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hence to New Orleans on the Mississippi. Several of population was very much retarded. In 1830 the the boats frequenting the metropolitan rivers are population of New York was given at something over splendid vessels, and elegantly fitted up; but the most 200,000; while that of Philadelphia (exclusive of two admired of them are scarcely such beautiful crafts as or three contiguous villages) was 111,000. In 1836 a the North-river steamers. For besides the large size, committee of the council of New York estimated and beautiful proportions of these vessels, no expense (but mark—it was but an estimate) the population at is spared in embellishing their cabins and dining near 300,000; of the population of Philadelphia we rooms ; and in addition to those below deck, some of have no returns of so recent a date, but the city has them are provided with handsome deck-cabins, and become considerably extended, and the number of over these again are galleries covered with tasteful inhabitants no doubt considerably increased, since the awnings where the passengers may lounge or take ex- last census was taken. ercise, and enjoy at the same time the summer breeze that is scarcely perceptible in the lower parts of the vessels.
THE EMANCIPATION OF LUNATICS. The most imposing view of New York is from the south. In sailing up the bay you have the islands - Five and forty years ago, lunatics were enchained some of them fortified and garrisoned—in the fore throughout Europe. Eighty lunatics at the Bicêtre, ground of the picture, the North and East rivers an asylum for insane persons at Paris, were unchained stretching off to the right and left; while the city is by Pinel, in 1794, and the general treatment was seen somewhat indistinctly througl. “ the forest of henceforth improved; thongs and scourges were no masts," and the various-coloured flags of all the com- longer delivered out to the keepers; and the result mercial nations under the sun ; the chief defect being was, that many before deemed incurable recovered, that you behold the narrow end of the city, conse
and that all the rest became quieter and more easily quently leaving too much of the picture to be com- governed. France was the first nation to offer the pleted by an effort of the imagination. From the spectacle of nearly three thousand lunatics kept in lofty heights of Long Island, near Brooklyn (which confinement (in and near Paris) without chains, with. by-the-by is a respectable-sized city already), there is out blows, and without unkind treatment. Honour an extensive view of New York across East River ; but to Pinel! who, first of all in Europe, raised his voice from thence you look too much directly at the broad against these atrocities, and pointed out the excitements side of it, although some of the islands on the left are they produced, and contrasted them with the calm embraced in this view.
that ensued on kind and compassionate treatment. In The city of Philadelphia is seen to the greatest England, and indeed throughout Europe, the same advantage by the traveller who approaches it from benign spirit has manifested itself, and America has Trenton or Bordentown, by the route of the Delaware. practically enforced the same great lessons of philanFor several miles before reaching the city, the banks thropy. In Dr. Woodward's elaborate Report of the of the river, particularly the right hand one, become State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, United States, both interesting and beautiful; while directly in front it is said that of 230 patients, only one was, at the the buildings of the city are seen rising like an amphi-time of the inquiry, in personal restraint, and that theatre in the distance, with a moderate amount of under a system of leniency," the furious and violent shipping in the fore-ground, but sufficient to give it a had become docile and quiet; the filthy and degraded, commercial character. For awhile you discover no cleanly and respectful." outlet for the noble stream down which you float,
The claims of the insane on their happier fellow-creabut as you approach nearer the city you find that the tures are many and sacred. The effects of the varied river, instead of continuing the same course, (which forms of misery, of privation and neglect, of abandonwould take it directly through the heart of the city,) ment, physical and moral, are concentrated in the madturns with a graceful sweep to the left, embracing a house. Poverty there has done its worst : and man is low grassy island, as it inclines to the flat shores of reduced to a state from which, too often, there is no reNew Jersey. In this view of Philadelphia the lief but death. It may be thought that madness, like ground ascends from the river just sufficiently to show death, knocks alike at the palace-gate, and at the lathe successive ranges of buildings rising one above bourer's hovel ; but even more heavily and more darkly the other ; but there is but little diversity in the gene- does the misery which it flings over devoted households ral appearance, there being but few edifices of an im
fall on the poor.
