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felt-hats to cover your head, you have have, Antæus-like, their foot on Mother bigger lath-and-plaster hats set traveling Fact: how can they but learn? the streets on wheels. Instead of heav- The vulgarest Plugson of a Masterenly and earthly Guidance for the souls Worker, who can command Workers, of men, you have “Black or White Sur- and get work out of them, is already (370 plice" Controversies, stuffed hair-and- a considerable man. Blessed and thriceleather Popes;-terrestrial Law-wards, blessed symptoms I discern of MasterLords and Law-bringers, “organizing Workers who are not vulgar men; who Labor" in these years, by passing (320 are Nobles, and begin to feel that they Corn-Laws. With all which, alas, this must act as such: all speed to these, they distracted Earth is now full, nigh to are England's hope at present! But in bursting. Semblances most smooth to this Plugson himself, conscious of almost the touch and eye; most accursed, never- no nobleness whatever, how much is theless, to body and soul. Semblances, there! Not without man's faculty, inbe they of Sham-woven Cloth or of sight, courage, hard energy, is this (380 Dilettante Legislation, which are not real rugged figure. His words none of the wool or substance, but Devil's-dust, ac- wisest; but his actings cannot be altocursed of God and man! No man has gether foolish. Think, how were it, worked, or can work, except reli- 1330 stoodst thou suddenly in his shoes! He giously; not even the poor day-laborer, has to command a thousand men. And the weaver of your coat, the sewer of your not imaginary commanding; no, it is real,
; shoes. All men, if they work not as in a incessantly practical. The evil passions Great Taskmaster's eye, will work wrong, of so many men (with the Devil in them, work unhappily for themselves and you. as in all of us) he has to vanquish; by
Industrial work, still under bondage to manifold force of speech and of silence, (390 Mammon, the rational soul of it not yet to repress or evade. What a force of awakened, is a tragic spectacle. Men in silence, to say nothing of the others, is the rapidest motion and self-motion; rest- in Plugson! For these his thousand men less, with convulsive energy, as if (340 he has to provide raw-material, machindriven by Galvanism, as if possessed by a ery, arrangement, houseroom; and ever Devil; tearing asunder mountains,—to at the week's end, wages by due sale. no purpose, for Mammonism is always No Civil-List, or Goulburn-Baring BudgMidas-eared! This is sad, on the face et has he to fall back upon, for paying of it. Yet courage: the beneficent Des- of his regiment; he has to pick his supplies tinies, kind in their sternness, are appris- from the confused face of the whole (400 ing us that this cannot continue. Labor Earth and Contemporaneous History, by is not a devil, even while encased in his dexterity alone. There will be dry Mammonism; Labor is ever an imprisoned eyes if he fail to do it!-He exclaims, god, writhing unconsciously or con- (350 at present, "black in the face," near sciously to escape out of Mammonism! strangled with Dilettante Legislation: Plugson of Undershot, like Taillefer of “Let me have elbow-room, throat-room, Normandy, wants victory; how much and I will not fail! No, I will spin yet, happier will even Plugson be to have a and conquer like a giant: what “sinews Chivalrous victory than a Choctaw one! of war' lie in me, untold resources to The unredeemed ugliness is that of a wards the Conquest of this Planet, if, (410 slothful People.
a People instead of hanging me, you husband them, energetically busy; heaving, struggling, and help me!”—My indomitable friend, all shoulders at the wheel; their heart it is true; and thou shalt and must be pulsing, every muscle swelling, with (360 helped. man's energy and will;-I show you a This is not a man I would kill and People of whom great good is already strangle by Corn-Laws, even if I could! predicable; to whom all manner of good No, I would fling my Corn-Laws and is yet certain, if their energy endure. shot-belts to the Devil; and try to help By very working, they will learn; they | this man. I would teach him, by noble precept and law-precept, by noble (420 wing of horse, most part of it, towards example most of all, that Mammonism his right; edging himself, "shogging,” (20
, was not the essence of his or of my station as Oliver calls it, his whole line more and in God's Universe; but the adscititious more to the right! His meaning is, to excrescence of it; the gross, terrene, get hold of Brocksmouth House and the godless embodiment of it; which would pass of the Brook there; after which it have to become, more or less, a godlike will be free to him to attack us when he one. By noble real legislation, by true, will!--Lesley, in fact, considers, or at least noble's-work, by unwearied, valiant, and the Committee of Estates and Kirk conwere it wageless effort, in my Parliament sider, that Oliver is lost; that, on the and in my Parish, I would aid, con- (430 whole, he must not be left to retreat, but strain, encourage him to effect more or less must be attacked and annihilated [30 this blessed change. I should know that it here. A vague story, due to Bishop would have to be effected; that unless it Burnet, the watery source of many such, were in some measure effected, he and still circulates about the world, That it I and all of us, I first and soonest of all, was the Kirk Committee who forced were doomed to perdition!—Effected it Lesley down against his will; that Oliver, will be; unless it were a Demon that at sight of it, exclaimed, “The Lord hath made this Universe; which I, for my own delivered,” etc.; which nobody is in the part, do at no moment, under no form, in least bound to believe. It appears, from the least believe.
