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ZURICH is the name of a town, and of a lake on the and beautiful in Switzerland. It extends, in the form borders of which it is situated, in Switzerland, as of a crescent, chiefly through the Canton of Zurich, but also of the Canton which contains both the town and partly also between those of Schweitz and St. Gall, the lake.
It is divided into two parts by the Strait of RappersThe Canton of Zurich is at the north-west part of wyl, a quarter of a mile over, crossed by a bridge : in Switzerland, and adjoins the Duchy of Baden: it other places the breadth varies to nearly five miles; contains about a thousand square miles, and a quarter and the length is about thirty. The lake is surof a million inhabitants. Its surface presents a plea- rounded by a populous and well cultivated country, sant alternation of bill and valley; but not many of and the prospects on its banks are richly varied. those magnificent scenes which distinguish many parts Behind and above the hills which enclose it, loftier of Switzerland. The climate is mild, and the soil fer- summits rise gradually higher and higher, till the eye tile and well cultivated. Rich pastures and extensive finally rests on the glaciers of Glarus, Schweitz, and orchards abound, together with fine tracts of wooded the Grisons. The lake, for several hundred yards from country. Corn, wine, cattle, butter, cheese, cotton, | its banks, is seldom more than from six to twelve silk. linen, woollen, and leather, are the chief pro- feet deep :'it teems with fish, which, owing to the ducts, agricultural and manufacturing. The inhabit- extreme clearness of the water, are seen in all their ants are of German origin, and, with the exception number and variety. The Lake of Zurich has been of two societies, are Calvinists. The Government was termed the Winandermere of Switzerland. formerly a mixture of the aristocratic and the demo- The town of Zurich is one of the most important cratic; but it was remodelled in 1831, by which the in Switzerland. situated on the river Limmat, legislative power was vested in a council of two at the north extremity of the lake, and in a narrow hundred and twelve members, twenty five of whom valley between hills; its distance from Constance formed an executive council, and court of final appeal. being 36 miles, and from Berne 55. Its situation is Large estates are sometimes to be bought; but exceedingly pleasing, although the houses of the smaller ones very rarely, because everyone in town itself are old-fashioned. Few places of the size possession of a few acres of land, hopes some day or of Zurich, and of its limited population (14,000), other to build a house upon his property. A tenth bave surpassed it in the cultivation of literature. of the produce is claimed by the government in the For five centuries it has been a town of literary disform of taxes. In this Canton, as well as in some tinction, and has numbered among its natives the others in Switzerland, every individual is obliged by names of Conrad Gesner, Solomon Gesner (the law to insure his house; the sum paid for which is, author of the Death of Abel), John James Gesner, however, very trifling, -ten shillings for one thousand Lavater, Hirzel, and Pestalozzi. The city library conpounds.
tains as many as seventy thousand volumes, as well The Lake of Zurich is one of the most picturesque as portraits of all the chief magistrates of the place. Vol. XVI.
Among other public buildings in the place are, a | although there is little of what we call public amuseschool for deaf and dumb, a school for the blind, a ment, there is a good deal of visiting among the insociety of physics, economics, and natural history, a habitants; consisting either of dinner parties, to military school, a medical seminary, &c. The tower which relations only are invited, and which take place of Wellenberg is situated in the middle of the river at stated times in each other's houses; or else of Limmat, and is used as a felons' prison: in former soirées, which have, however, a different character from times it enclosed within its walls, the Count Hans de similar meetings in France and England, for while Habsbourgh, the Count of Rapperschwyl, and many there is tea and talk for the ladies, there is tobacco other important state prisoners. There is an academy and talk for the gentlemen, as the two sexes do not of artists; an academy of music; a society called the mingle together on such occasions. Swiss Society of Public Utility; and several schools One favourite pursuit of the Zurichers is, after for teaching languages. There are two newspapers having earned a fortune by industry, to build a published in Zurich, one appearing weekly, the other country-house on the borders of the lake. Most of twice a week; and there is also a monthly literary the villas which adorn the lake, and which exceed in journal.