Sudden accidents come upon the posing character, and but two steeples or towers worth working-man, too, in which a fall, a blow, a wound, notice are seen pointing to the skies." In this immediately injures the brain, and incapacitates the respect the approach to New York has the advantage, honest labourer, yet in the prime of life, from all for there five or six buildings of this character are future profitable work : and who can see and talk to embraced in a distant view of that city.
this victim of calamity, in the quiet moments and inIn the year 1810 those rival cities were nearly upon tervals of bis malady, when his anxious thoughts an equality as regards population ; for at that date turn with honest faith to his home, to his wife, to his the census gave New York a population of 96,000, children, without commiserating that ruined humble and Philadelphia 92,000 inhabitants; and taking into household: not forgotten, but no longer supported consideration the fact that in giving the population of and defended by the unfortunate husband and father, the former city the whole of the inbabitants in the who must linger out his life in an asylum! county of New York, that is, upon the island of Man- Insanity appeals to the heart on every side, and hattan, are embraced,--probably the number of souls happily, every act of benevolence produces its palpaactually in the city did not outnumber those of Phil. ble good ; under kind management hope revives, even adelphia. In 1820, according to the census, the popu- in the cell, and on the bed of straw, and smiles relight lation of Philadelphia had only increased to 102,000, the faces of those before forlorn and dead to every while that of its rival had nearly reached 124,000. But joy: by soothing care the frantic outrage of the during the intervening period it should be borne in maniac is abated, and the unspeakable wretchedness mind that there had been a war of two or three years' of th nelancholic iminished. Every word, every duration between the United States and Great Britain, look of kindness, finds its way to some pained heart, by which, there can be no doubt, the increase of and does its blessed office. The great end, too, of all
AN ATIENIAN STORY.
these exertions, the restoration of mental power, is precious gifts of the Eastern sages on the birth of our infinitely noble. The physician feels that to restore Lord, is sufficient to prove the high estimation in health of body is an elevated art, the value of which which they were held at that time. those best can appreciate who have ever wanted the Among the Greeks the use of perfumes was, in some blessing. The art of the mental physician is to restore measure, restricted by their laws, and they deemed it alacrity of attention, readiness of memory, warmth of effeminate and luxurious to employ them. In the imagination, accuracy of judgment, and the power to primitive ages there were no sacrifices offered to their will and to do; the loss of all which is the most gods, in which odoriferous trees and herbs did not grievous part of sickness.
largely enter. In later ages, the offering commonly These principles are yet of recent acknowledgment, consisted of frankincense, or some perfumes, but it but of stability and truth; the blessed product of was a long time before frankincense was used; in the that enlightened and universal charity which, although Trojan war it was unknown, and instead of it the it has not yet flourished equally in every age and clime, Greeks offered cedar and citron. The Spartans were has its imperishable root in Christian institutions. not allowed to use baths and perfumed ointments, (Abridged from the British and Foreign Medical Review.] except on particular days of the year, for the river
Eurotas was expected to supply the place of the
former, and exercise that of the latter. The Greeks COURTESY.
were in the habit of perfuming their wine with myrrh, origanum, aromatics, fruits, and flowers.
The use of perfumes was carried to greater excess In Athens, ere its sun of fame had set, Midst pomp and show the gazing crowds were met,
among the Romans; the stores of Arabia were ex(Intent for ever upon something new,)
hausted through the extravagance of some of the The mimic wonders of the stage to view.
emperors, and even among the soldiery the most Lo, where the wide extended Circus spreads,
ridiculous care was bestowed on the perfuming of In galleried ranks, itsasea of living heads,
their persons, their standards, ensigns, &c. Perfumes Ranged in close order, rising row on row;
were also largely employed in their funeral rites. The -The void arena claims the space below.
pile on which the body of the deceased was laid, reThe seats were filled. But ere the shows began, A stranger entered : 'twas an aged man.
sembled an altar, except that it was much higher. And while he sought a place with aspect mild,
There were four compartments rising above each The polished young Athenians sat and smiled;
other. The lowest contained straw; the second from Eyed his confusion with a sidelong glance,
the ground, flowers; the third, aromatic herbs and But kept their seats, nor rose on his advance.
other odoriferous things; the fourth, or highest, the Oh ! for a burning blush of deeper hue,
most precious clothes of the deceased. Liquors, To mark the shame of that self-glorious crew. How poor the produce of fair Learning's tree,
ointments, and herbs of the choicest description, That bears no fruits of sweet Humility!
were likewise thrown on the corpse. The growth of arts and sciences how vain,
Great importance and many virtues are ascribed to In hearts that feel not for another's pain !