(440 other quarters, that Lesley was advised May it please your Serene Highnesses, or sanctioned in this attempt by the [40 your Majesties, Lordships and Law
and Law- Committee of Estates and Kirk, but also wardships, the proper Epic of this world that he was by no means hard to advise; is not now “Arms and the Man”, how that, in fact, lying on the top of Doon much less, “Shirt-frills and the Man”: Hill, shelterless in such weather, was no, it is now “Tools and the Man”: that, no operation to spin out beyond neceshenceforth to all time, is now our Epic; sity; and that if anybody pressed too -and you, first of all others, I think, much upon him with advice to come down were wise to take note of that!
and fight, it was likeliest to be Royalist Civil Dignitaries, who had plagued him
with their cavilings at his cunctations, (50 From CROMWELL'S LETTERS at his "secret fellow-feeling for the SecAND SPEECHES
tarians and Regicides” ever since this THE BATTLE OF DUNBAR
war began. The poor Scotch Clergy
have enough of their own to answer for “The Lord General about four o'clock,” in this business; let every back bear the say the old Pamphlets, “went into the burden that belongs to it. In a word, Town to take some refreshment," a hasty Lesley descends, has been descending all late dinner, or early supper, whichever day, and “shogs” himself to the right,we may call it; "and very soon returned urged, I believe, by manifold counsel, back," —having written Sir Arthur's Let- and by the nature of the case; and, [60 ter, I think, in the interim. Coursing what is equally important for us, Oliver about the field, with enough of things to sees him, and sees through him, in this order; walking at last with Lambert in movement of his. the Park or Garden of Brocksmouth (10 At the sight of this movement, Oliver House, he discerns that Lesley is astir suggests to Lambert standing by him, on the Hillside; altering his position some- Does it not give us an advantage, if we, what. That Lesley, in fact, is coming instead of him, like to begin the attack? wholly down to the basis of the Hill, where Here is the Enemy's right wing coming his horse had been since sunrise: coming out to the open space, free to be attacked wholly down to the edge of the Brook and on any side; and the main-battle, (70 glen, among the sloping harvest-fields hampered in narrow sloping ground bethere; and also is bringing up his left tween Doon Hill and the Brook, has no
room to maneuver or assist: beat this Heaven, before battle joined: Major right wing where it now stands; take it Hodgson, giving his charge to a brother in flank and front with an overpowering Officer, turned aside to listen for a minforce, -it is driven upon its own main- ute, and worship and pray along (130 battle, the whole Army is beaten? Lam- with them; haply his last prayer on this bert eagerly assents, “had meant to say | Earth, as it might prove to be. But no: the same thing." Monk, who comes up this Cornet prayed with such effusion as at this moment, likewise assents; as (80 was wonderful; and imparted strength to the other officers do, when the case in my Yorkshire friend, who strengthened set before them. It is the plan resolved his men by telling them of it. And the upon for battle. The attack shall begin Heavens, in their mercy, I think, tomorrow before dawn.
opened us a way of deliverance! - The And so the soldiers stand to their Moon gleams out, hard and blue, riding arms, or lie within instant reach of their
among hail-clouds; and over St. Abb's (140 arms, all night; being upon an engage- Head a streak of dawn is rising. ment very difficult indeed. The night And now is the hour when the attack is wild and wet;—2d of September means should be, and no Lambert is yet here, 12th by our calendar: the Harvest (90 he is ordering the line far to the right yet; Moon wades deep among clouds of sleet and Oliver occasionally, in Hodgson's and hail. Whoever has a heart for hearing, is impatient for him. The Scots prayer, let him pray now, for the wrestle too, on this wing, are awake; thinking of death is at hand. Pray, -and withal to surprise us; there is their trumpet keep his powder dry! And be ready sounding, we heard it once; and Lamfor extremities, and quit himself like a bert, who was to lead the attack, is (150 man!—Thus they pass the night; mak- not here. The Lord General is iming that Dunbar Peninsula and Brock patient;—behold Lambert at last! The Rivulet long memorable to me. We Eng- trumpets peal, shattering with fierce lish have some tents; the Scots have (100 clangor Night's
clangor Night's silence; the cannons none.