number and beauty those surrounding any other of Almost every town and city has some record of the Swiss lakes, are erected as pleasure-houses by the by-gone days which is cherished by the inhabitants, townspeople. The suburbs also, on every side of the and shown to visitors as the “ lion" of the place. town, are studded with handsome residences. There One such lion at Zurich is the bow of William Tell. are many pleasant promenades in the neighbourhood A recent tourist says:
of the town; one in particular called the walk of Among other places pointed out to strangers as worthy
Gesner. of notice, I visited the Arsenal, where one may receive a The language spoken at Zurich is a very imperfect lesson of humility, in attempting to wield the swords, and patois, but good German is everywhere understood; to carry the armour, borne by the warriors of other days. and the French and English languages also form part I of course handled the bow said to be the bow of William of a good education. Tell; and the identical arrow that pierced the apple is also readers accustomed to the simple rites of the English
It is melancholy, however to shown. I canuot conceive of what materials the sinews of that distinguished patriot were made; for the degenerate Church, to think that such a beautiful spot should be men of our time are obliged to nse a machine, with the power the abode of superstition. There is, in the Canton of of the lever, to draw the cord even half way to the point at Schweitz, to the south of that of Zurich, a place which the arrow is discharged. There is a vast collection called Einsiedeln, to which pilgrimages are made every of ancient armour preserved, and modern equipments for year by the Roman Catholic inhabitants of Switzermore than all the able-bodied men in the Canton.
land. Mr. Inglis, in his journey through Switzerland, In the cultivation of their land, the inhabitants of thus speaks of the first sight that met his eye on Zurich are spoken of in high terms by travellers. entering Zurich :It is impossible to look at their fields, gardens, hedges, The quay of Zurich was crowded with a host of miserable trees, flowers, or domestic vegetables without per- looking beings, whose dress and aspect at once distinguished ceiving proofs of the extreme care and industry that them from the inhabitants of the canton. They were mostly are bestowed upon the cultivation of the soil. If, for women; their hats were of bright yellow straw; their example, a path leads through or by the side of a field garments, a union of rags; a scrip, with seemingly scanty of grain, the corn is not, as in England, permitted to provision, hung
over the shoulder of each; and in the hand hang over the path, exposed to be pulled up or
of each was a rosary. Several boats were preparing to re
ceive them; and they were soon, to the number of at least trodden down by every passer by: it is everywhere
a hundred, disposed in the different boats, and were immebounded by a fence; stakes are placed at intervals of diately rowed down the lake. These were pilgrims,-poor about a yard, and boughs of trees are passed longitu- misguided, deceived pilgrims, --who were on their way to the dinally between them. In the gardens, which around church of our Lady, at Einsiedeln, in the canton of Schweitz, Zurich are extremely large, the most punctilious care
to pay their adoration to a miraculous image of the Virgin,
and to receive absolution. They had, many of them, come is evinced in every production that grows. The vegetables are planted with great acceracy; and They had left home and friends, and what to them were
from distant parts of France, Germany, and even Belgium. neither weeds nor stones are to be seen among them. doubtless comforts, to journey upon foot some hundreds of Plants are not earthed up, as with us, but are planted miles, and to spend upon this pilgrimage the saving of in a small hollow, into each of which a little manure is years. Those nave a heavy account to answer, who have put, and each plant is watered daily. Where seeds aided the delusion of these miserable devotees. are sown, the earth directly above is broken into the Again, the same writer observes :finest powder. Every shrub, every flower, is tied to
Scarcely a day passed while I resided at the lake-side, a stake, and where there is wall fruit, a trellice is upon which one or more boats were not seen filled with erected against the wall, to which the boughs are pilgrims on their way to Einsiedeln. A monstrous mutterfastened.
ing of prayer came over the water, according ill with the Zurich is an exceedingly industrious place. The smiling scenery around, and the glorious sunshine that field labourer frequently works from four in the lighted them on their way, and in strange and disagreeable
contrast with the Swiss echo-song which had just arisen morniug till eight in the evening; and the towns.