perfumes by our old herbalists, such as clearing the Not so the Spartan youth, whose simpler school
brain, enlivening the spirits, &c., and there can be no Instilled the plain but salutary rule Of kindness! and whose honest souls preferred
doubt that in many cases and constitutions, the Truth to Display-Performance to a Word.
fragrance of peculiar plants may have a cheering and They in the Cirque had their appointed place,
refreshing effect. In close and confined situations, Apart from Attica's distinguished race,
however, they may be expected to produce a contrary And rose with one accord, intent to prove
result, for abundant ventilation and perfect cleanliness To lionoured age their duty and their love.
are necessary to the wholesome and safe enjoyment Nor did a Spartan youth his seat resume,
of perfumes. Till that old man found due and fitting room.
The cheapness of our perfumery at the present day, Then came the sentence of Reproof and Praise, Stamped with the sternness of the ancient days.
allows the gratification derived from the use of fraFor standing forth amidst the assembled crowd,
grant oils and essences, to be much more generally The venerable stranger cried aloud ;
attained than it could have been in former times, “Th’ Athenians learn their duty well : but lo!
Herbs, drugs, and flowers, are made to yield their The Spartans practise what th’ Athenians know !”
aromatic odours for our use. Among the former we The words were good; and, in a virtuous canse, They justly earned a nation's glad applause.
may mention marjoram, sage, thyme, lavender, &c., But we have surer words of precept given,
while of drugs, frankincense, mace, cloves, benzoin, In God's own Book-the words that came from heaven:
storax, and many others, are held in great esteem. «Be kind.” c. Be courteoust.” “Be all honour shown."
Orange-flowers, jonquils, jessamine, roses, violets, “ Seek others' welfare rather than thine owns.”
and other fragrant flowers, are also largely employed,
M. and thus, by a judicious use of some of these various * Eph.iv. 32. + 1 Pet. ii. 8. Rom, xii. 10 & xiii. 7. essences, we may impart to our dwellings or our dress, ♡ I Cor. x. 24.
the delightful odours of our favourite flowers, at any period of the year. Otto of roses, which is the most
costly of all the perfumes, and the most powerful, is MATERIALS FOR THE TOILETTE. made in India, and very highly esteemed. It is said No. IX.
that the genuine otto is not prepared by distillation,
but by putting a quantity of carefully picked roseON PERFUMES.
leaves into a clean jar, or cask, with just enough water In our last paper we spoke of cosmetics, as being, in to cover them, and then setting the vessel in the sun the opinion of many persons, necessary appendages to for a few days. A scum forms on the surface of the the toilette. We now proceed to treat of some of the water, which is removed by a piece of cotton, and is perfumes which have become so universal and indis- the valuable otto itself. Rose-water is distilled from pensable amongst us. Traces of their early use, both fresh rose leaves gathered in dry weather, and when in religious worship and in ordinary life, may be dis- the flowers are in full perfection. The petals are carecovered in the sacred Scriptures, and the classing fully separated from the stalks and calyxes, and if a together of “gold frankincense, and myrrh,” as the very fragrant water is required, the first product from
them should be returned to the still and half its bulk | round friable pills. The musk bags, however, are drawn over. Rose leaves may be preserved for dis- sometimes cut open before they leave China, part of tillation by being salted ; they will be found to retain the contents abstracted, and the deficiency made up their odour, and the water distilled from them will with dried blood, rolled up into pills to imitate the nearly equal that obtained from the fresh petals. If true musk. Other musk dealers leave the bags in a the bottles, in which rose-water is kept, are not per- damp place to increase their weight, and this injures fectly clean, it will turn sour, and indeed, with all the quality of the musk. It is sometimes greatly precautions, it is very apt to do so. Some persons, adulterated with spikenard, chocolate, aloes, nutmeg, on this account, have added a small quantity of spirit storax, &c. of wine for its preservation, but it is not desirable to Ambergris comes from Holland, Africa, Brazil, and do so, since the stimulating property thus imparted, the East and West Indies, where it is found floating will render the rose water unfit for the use to which on the sea. It is an animal substance, supposed to it is very frequently applied, namely, that of bathing be formed through disease, in the intestines of the
spermaceti whale. That which is gray, very light, The essential oil of lavender constitutes a most and easy to break, is the best. It is sold at an exagreeable perfume. The best is obtained by distilla- tremely high price, and is therefore the more fretion of the flowers of the plant: where the leaves and quently adulterated, but persons having once become stalks are added, the quality is inferior. Lavender acquainted with its peculiar odour, will not easily be water, as it is generally prepared, is not a distilled imposed upon, and by melting a small portion of the spirit, but an alcoholic solution of oil of lavender, to substance, they will find the odour emitted to be a which other scents are occasionally added.