The hoarse sea moans bodeful, awaken along all the Line: “The Lord swinging low and heavy against these of Hosts! The Lord of Hosts!” On, my whinstone bays; the sea and the tempests brave ones, on! are abroad, all else asleep but we,-and The dispute “on this right wing was there is One that rides on the wings of the hot and stiff, for three quarters of an wind.
hour.” Plenty of fire, from field- [160 Towards three in the morning the pieces, snap-hances, matchlocks, enterScotch foot, by order of a Major-General tains the Scotch main-battle across the say some, extinguish their matches, all Brock;-poor stiffened men, roused from but two in a company; cower under (110 the corn-shocks with their matches all the corn-shocks, seeking some imperfect out! But here on the right, their horse, shelter and sleep. Be wakeful, ye Eng- "with lancers in the front rank," charge lish; watch, and pray, and keep your desperately; drive us back across the powder dry. About four o'clock comes hollow of the Rivulet;back a little; order to my pudding-headed Yorkshire but the Lord gives us courage, and we friend, that his regiment must mount storm home again, horse and foot, (170 and march straightway; his and various upon them, with a shock like tornado other regiments march, pouring swiftly tempests; break them, beat them, drive to the left to Brocksmouth House, to them all adrift. “Some fled towards the Pass over the Brock. With over- (120 Copperspath, but most across their own powering force let us storm the Scots foot.”
poor foot, whose right wing there; beat that, and all is matches were hardly well alight yet! beaten. Major Hodgson riding along, Poor men, it was a terrible awakening for heard, he says, "a Cornet praying in the them: field-pieces and charge of foot night;" a company of poor men, I think, across the Brocksburn; and now here is making worship there, under the void their own horse in mad panic tramp- (180
ling them to death. Above three thousand about the islanded summits of the lower killed
upon the place: “I never saw such hills, untouched yet by more than dawn, a charge of foot and horse," says one; colder and more quiet than a windless nor did I. Oliver was still near to York- sea under the moon of midnight; watch shire Hodgson where the shock succeeded; when the first sunbeam is sent upon (10 Hodgson heard him say, “They run, I the silver channels, how the foam of their profess they run!” And over St. Abb's undulating surface parts and passes away, Head and the German Ocean, just then, and down under their depths the glittering bursts the first gleam of the level Suncity and green pasture lie like Atlantis, upon us, "and I heard Nol say, in (190 between the white paths of winding rivers;
“I the words of the Psalmist, 'Let God the flakes of light falling every moment arise, let His enemies be scattered,'”- faster and broader among the starry spires, or in Rous's meter
as the wreathed surges break and vanish “Let God arise, and scattered
above them, and the confused crests and Let all his enemies be;
ridges of the dark hills shorten their (20 And let all those that do him hate
gray shadows upon the plain. ... Wait Before his presence flee!”
a little longer, and you shall see those
scattered mists rallying in the ravines, Even so. The Scotch Army is shivered and floating up towards you, along the to utter ruin; rushes in tumultuous wreck, winding valleys, till they crouch in quiet hither, thither; to Belhaven, or, in 200
masses, iridescent with the morning light, their distraction, even to Dunbar; the
upon the broad breasts of the higher chase goes as far as Haddington; led by hills, whose leagues of massy undulation Hacker. "The Lord general made a will melt back and back into that robe halt,” says Hodgson, “and sang the of material light, until they fade away, [30 Hundred-and-seventeenth Psalm," till our lost in its lustre, to appear again above, horse could gather for the chase. Hundred- in the serene heaven, like a wild, bright, and-seventeenth Psalm, at the foot of Doon impossible dream, foundationless and inHill; there we uplift it, to the tune of accessible, their very bases vanishing in Bangor, or some still higher score, and the unsubstantial and mocking blue of roll it strong and great against the (210 the deep lake below. . . . Wait yet a
little longer, and you shall see those "Oh give ye praise unto the Lord, mists gather themselves into white towAll nati-ons that be;
ers, and stand like fortresses along the Likewise ye people all, accord promontories, massy and motionless, [40 His name to magnify!