from a boat freighted with light hearts, and with the notes people also seem to care very little about arnuse
of a sweet pipe floating from the opposite shore. Boats ments; for there is neither theatre, public concerts, laden with pilgrims passed from, as well as to, Einsiedeln ; nor balls : indeed dancing, from what certainly but the laugh and the jest, instead of the prayer, were appears an ultra solicitude for the preservation of heard among them; for they had bowed at the shrine of our morals, is not permitted in any part of the Canton, lady, and had no more occasion for prayer ! unless by special permission of the government; and It may not be out of place briefly to state the this is almost always refused. In order that the nature of this pilgrim-place. pleasure of a dance may be enjoyed without incurring A church situated at the small village of Einsiedeln certain penalties, a given number of persons must is said, by a bull published by Pope Leo VIII., to have subscribe a paper declaratory of their intentions. been consecrated by God himself. The Bishop of This is handed to the council; and it is for them to Constance, in the year 948, was about to consecrate a decide whether or no it shall be granted; but it is chapel to the Virgin Mary, when he suddenly heard said that a refusal is generally the result. But angels in the air chanting the very same prayer which is chanted when bishops are accustomed to consecrate We cannot conclude this paper without expressing churches. The bishop thereupon refused to conse- regret that so beautiful and luxuriant a land should erate the chapel, at which the people were enraged, be the scene of such mis-applied zeal, and mis-spent and while they were expostulating with him they heard time and money. a clear voice saying, “Cease, my brethren, it is divinely consecrated !" at which all the people marvelled, and were convinced. Such is the legend promulgated by I had the pleasure of seeing that remarkable and interest
WILL-O'-THE-WISP. those in authority ; after which," who can be surprised," as Mr. Inglis remarks, " that the credulous the night of the 31st of December 1839, in two meadows
ing phenomenon called ignis fatuus or Will-o'-the-Wisp, on and ignorant should need little incitement to make a and a stubble field, about a mile from Powick Village, near pilgrimage to Einsiedeln ?" One thing is certain, that the Upton road. I had for several nights before been on the the convent and church at Einsiedeln are most mag: house that previously to that night it was too cold. I noticed
look out there for it, but was told by the inhabitants of the nificent, contrasting strangely with the mean hamlet in which they are situated. The convent is of the half-an-hour, between ten and eleven o'clock, at the distance
it from one of the upper windows intermittingly for about Benedictine order, with about fifty resident friars. of from one to two hundred yards off me. Sometimes it The sleeping rooms of the brethren are comfortable, was only like a flash in the pan on the ground; at other and simply fitted up with two chairs and a mattrass times it rose up several feet and fell to the earth, and on a bedstead; but the eating room is large and became extinguished; and many times it proceeded horizonmagnificent
tally from fifty to one hundred yards with an undulating The church of the convent is gorgeously decorated motion, like the flight of the laughing wood pecker, and with gilding, paintings, marble, &c.; there being not able rapidity in a straight line upon or close to the ground.
about as rapid ; and once or twice it proceeded with considera foot of either walls or roof without some kind of The light of these ignes fatui was very clear and strong, adornment. But the great attraction of the church, much bluer than that of a candle, and very like that of an that to which the devotees direct their wandering electric spark, and three or four of them looked larger and steps, is the Holy chapel, containing the miraculous as bright as the star Sirius; of course they look dim when image of the Virgin. The chapel is of black and
seen in ground fogs, but there was not any fog on the night gray marble, and stands within the church; and in a atmosphere, and at the same time a considerable breeze from
in question; there was however a muddy closeness in ihe niche in this chapel, erected for the purpose, is the south-west. Those Will-o-the-wisps which shot horideposited the image; and at all hours of the zontally invariably proceeded before the wind towards the day, from the earliest dawn till deep twilight, hun. north-east. dreds may at all times be seen prostrated before
On the day before, namely, the 30th of Dec., there was a the iron gate, through which the devotee may catch a
white frost in the morning; but as the sun rose behind a glimpse of the object of his pilgrimage. While Mr. heavily (as we anticipated) in the evening; and from this
mantle of very red and beautifully stratified clouds, it rained Inglis was in the town, he saw a procession of the pil. circumstance I judged that I should see the phenomenon grims. Preceded by banners, and the other emblems in question on the next night, agreeably to all the evidence of the Romish church, and by all the inmates of the I had before collected upon that subject. abbey, among whom appeared two friars of the order On the night of the 1st Jan. 1840, I saw only a few flashes of Capuchins, with hair-shirts and sandals, were seen
on the ground at the same place; but on the next night (the
wind still blowing from the south-west) I not only saw all the pilgrims then congregated at Einsiedeln. The men walked first two and two, and the women
several ignes fatui rise up occasionally in the same locality
many feet high, and fall again to the ground, but at about followed, the number of the whole being upwards of eight o'clock iwo very beautiful ones rose together a little 8000. After the procession had made a considerable more than one hundred yards from me, and about fifty yards circuit, it entered the church, where a discourse was
apart from each other. The one ascended several yards high, preached by one of the Capuchins.