sufficient test of its genuineness. An alcoholic solution The essential oil of orange-flowers is a very fine, of this substance, called essence of ambergris, is sold delicate, and expensive perfume, often adulterated by perfumers, and when used in small quantities with with inferior matters.
other perfumes, it yields a delightful perfume. The essential oils of bergamot, orange, and lemon, Civet is a fragrant substance procured from the are obtained by expression from the peel. The ber- civet cat. It is of a yellow colour and unctuous congamot is a fruit resembling both the orange and sistence, but becomes brown by keeping. The odour, lemon, but it is of a larger size than either, and pro- like that of ambergris, is not fit to be used alone : duces an abundance of oil.
with other perfumes it is exquisite. The oils of jasmin and tuberose are of so delicate a A small quantity of camphor greatly improves the nature, as to be impaired by the most careful distilla- fragrance of many perfumes, but either this, or the tion. The perfumes of these flowers are, therefore, three last mentioned articles, will destroy the delicacy obtained from them by steeping the blossoms in per- of the scent, if used in too great abundance. The fectly inodorous fixed oil, which becomes imbued with usual method of perfuming linen is to lay sweet bags their fragrance, and from which the odour may be in the drawers which contain it, and these may be transferred to alcohol, so as to form a spirituous filled with dried and pounded blossoms of any fragrant essence. The essence of jasmin forms a much more flowers, with the leaves of mint, balm, southernwood, pleasing perfume when mixed with other substances, ground ivy, laurel, hyssop, rosemary, marjoram, also than when used alone. Several of the perfumes here dried and pounded spices reduced to a powder, orris mentioned, enter into the composition of the much- root and fragrant balsams may be likewise added, admired Eau de Cologne. The following recipe may and if agreeable to the taste of those who are to use be acceptable to such persons as feel disposed to pre- the perfume, musk, civet, or ambergris, will give pare an imitation of it for their own use. Take an ounce power and additional sweetness to the whole. It is of each of the following essences; bergamot, lemon recommended that sleeping apartments and bed linen peel, lavender, and orange flower, half an ounce of be never perfumed, for owing to the comparative want essence of cinnamon, fifteen ounces of spirit of rose- of ventilation in those rooms, the practice is likely to mary, the same quantity of spirituous water of melisse, prove injurious. with seven pints and a half of alcohol. Mix the whole We have thus described a few of the favourite per together, and let the mixture stand for a fortnight. fumes, but we are not by any means disposed to Then pour it into a glass retort, the body of which recommend a constant use of them; on the contrary, is immersed in boiling water, contained in a vessel we may venture to say that persons who waft around placed over a lamp, while the beak is introduced into them at every step, a degree of fragrance which a glass reservoir. By keeping the water to the boiling
Makes some sick, and others à la mort*, point, the mixture in the retort will distil over into have forgotten the legitimate use of perfumes, and the receiver, which should be kept cold by being covered over with wet cloths. In this manner will be while they may be gratifying their own sense of smell, obtained a good substitute for Eau de Cologne, which they show little consideration for those whose more in its pure and genuine state, is manufactured at one
delicate nerves can ill support such a tide of sweetness. place only in the world, and that is Cologne, as the Leaving it then to the taste and judgment of our name of the water implies. The process by which readers to make a moderate and proper use of perthe genuine article is made, still remains secret, fumes, as well as of the other materials for the toilette, although the principal ingredients employed have been and recommending them to abridge, as far as is condiscovered by analysis. There are three animal sub- sistent with neatness and propriety, the time devoted stances which greatly improve and strengthen other
to the decoration of the person, in order that they perfumes, though they are in themselves of such a
may gain time for the adorning of the nobler mind penetrating and overpowering odour, as to be scarcely we conclude the present series of papers. endurable; these are musk, civet, and ambergris.