only piled with every instant higher and
higher into the sky, and casting longer For great to-us-ward ever are
shadows athwart the rocks; and out of His loving-kindnesses;
the pale blue of the horizon you will see His truth endures for evermore: forming and advancing a troop of narThe Lord oh do ye bless!”
row, dark, pointed vapors, which will And now, to the chase again. (220 cover the sky, inch by inch, with their
gray network, and take the light off the
landscape with an eclipse which will stop JOHN RUSKIN (1819-1900) the singing of the birds and the mo- 150
tion of the leaves, together; and then From MODERN PAINTERS you will see horizontal bars of black SUNRISE AND SUNSET IN THE ALPS
shadow forming under them, and lurid
wreaths create themselves, you know not Stand upon the peak of some isolated how, along the shoulders of the hills; you mountain at daybreak, when the night never see them form, but when you look mists first rise from off the plains, and back to a place which was clear an inwatch their white and lake-like fields, as stant ago, there is a cloud on it, hanging they float in level bays and winding gulfs by the precipices, as a hawk pauses over his prey. .
And then you will [60 domes flushing that heaven about them hear the sudden rush of the awakened and above them, piercing with purer light wind, and you will see those watch-towers through its purple lines of lifted cloud, of vapor swept away from their founda- casting a new glory on every wreath as tions, and waving curtains of opaque rain it passes by, until the whole heaven, let down to the valleys, swinging from one scarlet canopy, is interwoven with a the burdened clouds in black bending roof of waving flame, and tossing, (120 fringes, or pacing in pale columns along vault beyond vault, as with the drifted the lake level, grazing its surface into wings of many companies of angels: and foam as they go. And then, as the sun then, when you can look no more for sinks, you shall see the storm drift for 170 gladness, and when you are bowed down an instant from off the hills, leaving their with fear and love of the Maker and Doer broad sides smoking, and loaded yet of this, tell me who has best delivered with snow-white, torn, steam-like rags of this His message unto men! capricious vapor, now gone, now gathered again; while the smouldering sun, seeming
THE TWO BOYHOODS not far away, but burning like a redhot ball beside you, and as if you could Born half-way between the mountains reach it, plunges through the rushing and the sea—that young George of Castelwind and rolling cloud with headlong franco-of the Brave Castle:-Stout fall, as if it meant to rise no more, (80 George they called him, George of Georges, , dyeing all the air about it with blood. so goodly a boy he was-Giorgione. And then you shall hear the fainting Have you ever thought what a world tempest die in the hollow of the night, his eyes opened on--fair, searching eyes and you shall see a green halo kindling of youth? What a world of mighty life, on the summit of the eastern hills, brighter from those mountain roots to the shore; -brighter yet, till the large white circle of loveliest life, when he went down, (16
10 of the slow moon is lifted up among the yet so young, to the marble city-and barred clouds, step by step, line by line; became himself as a fiery heart to it? star after star she quenches with her A city of marble, did I say? nay, rather kindling light, setting in their stead (90 a golden city, paved with emerald. For an army of pale, impenetrable, fleecy truly, every pinnacle and turret glanced wreaths in the heaven, to give light upon or glowed, overlaid with gold, or bossed the earth, which move together, hand in with jasper. Beneath, the unsullied sea hand, company by company, troop by drew in deep breathing, to and fro, its troop, so measured in their unity of mo- eddies of green wave. Deep-hearted, tion, that the whole heaven seems to majestic, terrible as the sea,—the (20 roll with them, and the earth to reel men of Venice moved in sway of power under them. ... And then wait yet and war; pure as her pillars of alabaster, for one hour, until the east again becomes stood her mothers and maidens; from foot purple, and the heaving mountains, (100 to brow, all noble, walked her knights; rolling against it in darkness, like waves the low bronzed gleaming of sea-rusted of a wild sea, are drowned one by one armor shot angrily under their blood-red in the glory of its burning; watch the mantle-folds.
mantle-folds. Fearless, faithful, patient, white glaciers blaze in their winding paths impenetrable, implacable,-every word about the mountains, like mighty serpents a fate—sat her senate. In hope and with scales of fire: watch the columnar honor, lulled by flowing of wave (30 peaks of solitary snow, kindling down around their isles of sacred sand, each wards, chasm by chasm, each in itself a with his name written and the cross new morning; their long avalanches cast graved at his side, lay her dead. A wondown in keen streams brighter than (110 derful piece of world. Rather, itself a the lightning, sending each his tribute of world. It lay along the face of the waters, driven snow, like altar-smoke, up to the no larger, as its captains saw it from their heaven; the rose-light of their silent masts at evening, than a bar of sunset