and then fell to the ground in the shape of an arch and The number of pilgrims who visited Einsiedeln vanished. The other proceeded in an horizontal direction
for about fifty yards towards the north-east, in the same unare stated to have been, in 1817, 114,000; in 1821, dulating and rapid manner as I have before described. I 124,000; in 1822, 132,000; in 1824, 150,000; in 1825, and others immediately ran to the spot, but did not see any 162,000; in 1828, 176,000. The revenues of the light during our stay there. ' Both these nights were starabbey are said to be very large ; for, indepen- light, with detached clouds, and, rather warm, but no fog. On dently of the sums paid for masses, besides contri- the night of the 3rd Jan. the atmosphere was occasionally butions of other kinds, they receive a large accession thick, but there was not any wind or fog, nor the slightest from the benedictions bestowed upon rosaries, crosses, lightning during the whole of these observations, which
appearance of the phenomenon. I did not observe any and images. Thousands and tens of thousands of
were made by others of the house as well as myself. these are bought by the pilgrims, and are carried to I am of opinion that these are electric meteors which rise the abbé, who, for the kiss bestowed upon each, in exhalations from out of the earth, particularly in the receives one, two or more francs, according to the winter season, and that they occur principally if not entirely means of the possessor. Many of the pilgrims are
a day or two after considerable rain, and a change from a the representatives of others
, who, for various reasons, comparative cold to a comparative warm temperature. may not be able to attend in person at the shrine, and
:[Letter from Mr. J. Allies, in the Worcestershire Chronicle.] who therefore placed their offerings in the hands of It is very remarkable that two favourite and ingenious their neighbours. Mr. Inglis, in another part of apologues prevailed among the heathen philosophers of Switzerland, met with a woman whose reputation antiquity, both of them having reference to the introduction for sanctity was so great, that she had obtained the of evil by the acquisition of knowledge, and which would appointment of representative at the shrine of the
seem to have been suggested to their inventors by the Virgin at Einsiedeln, for all the wealthy people in the scriptural narrative at the fall of our first parents. The commune in which she lived ; she made four pilgrim- wanderings of Psyche, until her final reconciliation with ages every year on their account.
her divine husband; and that of Prometheus, particularly as In the square in front of the abbey booths are it is given in the terribly splendid drama of Æschylus ; each erected on every side, with shops full of a gaudy of them clearly point to this important fact. If not actually display of trinkets, rosaries, books, crucifixes, prints derived from Scripture, they, at all events
remarkable coincidence with one another, and with the of saints, popes, martyrs, images of the Virgin, and Mosaic history, that the hypothesis to which they refer is a other emblems of the Romish church. These were
correct inference from the philosophy of morals.-Suurall purchased in large numbers by the pilgrims,
THE HYDROSTATIC PRESS.
