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them sufficiently disqualifying on their own merits, as showing either remote or persistent scrofula.
If this habit is liable to be produced from the effects of debilitating causes in individuals not apparently prone to it, how much more likely, from similar reasons, is this malady to recur in one whose constitution has previously suffered, and where it is more than probable that a dormant taint remains to be awakened by any fortuitous circumstance.
There is hardly a necessity to urge additional arguments why the examination for evidences of this habit ought to be strictly investigated, and sought for with a most jealous care, as one might be led into the subject to a much greater extent than is at all requisite; the importance is patent on the least reflection. Nevertheless, as I have been more than once eye-witness to a very formidable sequence of this diathesis in relation to a soldier's duties, which seems to me worthy of notice, I will still further extend these observations by introducing a few instances. Infantry soldiers, on a line of march, when undergoing fatigue, carrying the weight of musket, ammunition, and full kit, are liable to injuries of the inferior extremities, and where the constitution is in the least imbued with a strumous tendency, such strains and injuries frequently assume serious characters. The last occasion on which such occurrences were observed by me, was on a march of some days in Ireland with an infantry regiment, when I witnessed disease produced in three men of a scrofulous temperament. On arriving at our destination, one complained of pain in the tibia of the left leg immediately below the tubercle, the periosteum seemed engaged, the integuments were red and very painful to the touch. In despite of treatment the tibia became extensively affected, the disease extending into the joint, sinuses formed, the man was worn down by hectic, and eventually the limb was amputated. In the second case, disease commenced in the first metatarsal bone of one foot, engaging the internal and middle cuneiform bones, synchronous with which, strumous glandular enlargement appeared in the neck. Having undergone treatment in the regimental hospital for more than six months, without a prospect of his ever becoming again fit for duty, he was brought forward at the next inspection and invalided. In the third, a lad in the band, of considerable talent as a musician, strumous enlargement of the os calcis occurred, induced by this march; from this he suffered for a very lengthened period, and was eventually sent to his duty in the band, with some increase in size of the os calcis. As he was a useful boy, it was recommended not to subject him to similar exciting causes. In these three cases there were coexistent unequivocal symptoms of a strumous habit. The two first were men in the ranks, under three years service; it is probable, had they been in civil life, these affections might never have appeared; but as soldiers, the work they were subjected to clearly induced them.
Without hazarding any observations relative to the few arguments and supporters of the dissimilarity of tubercular and scrofulous disease, it will be well to assume a common origin, until the diversity is more generally adopted; and consequently, when a suspicion arises, invariably to direct attention to the state of the lungs, and the confirmatory evidence that may sometimes be there obtained.
I have thus endeavoured, as concisely as possible, to remark upon the incompatibility of a strumous diathesis with the duties of a soldier, from its general effects, from its being so little amenable to treatment, and from its being a most decided, formidable, predisposing influence, liable to be aroused to actual disease by the ordinary exciting causes to which men in the army are exposed. Thus then, if the slightest scrofulous disease be observed, no more definite cause is necessary to determine unfitness.
Nodes are generally connected with disease, either syphilitic or mercurial, but it is difficult to assign a cause in some instances, as they are occasionally found of small size on the surface of a bone in healthy robust men. If not associated with, or traceable in any way to, the above conditions, and if of very limited dimensions, occurring in healthy individuals, they should not of themselves necessarily disqualify. The slightest traces of caries or necrosis are usually so apparent as to be at once observed, and their importance so evident as hardly to require enumeration. Osseus tumours, when of any size, must always disqualify for numerous reasons; there is no possibility of saying to what size they may attain, how they may interfere with the free use of a limb, to what they tend, or what the origin.
"3.— Weak or disordered intellect."
This is a most serious objection to a recruit, and to a degree occasioning want of comprehension and memory sufficient to learn drill, to recollect and communicate orders is by no means uncommon. Were the returns of men discharged under three years service available for reference, it seems highly probable that the inquiry would show stupidity to be a prevalent cause of their unfitness for the army. Yet it appears more than likely, if the subject were investigated at the period of enlistment, the admission of such men would be of less frequent occurrence. A persistence in questioning and testing the memory and power of comprehension, would usually manifest any deficiency. This is a feature not invariably recollected at the time, and the ordinary casual questions put during the examination can be answered by the most obtuse, thus it often happens that the deficiency is not discovered until the memory and comprehension are exercised at drill. No doubt there are difficulties connected with the subject, or the unfortunate results would be less frequent; this cannot always be attributable to want of care. Disordered intellect, by which some form of moral insanity is referred to, is of vastly less frequency than incapacity, to which attention will be especially directed.
Premising that an inability to comprehend, acquire, and retain knowledge sufficient for the requisite attainment of a soldiers's duties, is the appropriate definition for the disability under considertion, any one reflecting for a moment will easily understand the necessity of these attributes in one who has to thoroughly learn the manual and platoon exercise, the perfect use of fire-arms, and the various details in the changes of position required in manceuvering, as well as the understanding and transmitting orders on all occasions. On the other hand, it does not follow because sufficient intelligence to acquire the easily comprehended duties of a man in the ranks is absolutely requisite, that one should seek as a necessity for anything more. How far it may be advisable to discharge all men evidencing an incapacity, is a different matter, but the admission of men whose intellect is much below mediocrity seems highly injudicious. Occasionally it happens that questioning recruits does not elicit conclusive information, as such an important event to an individual as his enlistment, appears capable of occasioning, in some instances, an excitement sufficient to stimulate answers that do not attract attention, though stupidity may be ordinarily characteristic. This idea suggests feasibility to me from a belief in