanding the vast by the North or Hudson River, and a narrow inlet extent of shipping connected with, and trading to of the sea, called the East River, communicating with New York, it has nothing like an enclosed harbour, Long Island Sound and the Bay of New York, bounds But the anchorage between the eastern part of the Vol. XVI.

489

city and Long Island shore, which is here lofty, is Philadelphia extends from the Delaware river on both good and safe. The tides rise but a few feet on the east—which separates it from New Jersey-to this part of the American coast, so were docks abso- the Schuylkill on the west, the distance between these lutely necessary for the security of the shipping, they rivers, across the centre of the city, being nearly two could scarcely be made available. Buildings have miles. It is but for a moderate distance, however, already encroached considerably upon this section of and that in the middle of the city, that the ground the East River, and numerous small low wooden piers adjoining the Schuylkill has yet been built upon, the jut out into the water, for vessels to load and unload great accumulation of building being on the side of at; the spaces between them, forming a series of small the Delaware. Market-street, which extends in a basins, without gates, are called “ slips,” and are direct line from river to river, is accounted the centre found exceedingly convenient for the general purposes of the city, the streets to the north and south of it of ships and shipping.

being parallel thereto, while those running parallel to The older portions of the city do not present much the rivers, cross it at right angles. Though the plan taste or regularity in the buildings and streets, although of this city is simple, yet it is interesting. All the great improvements have been made from time to streets running in a direction north and south are time, particularly in situations where fres have oc- named according to their respective positions, in recurred, the most extensive being that which took gard to their distance from the rivers. Thus on the place three or four years ago. With the single ex- side of the city adjacent to the Delaware—excepting ception of Broadway, however, there is not a street the range of warehouses, and the street in their rear, that would strike the stranger as in any degree re- which, significantly enough, is named Water-street, markable. Broadway commences at the extreme they are called First-street, (or front,) Second-street, southern end of the city, at the Castle Gardens, and Third-street, &c., up to Thirteenth-street, that being runs pretty nearly along the centre of the island; but the adjoining one to a broad avenue, running along owing to several slight ascents and descents, in passing the centre or top of the ridge. All these streets along the ridge, the view is never so extensive as one necessarily cross Market-street and the streets paralmight be led to suppose. Formerly most of the side lel to it, the various sections lying north or south of walks were sheltered by rows of trees, but of later Market-street being named accordingly; those towards years an opinion got abroad that these trees were a the north being named North Third-street, North nuisance, a harbour for insects to breed in, that after-Fourth-street, &c., while the contrary sections have wards found their way into the houses, to the great South appended to them, and are known as South annoyance of the inmates. In consequence of this, Fourth-street, South Fifth-street, &c. Perhaps to many of the older trees have been remov

noved, but the have followed out the simplicity of this plan the taste for shade-trees seems again to be reviving, and streets crossing east and west should have been we find many recently planted ones in various parts named after the letters of the alphabet, but in that of the city. Along the old portion of Broadway the case an inconvenience might have occurred when the buildings are by no means either peculiarly splendid number of streets exceeded the letters in the alphaor regular. A row of tolerably large brick houses is bet. At present the principal streets, running east often interrupted by two or three low and mean- and west, are named after the various sorts of indigelooking ones, and after gazing with admiration upon nous trees common to Pennsylvania. Thus there is some genteel marble-fronted residence, probably the Chestnut-street, Pine-street, Mulberry-street, Locustvery next buildings will prove nothing better than two street, &c. But of late years there seems to have been or three paltry shops, of not half the elevation of their some change of taste in the naming of their streets, classical and aristocratic neighbour.

or else they have outrun their wooden names, since we parts of Broadway there is a gentle descent on either find many of the new streets evidently named agreehand towards the rivers, but in the newer portions of ably to some whim or caprice, and many others after the city, many of the cross streets are almost on a individuals, the original owners of the property, or level. Although there are some other streets parallel, those whose names are most pɔpular amongst the or nearly so, to Broadway, the cross streets are often American population, neither straight nor at equal distances, presenting but While the city has been gradually extending in very little regularity. In the new portion of the city various directions, several villages once quite distinct the streets are straight and regular.

from it (as was formerly the case with many villages William Penn was the founder of Philadelphia, and now swallowed up by London) are now included before the building of that city was commenced, a within what may reasonably be considered its present regular plan had been suggested, which was after- limits; but the growth towards the north has somewards strictly adhered to, and those that have con- what exceeded that towards the south. The blocks tributed since his time towards making Philadelphia of buildings formed by the streets crossing each other what it is at present, appear to have made no encroach- at right angles are called " squares." Hence a stranger ments upon the regularity of the original plan. In who has been accustomed to the open areas of our most of the better order of streets, the buildings are own squares is occasionally not a little puzzled when more regular than in New York, and although the he finds it necessary to inquire the way, or the dishouses are neither large nor much ornamented, on the tance to such or such a place : for where it is intended whole they present a highly respectable appearance. to define the route very particularly the party Except in a few public buildings, principally banking inquired of will direct him along such a street, a cerinstitutions, you see no marble fronts; but the flights tain number of “squares,” (not so many minutes' walk, of steps in front of several of the best houses, as well or the fractional parts of a mile,) and then turn to the as the door and window-sills, are of white or veined right or the left, as the case may happen to be, when marble. The houses are mostly brick: a very few a certain number of squares more will bring him to have stone fronts, and in both these large cities a few | the place he inquired for. Should he ask for an of the original wooden buildings are still visible. In explanation respecting the names of the squares he one respect there is a resemblance between these rival would be surprised to find that nothing had been cities—they are both built upon ground somewhat meant except the blocks of buildings between the sloping, and between two rivers, though their respec- several cross streets. tive rivers have little resemblance,