* CowPER. Musk is a concrete substance obtained from the muskdeer of the East, and also from the musk-rat, a native Duels are but illustrious murders. It is an imperious of America. It is imported in the natural bags in crime, which triumphs both over public revenge and which it is found in the animal, about the size of a private virtue, and tramples boldly upon the laws of the pigeon's egg. Genuine musk, from China, is of the here to be but pedantry, and honour persuades men that
nation, and the life of our enemy. Courage thinks law colour of an old brown nutmeg, rolled up in little obedience here is cowardice.-MACKENZIE.
GALLANT EXPLOIT IN 1745.
with what arms they could find, and sallying out
EARLY GRAY HAIRS.
O'er my head, e'er yet a boy,
Care has thrown an early snow ;
Care, begone ! a steady joy
Soothes the heart that beats below.
Thus, though Alpine tops retain
Endless winter's hoary wreath ;
Vines, and fields of golden grain,
Cheer the happy sons beneath. PENROSE.
and speculates on the formation of the world itself. The
It visits the equator
measure space,-it pauses to meditate and to inquire. There
is not an animal that traverses the desert, there is not an
insect that crawls on the ground, there is not a flower that
our path, but it stops, and interrogates, and forces to
every thing around him, be incurious only about himself?
a knowledge of the properties, habits, and functions of the
immerse himself in the contemplation of corporeal beings,
spirit which actuates himself, and makes him to be what
WILD BEAST TAMERS.
In Africa, too, the taming of wild beasts has long face, and howled with delight. The lioness evinced been practised. The Emperor of Morocco has large equal joy at his return; but the lion drove her back, open dens at Fez, where tigers and lions are tended angrily refusing to allow her to partake of the man's by Jewish keepers, who use nothing but a light cane caresses. Cassal, seeing that a contest was likely to to keep then under; and the Pashas of Egypt have ensue between the animals, entered their den, and lions domesticated in their Harem, a splendid speci- having allayed their rage against one another, caressed men of which was presented to the King of France and received their caresses by turns. He was accusin June last by Mehemet Ali. The Duke de Choiseul, tomed to walk into their cage whenever he listedminister to one of his predecessors, Louis the speak to the male or female alternately with great Fifteenth, had a favourite tiger-cat constantly in his kindness—flatter them by gentle arts, and stroke and cabinet; and there have been remarkable instances kiss them by the mane or neck: at his command they in the Botanical Garden at Paris of the extent to would separate and each retire to the distinct apartwhich the power, assigned to man over the brute ments allotted to them in the den, or they would lie creation, may be carried.
down on their backs, stretch out their paws, and allow An instance of this kind occurred in 1801 with res- him to show their immense claws to the bystanders ; pect to a lion and lioness which had been sent as a or upon his giving them a sign they would instantly lie present from the Bey of Constantine to the French down upon their backs, throw out their paws, open sovereign. Cassal, their keeper, being absent from their huge jaws wide and display their formidable illness, they were committed to the care of one of his masticators; the only reward he bestowed upon them colleagues: the change did not appear to affect the for their obedience being a permission to lick his female, but her mate retired to the corner of his den, hands. where he sullenly laid himself down, refusing his new Martin, too, was another famous tamer of wild. attendant's good offices, and by his low, suspicious beasts, and used to amuse his audience by driving growl giving him pretty plainly to understand that he tigers and lions to exasperation, and then showing would be glad to dispense with his attendance. He how complete a mastery he had acquired over them seemed to entertain the same feeling towards his con- even in their savage moments. This man had a sort; at least, he ceased to take any notice of her, young tiger, who used to skip about among the There was an expression of uneasiness and suffering spectators, lick their hands, and play with a little about the lion, which indicated that he was sick, and girl of six years old whom he brought with him. He none dared approach him. Cassal at last recovered has escaped unscathed from his hazardous craft, and sufficiently to be enabled to resume his duties, and retired into domestic privacy upon its fruits. being desirous to give his noble friend an agreeable sur- The feats of Van Amburgh, who was born at a prise, crept softly up to the bars of his cage and laid little town in the county of Duchess, Kentucky, in his face beside them ; as soon as the animal dis- July, 1811, are too fresh in the recollection of most of covered him, he sprung from the back of the cage, our readers to need any narrative from us. s. stroked Cassal with his paws, licked his hands and
THE UNITED STATES' BANK, PHILADEL PATA.
LONDON ; Published by JOHN W. PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.