will hold 12x12x12=1721 cubic inches of water, THERE are but few principles in Mechanical Philo- and no more, and if only one single inch above that sophy which have led to more valuable applications quantity be poured down the tube it will remain in the in the manufacturing arts than that fundamental law tube. If we continue pouring water in the tube to the of Hyarostatics known as the equal pressure of liquids height of twelve inches, the refusal of the vessel to in every direction. This at first sight may appear erro- contain more than a given quantity still exists. We neous, as we know that if water be contained in an have not changed the quantity of water in the vessel, open cup or basin, it presses downwards on the bottom but have merely added to the height of that in the of the vessel, but does not appear to press upwards, tube. and therefore that the pressure is not equal in every But let us mark what other power is meanwhile direction. But this difficulty will disappear, when we brought into action. Is the water in the vessel in the consider the question in a more general point of view. same condition as before the additional water was
A liquid holds a medium position between a solid poured into the tube ? Far from it: the quantity is the and an air or gas. A solid is composed of particles sa
same, but every atom is as it were in a state of con. clinging or cohering so closely together, that force of straint. That particular part of the vessel where the some kind is necessary to separate them. An air or tube is fixed, has twelve inches more height of water gas, on the other hand, is composed of particles which than any other part. What is the consequence ? That have so little coherence, that in order to retain or keep the downward gravitating force is twice as much there them together, we must confine or press them: thus, as in any other part, and the lower particles of water if an ounce of air at the surface of the earth fill a cer- have to bear the weight of those that are above them. tain bulk, it will fill a larger bulk when at an elevation But as the particles cannot be forced closer together, above the earth, because it is less confined or pressed this additional pressure then directs itself laterally, beby superincumbent air when it is thus elevated. cause as the particles are free to move among one The atoms of air, in fact, repel one another. Water, another, they cannot and do not remain at rest, if and liquids generally, are formed of particles which there happen to be a pressure greater on one side of have no repulsion, and scarcely any attraction, for one them than on another. Thus the pressure gets comanother, but they are free to move in every direction, municated from particle to particle, until the whole by the slightest force. This is manifested in the sim- body of water feels it: they all remain at the same ple act of putting the finger into a vessel of water: mutual distances as before, but they all feel the effects no difficulty exists in so doing; the particles of water, of that pressure which the water in the tube makes in pressed by the finger, instantly yield, and diffuse that of the vessel. themselves between and among the surrounding par- Now the amount of this pressure leads to some very ticles, leaving room for the finger. But here is deve- curious results. The particles forming every square loped a most important truth, which is indeed the inch in any part of the liquid are pressed, and press foundation of the whole science,—that although the in their turn, with the same force as the water in the particles are perfectly free to move among themselves, tube presses on that directly beneath it ; consequently they are for all common results incompressible, that is, the top and sides of the vessel are pressed in the a given quantity of water can scarcely be compressed same proportion; or, every square inch of the surinto a smaller bulk. This power of resisting compres-face of the vessel experiences a bursting pressure, sion is so great that it required delicate experiments to equal to the pressure of the water in the tube on that determine whether water was not absolutely incom- in the vessel. It is not difficult to determine what pressible. Some experiments made by Mr. Perkins this pressure is ; for the downward pressure of the seemed to show, that when a small quantity of water water in the tube is but another name for the weight was compressed by a power of thirteen hundred of it: the water is twelve inches high and one inch pounds, it was reduced oth in bulk, that is, that that in diameter; and the amount is therefore twelve which before filled twenty-seven measures, now filled cubic inches, which weigh about seven ounces. only twenty-six. But supposing the experiment to be Every square inch of the vessel, therefore, is pressed correct, the compression is so very trifling, compared outwards by a force of seven ounces, equal to 63 lbs. with the force employed, that it is scarcely incorrect, on each of the six surfaces forming the cubical vessel, in common language, to call liquids incompressible, or 378 lbs. in the whole. We hence see that the pres..
Let us now see what results will follow from these sure, when viewed in this light, is really very formidtwo properties: first, that the particles of a fluid move able; and it is one of those examples of the law, freely among one another; second, that they are, which have led to its being called the Hydrostatic taken collectively, almost incompressible. So long as paradox : seven inches of water produce a pressure of a fluid is contained in an open vessel, no pressure is 378 lbs! But the term paradox is not properly apperceptible but that resulting from gravity, which plied here, since by tracing the operation of the law tends to confine the fluid to the bottom of the vessel. of equal pressure, we see how directly the effect just No upward pressure whatever is perceptible. But let stated will follow from it:-equal pressure to equal the vessel be completely filled and firmly closed, and surfaces does not seem paradoxical, and yet it is but a new power is then just beginning to show itself. another way of expressing the result to which we have Suppose we have a cubical vessel, measuring one foot arrived. in every direction, closed on all sides, but having a To trace all the effects of this important law on the square tube, an inch in diameter, inserted in the equilibrium and pressure of liquids, would be to write top. The vessel may be filled with water, by pouring a treatise on hydrostatics, since there is scarcely a it down this tube, and so long as the quantity of water fact in the whole science but what depends fundais just within one cubic foot, the vessel will not be mentally on the principle of equal pressure.