Owing to its inland situation Philadelphia is not so

From many

agreeably refreshed with sea breezes as New York | agreeably to an Act of Congress passed eight years during the summer season; the distance from the sea before, the government and the national legislative at the entrance of Delaware Bay being nearly 90 bodies removed to the City of Washington. miles. It is, however, generally considered the more Within the last fifteen or twenty years the interhealthy city of the two, which in some measure may nal improvements with which Philadelphia is connecbe owing to its streets being more open and cleanly, ted or interested in, have been carried to a very great since the streets in New York bordering on the East extent; a few of the leading ones may be enumerated. River, at least that portion of them inhabited by low Several years ago a rapid communication with New Irish and coloured people, are usually in a disgusting York was completed—being partly by steam-boat and filthy condition. But most of the large Ameri- and partly by railway; the distance between those can towns are more or less unhealthy during the cities, by the old route, was ninety-six miles. The latter part of the warm season, which needs no other | Delaware river has been rendered navigable nearly proof than a reference to the bills of mortality, and to its source-partly by improving the channel, and to the prevailing custom of removing to more partly by opening canals to avoid the more formi.' salubrious situations during the hot weather by all dable obstructions of the river. A canal has also who possess the means and whose presence can possi- been opened along the entire length of the valley of bly be dispensed with in their callings or professions. the Schuylkill, and another from the Delaware to the

The river Delaware is fully a mile in width in front mountain region in the interior of the state; so that of the city, whither ships of the largest size can come through these channels the city is not only supplied close up to the quay to load and unload; but owing with an abundance of coal, but also with the produce to a bar, and the exposed situation of the entrance of the country. Both a canal and a railroad have into the bay, Philadelphia has been considered neither been made between the Delaware and Chesapeake a safe port, nor one easy of access. Moreover, the Bays, affording convenient and expeditious commuchannel of the river is winding, so that it used some- nications between this city and Baltimore,-and times to occupy several days to complete the voyage thence by railroad to Washington City. But the after entering within the capes of the Delaware. This greatest of these public works is the communication species of delay, however, has been partially remedied partly by railroad, and partly by canal, between this by the introduction of steam-boats, the application of city and Pittsburgh on the Ohio,-from whence there which however is attended with considerable expense. is a steam-boat communication with the entire valley Severe frosts occasionally interrupt the navigation of of the Mississippi. This route passes over the Allethe Delaware for several weeks ; but severe indeed ghany mountains; the whole distance to Pittsburg must be the season that materially affects the Bay of being considerably over 300 miles. New York. The approaches to both cities are With all these advantages, (and several others not strongly fortified.

enumerated) still Philadelphia cannot successfully The Schuylkill is a much smaller river than the Dela- compete with its formidable rival, although they una ware; and though its channel is of considerable depth doubtedly very much tend to add to both its trade from where it enters its sister river (four miles below and resources. the city), still it is comparatively little used for ship- The commercial importance of New York is by no ping purposes. Immediately above the city its means derived exclusively from its advantageous posibanks attain a considerable elevation, affording beauti- tion as a sea-port ; since, besides its natural advanful views, some of which are highly picturesque. By tages, it at present enjoys the privilege of vast inmeans of a lofty dam thrown across this river, a con- ternal improvements. siderable head of water is obtained, and powerful Besides that fine navigable stream, the Hudson, machinery employed in forcing the water through the which stretches northward into the very heart of this spacious pipes to the top of the lofty bank where it is fine and large state,—there are canals communicating received into a capacious reservoir from whence it is with the lakes Erie, Ontario, and Champlain, and conveyed to various parts of the city. The Phila- thence with the river St. Lawrence and both the delphians are very proud of their water works ; nor Canadas. Some of the canals are connected with do they neglect to let their neighbours of New York water communications passing through the states of hear of their superior supply of this necessary of Pennsylvania and Ohio, and thenceforward to "the life. It must be admitted that New York is but | Far West." By these means the productions of indifferently supplied with good water; for neither extensive regions, far into the interior, are brought that yielded by the generality of pumps, nor that to New York, to be exported or consumed as the kept in tanks, is of a good quality; the only really case may be; and in return large quantities of pure water to be met with during the summer is what merchandize are supplied to the inhabitants of the is brought by water-carts from a spring at a con- inland towns and cities, as well as to many a far-dissiderable distance, and hawked about the streets and tant settiement. But there are various other works of sold by the gallon. But the rivalry of these two general improvement, two of which, and not the least cities extends to things edible, as well as to matters important, are the Delaware and Hudson, and the local and commercial, the prejudices of the parties Morristown canals. The first of these connects the being often carried to extravagant lengths-lengths Delaware and Hudson rivers, the latter the Delaware occasionally assuming the ridiculous.

(near the mouth of the Lebigh) and the Passaic river, In consequence of the colony of Pennsylvania and consequently with the Bay of New York. By baving been founded by William Penn and his these channels large quantities of coal find their way followers, Philadelphia is not unfrequently denomina- to this city; much of which is re-shipped and sent to ted “the city of the Quakers;" and although the popu- various parts of the Union. lation at present comprises religious sects of various The steam-boats plying to and from New York are, denominations, the Quakers, as to number, rank i probably, quite as numerous as those frequenting the in the third or fourth order, but as regards wealth waters of Old Father Thames. Besides the ferry-boats and respectability they are second to none.

across the two rivers (all steamers, and no bridges) at For some time Philadelphia was considered as the the various ferries, there are vessels plying between this capital of the United States, and the National Con- | city and every sea-board town in the Eastern States ; gress was held here until the year 1800; when, as well as to every sea-port towards the south from

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