We completely filled : there will be a little empty space shall, on the present occasion, only speak of the just beneath the cover. But when once the cubic foot method by which this principle is made available for of water has been poured in, and the vessel is quite the same purposes as a common screw-press, but to full, we have the first beginning of a pressure which a much greater extent, and in a far more convenient will show itself upwards and sideways, as well as way downwards. On pouring a little more water down the In the supposed case which we have detailed above, tube, the pressure instantly commences. The vessel each side of the vessel was pressed with a force of 63 lbs.; the top was therefore pressed upwards with | after bending upwards, terminates at the valve D. that force. Now if there could be any contrivance Above this is a hollow cylinder, with a solid piston by which the top of the vessel would be moveable up- working water-tight in it. This piston acts by the wards, without letting out the water, and if there intervention of a shaft or pillar E, on a stout beam were sixty pounds weight placed on the top, it would F, so that when the piston rises the beam or platform still be forced up because the pressure from within is F rises also. greater than that from without. Seven ounces of These being the positions of the several parts, the water in the tube would, therefore actually elevate action is as follows. The water is at the same height 60 lbs. weight. But in order to produce a pressure in the pipe as in the cistern. But on raising the powerful enough to be available for many processes small piston, the air contained between the two valves in the arts, either the size of the vessel must be much and the piston becomes rarified : the valve at B opens increased, the diameter of the tube much diminished, in order that the air may equalize itself throughout or the water made to stand higher in the tube. All the tube, and a little water rises in the tube. After a these methods have some defects, and it is therefore few strokes of the piston, the water has risen above important to avail ourselves of the fact, that pressure the valve B, and fills the lateral pipe leading to D. of any kind, acting on a small surface of the water in The remarkable hydrostatic pressure now begins to the vessel, will be felt equally at all other parts ; so show itself.
show itself. On pressing down the piston again, the that seven ounces pressure, effected by a piston or any water cannot descend into the cistern, because the other means, would be as available as the water in the valve B opens only upwards : it therefore opens the tube. As the kind of pressure induced by a forcing valve D, and gets into the larger cylinder or pipe. A pump is very great, we have thus an almost unlimited few more strokes of the piston brings the water in supply of power
contact with the large piston in the cylinder : after
When once the principle of a machine is well understood, improvements in the details may be expected. Mr. Bramah has availed himself of the beautiful hydrostatic law which we have been considering, to construct a press, the power of which is so extraordinary, that a mere statement of it, without explaining the principles on which it rests, would scarcely be credited. The small pipe of the forcing pump is frequently about half an inch in diameter, and of the cylinder twelve inches, so that a section of the large piston contains 576 times as large a surface as a section of the smaller cylinder. The pump is so strongly made, that a force of one ton may be applied to the handle, so that the small piston is pressed down with that force, and the larger piston is pressed up with a force of five hundred and seventy-six tons. We merely give this statement in figures, to show more clearly the power of the instrument. The actual power produced may be in any ratio we please,-limited only by the strength of the materials of which
the press is made. We have seen a bar of iron cut The reader will now be in a condition to under- through by a Bramah press not much exceeding a stand the action of a hydrostatic press, of which a
foot dimensions in each direction. In a future paper cut is here given, representing a vertical section of on Bandana Handkerchiefs, we shall have an opporthe instrument. At A is a small cistern, or reservoir tunity of seeing one of the many instances of the of water, into which dips the lower end of the pipe of valuable employment of the power produced by hya small forcing pump. This pipe may either have an drostatic pressure. open end, or, as in the figure, may have several small perforations, through which the water may flow from
Tae sober stillness of the night the cistern into the interior of the pipe. At the part
That fills the silent air, of the pipe near B is a valve opening upwards, and
And all that breathes along the shore, above that is a continuation of the pipe, with a solid
Invite to solemn prayer. piston working vertically in it. This piston is con
Vouchsafe to me that spirit, Lord ! nected by its rod with a handle, which is worked in
Which points the sacred way; the usual manner of a pump. A lateral tube springs
And let thy creatures here below from the part between the valve and the piston, and
Instruct me how to pray.—CRABBE.
THE HYDROSTATIC PRESS.